FORMERLY AAREY WAS A LITTLE VILLAGE UNHEARD OF and was located in Salsette about 5 km. east of Goregaon railway station on the Churchgate-Virar suburban section of the Western Railway. It was sparsely inhabited by Adivasis, till just three decades ago. Today it has become popular as the location of the Aarey Milk Colony from where lakhs of citizens of Bombay obtain their supply of milk. Before establishing the colony it was merely a jungle tract with hardly any scope for development till it was chosen to be the home of the thousands of milch cattle which were kept in wretched condition in the filthy stables spread all over Bombay. Now it is not only the principal and the best source of milk supply to Bombay but also a pleasant picnic spot in Bombay. Initially an area of about 1619 hectares (4000 acres) of land valued at Rs. 40 lakhs was acquired by the Government, the entire jungle was cleared, dairy farms were erected and most of the cattle from the limit of the Bombay city was removed to farms.

At the entrance of the Aarey Colony there is a hill on which a special observation pavilion has been built. From the pavilion one gets a wide view of the entire colony and of the beautiful surrounding country. Besides the attractively built pavilion, where there are charts and maps showing the lay-out of the colony and explaining the scheme, very pretty lawns and gardens have also been laid out on the hill which add to the charm of the place.

The main attraction of the visitors is an inspection bungalow of the colony which is reputed to be the largest in Asia and one of the best of its kind in the world. Close to the Aarey colony has been developed a picnic spot. In order to assist holiday makers and encourage them in their outings, various shady spots have been especially prepared with arrangements for a stove, wooden seats round shade-spreading trees, and lawns. There are twelve such spots. Many of them also command excellent views. Facilities have also been provided for the canteen which serves snacks and meals and of course milk to the visitors. It is frequented by a number of visitors especially during the fair season. A number of BEST buses ply towards these spots.


The temple dedicated to Adi Shankara Bhagavadpada who is considered by devout Hindus to be none other than Dakshinamurti or Shiva himself, has been constructed recently at considerable expenditure running into a few lakhs on the Telang Road at Matunga. It has been constructed by Shri Shankara Mattaiam at Matunga. Dakshinamurti is supposed to have come to this great land of ours to restore Hinduism, to reinstate and to re-establish the six faiths of Hinduism, namely, Ganapatyam (faith of Ganapati), Shaktam (faith of Shakti), Sauram (faith of Surya), Vaishnavam (faith of Vishnu), Shaivam (faith of Shiva) and Kaumaram (faith of Kartikeya). The temple is flanked on the right by Varasiddhi Yinayaka and on the left by Anjaneya. The temple has a majestic Rajagopuram. Looking up at the Rajagopuram could be seen five parts or steps representing the five elements of the universe or the Pancha Bhutas. The gopuram is also referred to as the Sthula Linga. There are images of Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma and Shankaratatvas in the gopuram. On both the sides of the gopuram are Shankanidhi and Padmanidhi. On the salai gopurams are the images of Ganapati, Vyasa and Agastya on the right and Muruga, Valli and Devasena on the left.

Ascending a few steps leading to ardhamandapa there are two elephants facing west and south-west. They are the Aryanam and Pushpadantam, two of the eight legendary elephants that guard the above directions. By their side are the images of Vayu and Varuna, the Dishadhipatis of the same.

On climbing the flight of 22 steps to reach the Mahamandapa, could be seen important episodes from the life of His Holiness painted on the walls. We also have a pictorial presentation of the extensive travels undertaken by Shri Shankara across the country and the establishment of the different Maths. The scene of Gitopadesha is depicted on the wall facing the main entrance.

At the entrance of the main hall or the mahamandapa is a beam supported by two pillars with thirty-six lotuses each with thirty-six petals. This is the decorated entrance to the mandapa or the ' Thoran-navasal'. The lotuses represent the thirty-six tatvas of Hindu religion.

The temple has a spacious sabhamdndap admeasuring 15.54 m. x 21.95 m. (51' x 72 '). Looking around could be seen five pillars on either side. The figures on these pillars, viz., Dattatreya, Narayana, Padmodbhava, Vashistha, Shakti, Parashara, Vyasa, Shuka, Goudapadar and Govinda Bhagavadpdaar represent the guru pitham of the Adiguru himself. Panels on the wall depict the disciples of the Bhagavadpada. On the sides of the walls could be seen a row of swans, Hansapakshis facing towards garbha-graha. Looking up the ceiling the eyes are pleased to see the legendary lotus with 1,008 petals, the Bindukona in the centre which is said to be the abode of Adi Parashakti. On the four sides of the Sahasradala Padma Sharir Tatva, Trilokyamohana, Sarvarakshkara and Sarvarthasadhaka Chakras are portrayed.

The marble image of the Jagadguru is seated with a serene face preaching the greatness of Hinduism, the Sanatana Dharma, to the world. In front of it is the Shiva Linga. Thus the Mulatatvas of Shri Dakshinamurti and the incarnation in the form of Adi Shankara are there in front of the visitor. The traditional Dwarpalakas stand guard on either side of the entrance and the image of Swarnalakshmi is at the top.

On the outer prakarams of the garbhagriha are the six principal deities of the Hindu pantheon. Great care has been taken to follow Agama Shastras in building these temples and in the selection of stones from which six deities have been carved.

First and foremost is the Omkara Swarupa Lord Ganesha. The temple is in the shape of Gajapooshtam or the back of the elephant. The temple of Shakti is in the form of trikona and faces the direction of Kubera. The temple of Surya is circular and that of Vishnu is square in shape. Dakshinamurti's temple is in the form of panchakona (pentagon) and that of Kartikeya is in the form of shatkona (hexagon).

After going round the prakaram on descending a few steps one gets a darshan of the Bhusparshastambha. Another unique feature is that the abhishekatirtha of all the deities go back to the garbhagriha, go round the Shiva Linga and Adi Shankara and comes out here through the Gomukha which represent that all the rivers merge ultimately in the ocean. Here is a big library and a hall to conduct Veda classes. A few more steps down lead to the ground floor where lies a hall for a primary Veda class. On the right could be seen a well (Vapi Kupam) for drawing water for Puja purposes. Coming out one crosses the go-shala and climbs seventy-two steps to reach the top to have a closer view of the Vimana.

The Tridala Vimana represents, Vishishtadvaitam, Dvaitam and Advaitam. There are three parts to the Sthupi. We have Hansapakshis on the top and the images of Shankara, Ganapati, Shakti, Surya, Vishnu, Dakshinamurti and Kartikeya in standing and sitting postures in the next two parts in the same order.


The Babulnath temple, which is said to have taken its name from the individual who according to one account built the original shrine about 1780 and who according to other account was the cowherd boy, stands half way down the south-east portion of Malabar hill, a little to the south of the steps leading to the Parsi Tower of Silence. As per the other account (The Rise of Bombay by S.M.Edwardes, p. 40) the temple was known as Babhulnath, as near the temple was the plantation of Acacia arabica or Babhul, the reverence paid to which must have occasioned the building of a shrine of Babhulnath, ultimately Babulnath. It can now be approached by steps either from Babulnath road or Malabar Hill. The chief object of worship is a black stone linga of Mahadeva. According to one account it is supposed to have been discovered near Varli (Worli) while according to the other account it is considered to be a Swayambhu (self-born) linga and is said to have been discovered at the very place where it exists at present. According to an anecdote, Babul, the cowherd boy daily accompanied the cattle of one Pandurang Sonar who was the owner of the Malabar hill then. It so happened one day and thereafter that one of the best cows, ' Kapila' of Shri Pandurang Sonar stopped giving milk in the evening. Pandurang Sonar therefore asked ' Babul ' to investigate and find out the reason for it. ' Babul ' hence kept watch over the cow and found out that the said robust cow dripped away all milk at a particular spot of the hill and this fact was reported to his master. So Pandurang came over the hill next day and saw himself what was happening. He therefore decided to get the ground dug and the Shivalinga was discovered. Hence Babul-nathji is considered to be a Swayambhu linga. An idol of ' Ganapati' and that of 'Mataji' were also found. Pandurang Sonar wanted to take away the ' Shiva-Linga ' to his residence but could not do it as it was firmly imbedded in the rock. He, therefore, prepared a small hut around the 'Shivalinga' and since then the worshippers started to flock for darshana.

From the outset the pleasant surroundings of the shrine and its proximity to the city rendered it popular. The construction of the new and larger temple was commenced in 1836 and completed about 1840 by subscriptions from the Gujarat Banias and Bhatias of the City. Subsequently a claim of the Parsi community to the land around the temple was successfully contested in the High Court, whereupon the above noted communities combined to rebuild the temple in its present form. The present temple with its high spire and pillared hall and terrace was completed about 1900. The warden of the shrine is a Gujarat Brahman, who keeps the nandadip burning, and presides at the daily services, which are attended by about twenty persons. On Mondays, the visitors, who are mostly Gujaratis and Maharashtrians, number more than two thousands while on Mondays in the month of Shravan, the concourse of devotees numbers more than five thousands. A special feature of the worship in Shravan is the ghipuja or worship in clarified butter. Over the linga is erected a lotus, a representation of the Ganges on a five-hooded serpent, decorated with patches of gold, silver and mica. Other chief occasion of worship is the Pithori Amavasya which falls on the last day of the month of Bhadrapada (August-September).


The Bhau Daji Lad Museum, formerly known as the Victoria and Albert  Museum stands in the Veermata Jijabai Bhonsale Udyan, the former Victoria Gardens. The museum was founded in 1858 and was built to commemorate the assumption of the title of the Empress by Queen Victoria. The building was constructed on the subscription raised by the late Sir G. Birdwood on his being appointed as curator by Lord Elphinstone. The foundation stone of the building was laid in 1862 by Sir Bartle Frere and the construction of the building was completed in 1871. It has been built in Italian Renaissance style and has a highly ornamental interior with a fine ceiling

On founding the museum the collection of maps, prints, photographs, etc., illustrating the history of Bombay, was transferred here from Fort Barracks. Many of the important specimens formerly housed in this museum have recently been transferred to the Prince of Wales Museum. However the collection of old prints, photographs, maps and drawings of Bombay and collection of indigenous economic products yet attract the attention of the visitors. The Museum has a reference library on Indian art, archaeology, etymology, geology, numismatics and such other subjects. A few specimens of Indian painting, metal-ware, silver-ware and some pre-historic finds are also displayed in the Museum.

The Museum has recently been named after late Dr. Bhau Daji Lad, a famous indologist, educationist, political leader and a great social reformer of the last century.


By the side of the University Library and the Clock Tower towards the north stands the gracious building that houses the High Court of Bombay. The building is in early English-Gothic style and was designed by Colonel J. A. Fuller. The construction of the building on the sea frontage was completed in 1879 at a cost of Rs. 16,44,528. The walls are of rubble and chunam faced with blue basalt roughly dressed and in shallow courses. It is an enormous building 562 feet in length and 187 in breadth. Its general height to the east is 90 feet, and the central feature is 178 1/2 feet in height. The west wing was added much later, The principal entrance is under a large arched porch in the west facade on either side of which is an octagon tower 120 feet high, with pinnacles of white Porbandar stone, and surmounted by statues of Justice and Mercy. The main staircase is on the eastern side and is approached by a noble groined corridor in Porbandar stone, which runs through the building. The offices of the High Court are on the first and third floors. The Appellate and Original Courts are on the first and second floors. The Criminal Court is in the centre of the building, above the main corridor, and has a carved teak gallery for the public, running round three sides. The ceiling is of dark polished teak in panels, with a carved centre-piece. The floor is made up of Italian mosaic. A number of portraits of the past Chief Justices and Judges are hung in the different Courts.

The High Court of Bombay was established as a Supreme Court in the year 1824 with Sir E. West as the first Chief Justice. It became a High Court in 1862.(For history see Chapter 12 in this Gazetteer.)

Recently, an additional building in modern style was built nearby to house additional offices and courts.

The working and the architecture of the High Court does full justice to the First City in India that is Bombay.


The earliest reference of horse racing in Bombay is contained in the following extract from the Bombay Courier of the 25th November, 1797:—

" A plan having been set on foot for establishing races at this Presidency, which has hitherto met with very general encouragement, this is to give notice that in the course of next month a race will be run for a purse of 50 pounds. After the race there will be breakfast for the ladies and gentlemen at the race stand and a ball and supper in the evening."

By the 21st December 1797, sufficient funds had been subscribed by "the gentlemen of the settlement " to allow of two plates being run, and the 10th January was fixed as the first day of the two days' meeting. The ground upon which these races were run was, with the sanction of the Bombay Government, purchased by the stewards and managers. By 1800 the Bombay Turf Club had been established.

In 1839 the races had expanded into a five days meeting held at what was then the Byculla Club, and organised by "the friends of the turf". According to Mrs. Postans the races took place annually in January and were well patronised. The course was kept in good order.

About 1880 (1883 as per information sent by Turf Club.) the race-course was moved to the present site at Mahalakshmi, which is now held on lease. Successive Secretaries have wrought many changes in the appearance of the Bombay Race Course. The 2.4 kilometres course and its enclosures studded with lawns, gardens and paddocks have been transformed into a beautiful spot, where the public of Bombay can be seen gathering every race-day afternoon. The Mahalaxmi Race Course has established itself as one of the sights of Bombay and dis­tinguished visitors to Bombay always find it on their itinerary. Of recent years racing has become very popular with all classes, the chief supporters being the rich gentry and middle class gentlemen, some of whom own valuable racing studs. During the cold weather five or six hundred horses may be seen training on the course. The Bombay Races take place from November to the first week of April every year. The Derby race which is held generally in January is supposed to be the most prestigeous one. The regular races from December to April are held on all holidays and Saturdays.

In 1935, King George V, then Emperor of India, was pleased to grant permission to the Western India Turf Club Ltd. to use the title " Royal ". Since that date this Club has been known as the Royal Western India Turf Club Ltd., and when on the 24th February 1961 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II visited Bombay the Mahalaxmi Race Course was honoured by her gracious presence.

The Apprentice Jockey's School was started in June 1938 under the guidance of the Stipendiary Stewards of the Club and has produced many top class jockeys since then.

Double and Treble Pool betting systems for both ' Win' and 'Place' on any horse in any race at tote odds was introduced in 1929. This experiment was so popular that in 1933 a separate Daily Double Pool and a Daily Treble Pool on selected races each day were introduced. Those collections are formed into pools entirely separate from the totalisators.

For some years now the Club has had the Jackpot Pool which is a pool run on five selected races and the maximum dividend paid on a ten rupee ticket was Rs. 48 lakhs.

In the year 1967 the Club started inter-venue bettings between Bombay and Pune, i.e. when the races are held in Bombay, betting is accepted at the Pune Race Course where the punters hear the running commentary of the race, while the results, dividends and odds on horses are also announced.

In the year 1974, this Club was the first to start inter-venue betting with the Bangalore Turf Club and this is a regular feature since then. The Bangalore Turf Club accepts bets on the races run at the Bombay Race Course and this Club accepts bets at the Bombay and Pune Race Courses on the races run at Bangalore. For this inter-state betting also when the races are run at Bombay the running commentary, results and divi­dends are communicated over the loudspeakers to Bangalore. [Also refer Chapter 18 in this volume.]


Bombay rightly described as urbs prime of India deserves tc have a good Zoological Park that could be of benefit to its people and help promote wildlife conservation in India with special reference to Western India. In the master plan for development of the Borivli National Park it had been proposed, among other items of development, to establish a modern safari   style   Zoological   Park at  Borivli,  which proposal was under consideration of the Government of Maharashtra. Meanwhile, Government sanctioned the establishment of a Lion Safari Park, which was inaugurated on 1st May 1976. It is hoped that this Lion Park would be the first successful step towards the establishment of a Zoological complex in this National Park. An area of about 120 hectares has been earmarked for the proposed Zoological complex and the general layout of the proposed Zoo has also been worked out.

This Lion Safari Park is the second of its kind in India, the first being in the Nehru Zoological Park, Hyderabad.

The Lion Safari Park is easily approached by road through the Western Express Highway and the main entrance of the National Park. Borivli railway station is only about 1.5 kilometres from the starting point of the safari mini-bus.

The Lion Safari Park in Borivli is a miniature Gir Forest. The 13 hectares site occupied by the park has a gentle slope from north to south. The green rolling hills of Kanheri seen prominently from the safari park remind the visitor of the Girnar hills of the Gir Forests. The Lion Park includes many species of trees characteristic of the Gir.

The 1200 m. long, 6 1/2m. high chain-like fence fitted to channel iron posts encloses the lion park area and is lion-escape-proof. On the northern boundary, the fence alignment goes up a hill, thus including in the Park one complete boulder-strewn face of the hill. This is a very attractive feature which lends beauty and grandeur to the safari park. The fence is painted green and merges with the surrounding greenery.

The visitors to the Safari Park are provided with mini-buses (each with 10 seats) from which they can view the animals roaming free in the Park. These minibuses are provided with safety measures to protect the visitors from lions. A rescue vehicle also with safety measures is always kept in readiness to counter unforeseen difficulties of the mini­buses inside the Park. The 1.25 km long, asphalt internal road system within it is planned in such a manner that visitors could be taken rea­sonably close to the lions, wherever the lions be within the park. To prevent lions from escaping from the park when the gate is opened to allow entry into and exit from the Lion Park by the safari, a double door arrangement is provided at the gate. The lion house hidden from the visitor's view is a weather shelter to lions into which they are taken daily in the evening for feeding. A natural looking pond provides drinking water to the animals.

At present (1979) there are 9 specimens (4 lions and 5 lionesses) in the Park, of which 2 lions and 3 lionesses roam in the park for view by the visitors. Of these one specimen, a male ' Raj' has been purchased from a private party in Chalisgaon and six specimens—(Guru Dutt,  Nargis,Meena, Raju, Rani and Meenakshi) have been received as donation from Veermata Jijabai Bhosale Udyan of the Municipal Corporation, Bombay. Recently a pair of lions (Navin and Ketki) from the Gir Forests, Gujarat have also been added to the Lion Park. These captive animals have been reconditioned to behave like wild animals and trained for conditions obtained in the Park. The Lion Park staff has also been trained to facilitate efficient management.

Establishment of this Lion Safari Park has been possible mainly because of the generosity of the Government of India in the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation who have contributed Rs. 7.28 lakhs towards the cost of the 1200 m long fence to enclose the park area, construction of the lion house and landscaping of the Park. The amount of Rs. 2.05 lakhs provided by the Government of Maharashtra has been used for, among other items, developing the internal road system, providing water supply arrangements and for acquisition of lions. Besides, one safari jeep—minibus has been received from Government of India and another from the Government of Maharashtra.


Bombay being under the Portuguese domination for a number of years, there are several Roman Catholic churches in the City. Of these the church of N.S. de Esperanca was the oldest and was located at the Esplanade. It was demolished and was re-erected at Kalbadevi in 1760 at Government cost. This edifice was also subsequently demolished and what remains at the original site now is an old cross that has given its name to Cross Maidan.

N.S. de Gloria, at Byculla, was built by Antonio Pessoa, Lord of the Manor of Mazagaon between the years 1548 and 1571. It was renovated in 1810, and can accommodate 2,000 persons. Saude, or Our Lady of Health, at Cavel, was built in 1794. It has not been re-built, but is in a perfect state of preservation. There is a beautiful grotto with the statue of the Our Lady of Immaculate Conception, in front of the church.

San Miquel Church at Mahim, was built by the Portuguese probably in 1540. It is one of the oldest churches in Bombay. It has been renovated several times, and still attracts large crowds of Catholics for Mass and other devotions on Sundays and other days of Obligation.

Holy Name Church, along Wodehouse Road, is now the Roman Catholic Pro-Cathedral. Though opened in January 1905, it is one of the best known churches in the city. Next to it is a Archbishop's House, and also the office of the Archdiocese of Bombay.

The Holy Cross Church at Kurla, built during the Portuguese rule and rebuilt in 1848, is one of the oldest churches in Bombay and it deserves a mention in view of its age. It measures 38.10 m. (125') long, 14.33 m (47') broad and 13.72 m (45') high. It is still in good order and fairly big congregation assembles here on every Sunday as also during Christmas.

Prior to 1675, the English in Bombay had no church. They worshipped in a room in the Bombay Castle, called Fort Chapel. On Christmas Day, 1718, St. Thomas Church, now the Cathedral, was opened, and was described as " Suitable in some measure to the dignity of our Royal Settle­ment". In 1838 it was notified by Government to be a Cathedral, the present tower was raised at a cost of R. 16,000 snd a clock was purchased by the congregation for 500 guineas. It has one of the finest organs in the East.

St. Andrew's Church, at Rampart Row, sometimes called the Scotch Kirk, was opened in 1819. The spire was added four years later. Its organ was bought by public subscription at a cost of Rs. 4,800.

Church of St. John the Evangelist, at Colaba, was built in 1857, in memory of officers, non-commissioned officers and private soldiers who fell in the campaigns of Smd and Afghanistan in 1838-43. The colours of the old 24th Regiment are preserved in the building. The 19th Regiment N.I. has decorated the wall behind the altar with mosaic tiles, and the marble pavement was laid in memory of the brethren of the Guild of the Holy Standard.

St. John's Church consists of the nave and aisles, 57 metres (187 feet) in length and 17.678 metres (58 feet) in breadth. The height is 18.288 metres (60 feet), and the chancel arch 15.240 metres (50 feet). In 1865, 42 stained glass windows were sent from England, all gifts from private individuals. They were placed in the triangular apexes of the 21 lancet windows on either side of the nave. The bells of the Church are unique in being the only peal in use in Western India, except a small one ol four at Mount Abu.

The Wesleyan Methodist Church, at Colaba, is another important Protestant Church in Bombay. Its foundation stone was laid by Lord Reay.
St. Peter's Church, at Mazagaon, which has a boarding school and hostel attached to it, was opened in 1859. It contains a memorial window to those who were drowned in the P. & O. S.S.Camatic.(Bombay the Beautiful by J. V. Furtado, pp  136-37)


The Old Council Hall has been built at the back of the Royal Alfred Sailors' Home with which it has been connected by a corridor. The Royal Alfred Sailors' Home is a fine building which is now too far from the docks to serve its original purpose.   The sculpture in the gable representing Neptune with nymphs and sea-horse was executed by Mr. Bolten of Cheltenham. The building was taken over by the Government in 1928 and then the Council Chamber for the then Bombay Legislature was built. It is a stone structure on the corner of the Custom-House Road and Apollo Bunder Road opposite the Prince of Wales Museum.

The Council Hall(Bombay Today by R.J.Mehta, p. 31-32.)is surrounded on all sides by ante-rooms and lobbies on the ground floor. Galleries had been provided on the first floor for the Governor, the President and distinguished visitors, the public and the press. There was a special staircase to the different galleries reserved for the Governor and the President, and the gallery meant for disting­uished visitors; a second staircase was provided for the general public and the press.

Bombay's Council Hall was designed by Mr. J. Mercer, F.R.I.B.A., the then Consulting Architect to the Government. It was constructed by the Public Works Department under the guidance of the Presidency Executive Engineer. The walls are built of stone with a yellow basalt exterior facing. The roof is of reinforced concrete built on steel girders. A unique feature of the flooring of the main Chamber is that it is made of asbestos and that of the lobbies and corridors of white marble. All the panelling is of teakwood.
The Council Hall was the first building in Bombay, and perhaps the first in India, to be equipped with an efficient air-conditioning plant. Any required temperature or humidity can be maintained constantly. The air-conditioning plant ventilates, cools and dehumidifies the whole building, including the corridors and the galleries.


Fire is the chief object of Parsi veneration and the Fire Temple is the public place of worship. The Atesh Behram (the fire of Behram), ' the angel of success', which is composed of sixteen kinds of fire, is worshipped in four temples in Bombay, and the Atesh Dadghan or Proper-place Fire is kept in a Fire Temple known as the Agiari or Place of Fire, and is also called Dare-meher, i.e., the Gate of Mercy. Bombay possesses 35 such places.   The four main Atesh-Behrams in Bombay are as under:—

Year of opening
Dady Shet's Atesh Behram Girgaum 1783 Founded by Dady Nasarwanji.
Banaji's      " Charni Road 1845 Founded by Framji Cursetji and Rustomji Cowasjiand Dadabhoy Rustomji
Wadia's    " Princess Street 1830 Founded by,the sons of Hormusji Bomanji Wadia.
Anjuman's    " Chandanwadi 1897 Founded  by subscription.

The first two Atesh Behrams were consecrated according to Kadami rites and the last two according to Shahenshahi. The first Agiari founded was the Fort Agiari, built by Banaji Limji in 1709 and rebuilt by his family in 1845. The second was built in the same locality by Maneckji Nowroji Shet in 1733 and rebuilt in 1891. Each temple has a priest whose duty it is to read the religious books and to keep the fire burning. The piiests wear white dress, including the turban. Since 1862 classes have been opened and special training is given to those who wish to be priests and Dasturs.

ANJUMAN'S ATESH BEHRAM: In May 1896 the foundation stone of the Anjuman's Atesh Behram at Chandanwadi was laid by Dastur Dr. Jamsadjee Minocherjee Jamaspasna, M.A., Ph.D., High Priest of the Parsis, with great pomp and ceremony. The building which was constructed from subscriptions collected from the Parsi community was completed in 1897 and was opened for use after the performance of a Jasan or thanks giving ceremony. The building which cost about Rs. 2,30,000 has an imposing facade, the front walls, which are wrought in Porbandar stone bearing rich carving and medallions representing some of the well-known symbols of the Zoroastrian religion. The structure is built in the Persipolitan style, and the frontage particularly is an imitation of the palace of King Jamshed. The latest sanitary improvements have been introduced in all parts of the building which is well lighted and ventilated. The porch is a magnificent work of art, and so is the sanctum sanctorum where the sacred fire has been installed.

The shrine is about 7.5 metres (25 feet) long and an equal number of metres in width and in the centre of it is placed a marble pedestal, upon which stands the huge silver ewer containing the sacred fire. No one, except the officiating priests, is allowed to enter the room which is parti­tioned of by brass railings and there, besides the bells which ring in and ring out the five gehs or portions of the day, are to be found swords and other weapons used by the ancient Persians to prevent intruders from defiling the fire. Next to the sanctum sanctorum is the prayer hall which is 16.5 metres (55 feet) long and 16.5 metres (55 feet) wide, the height between the floor and the ceiling being nearly 6.3 metres (21 feet). The prayer hall is carpeted (1909) with Brussels carpets of rich workmanship, the ceilings being covered with silk and satin bordered with tassels of silk. The entrance hall is paved with Minton tiles and on the walls on three sides of it are marble tablets bearing the names of the different donors who have given large sums for the construction of certain portions of the building. On the first floor, which is approached by a grand staircase, is a magnificent hall 19.5 metres (65 feet) long and 16.8 metres (56 feet) wide, the roof, which is about 6.0 metres (20 feet) high, being supported on four fluted columns with coronas bearing horses' heads in Porbandar stone. The hall, which is used on festive occasions, contains portraits of the principal donors. The hall is named after Mr. Dadabhoy Nasarwanji Contractor who paid about Rs. 20,000 for its construction. There are two large ante-rooms on each side of the hall, one of which is intended to be used as a library, and contains some ancient Persian literature.

Maneckji Shet's Agiari: The fire in Maneckji Shet's Agiari was installed in the year 1733 by Maneckji Nowroji Shet. The old building showed signs of decay, which led to the erection of this handsome new building at a cost of about one lakh of rupees by Mr. Jalbhoy Ardesar, the eighth lineal descendant of the founder. It is built in the ancient Persian style of architecture, and its facade alone presents an appearance which is as unique as it is rare in the city.

The Adaran fire was installed in this temple on 5th November 1891. It is placed in a large silver censer, estimated to have cost about Rs. 7,000. The hall in which it is placed cannot be entered by any except the officia­ting priest or his immediate assistant. It is built entirely of marble facing and compares favourably with any building of its class in elegance and simplicity. The chief problem in the erection of a fire-temple is how to get rid of the smoke. In the present instance a number of ventilating appliances  have  been provided.

During the time the building was under erection the Adaran fire was removed to Maneckji Shet's court in the Fort, a portion of the place having been set apart for the exclusive purpose and for the use of the priests in charge. All the arrangements for the removal and reinstatement were made under the directions of Mobed D.M. Adrianwala, the hereditary priest officiating in the temple. A portion of the building is devoted to the dedication of the Dadgan fire and to the performance of certain rituals enjoined by Parsi custom and usage.

However the N.M. Petit Fire Temple at New Marine Lines is considered to be the most elegant by some. It is constructed in white marble and is surmounted with huge red flame, the symbolic afarghania with at its entrance a 6.0 metres (20 feet) high winged bull. The construction of this fire temple was completed in 1940 at a total cost of rupees three lakhs and a half, of which an amount of Rs. 1,35,000 was donated by Mr. and Mrs. Jehangir K. Mehta.


The city of Bombay is a great industrial hubbub with both sky scrapers and hutment colonies existing side by side. Numerous industries existing in the city have given rise to the problem of pollution which has aggravated of late. One of the remedies to reduce pollution and to do away with industrial monotony in the city is to lay out parks and gardens in different localities and to grow trees. The first garden in the city was laid out about a century before. Within the present context, more emphasis being laid on laying out gardens and parks, and growing more trees, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay has decided to adopt a standard of half an acre per thousand of population for the city and four acres for one thousand of population for suburbs and extended suburbs for parks and gardens.

The prima dona of India has a number of gardens and parks, fountains and band stands, etc., maintained by the Municipal Corporation in addition to a few maintained by the Bombay Port Trust, the Government of Maharashtra and other private organisations. A number of industrial units, to name a few, Larsen and Toubro Ltd., Parke Davies Ltd., in the suburbs, have maintained beautiful gaidens.
In what follows is given a brief description of the principal parks and gardens in the city.


Formerly known as the Victoria Gardens, Veermata Jijabai Bhonsale Udyan is the oldest public garden in Bombay which was laid on the Mount Estate, Mazagaon, now included in Byculla, in 1861 and stocked with plants from the garden of the Agro-Horticultural Society of Western India at Sewri which was maintained upto 1862 when its plants were transferred to the Victoria Gardens. The charge and direction of the Victoria Gardens vested in the Agro-Horticultural Society until 1873 when the Society ceased to exist. It was then handed over to the Municipal Corporation in the same year i.e., in 1873. The area of the Victoria Gardens when it was laid out was 33 acies. In 1890 an additional area of 15 acres was included and the garden was extended especially for the zoo. The Udyan covers an area of 50 acres.

The garden was formally opened to the public by Lady Frere on November 19, 1862. It has a number of shady trees with some botanically important species such as Amherstria nobilis, colvillia racemoss, Adansonia digitata, browhea coccinea, lagerstroemia rosea and other varieties, malalenca lencodendron, varieties of cassias, etc. The Udyan contains about l,800trees belonging to about 150 species. The garden has a nursery, rich in collection. The botanical specimens are supplied to various colleges and schools in the city and suburbs free of cost. Plants are sold to the public on nominal charges. Besides, advice is also given to the public at large regarding growing and planting of trees.

The Zoo in the park occupies an area of about eight hectares and it contains more than 1,200 specimens of mammals, birds, reptiles, etc. The snake park constructed in the Zoo recently attracts a number of visitors. Housed in the snake park are more than two hundred snakes in natural environments. The animals kept in the Zoo include lions, tigers, bears, panthers, etc., besides different types of monkeys, deer, hippopotamus, elephants, etc. Apart from having good specimens of wild animals and birds from different climates and countries, recreational facilities such as joy rides, boating, open air theatre and a band stand where recorded music is played every evening have been provided within the precincts of the garden. The annual expenditure on the maintenance of the garden comes to about Rs. 4.5 lakhs against the annual collection of about Rs. 45,000.

On entering the paik thiough the main gate on the left is the Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum known previously as the Victoria and Albert Museum founded in 1858. The building was constructed at a cost of about Rs. 5 lakhs of which an amount to the extent of about Rs.1.1 lakhs was collected through public contribution and the remaining was Government contribution. The foundation of the building was laid in 1862 and it was opened to the public in 1872. The building of the museum is in Italian Renaissance style.

To the right of the south entrance of the Garden stands an almost life-size rock cut elephant which was brought here from the EJephanta island for exhibition. An equestrian statue of King Edward VII of England made of black marble and with fine workmanship, whiph was originally installed near the University of Bombay and which was popularly known as Kala Ghoda, has also been shifted to the Bhau Daji Museum in the Gardens and has been placed just outside the museum.(For detailed history see Bombay City Gazetteer, Vol.III, 1910, pp.376-80)


Just near the Hanging Gardens is located the Kamala Nehru Park named after the wife of the first Prime Minister of India, the late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The land on which the park has been laid out was purchased from the Government at a cost of Rs. 7 lakhs. The park covers an area of 10,000 square yards and has winding pathways, as terraces, green lawns and tropical vegetation on its slopes. The children throng in numbers to the Old Woman's shoe based on old Nursery Rhyme which has become their star attraction and a hot favourite. An artificial cascade and the fountain arranged with lights with changing colours and a view with an effect of a diamond necklace attract people during evenings parti­cularly after the sunset A visitor also gets a splendid panoramic view of the city as also the setting sun from this park. The park is maintained at an annual cost of about Rs. 32,000. Receptions to foreign dignitaries and other Indian nationals who have done some meritorious service to the Nation are arranged in this park usually, by the Municipal Corporation.


A garden was laid out on the terrace os a stone masonry water supply reservior at the Malabar Hill in 1886-87 and has been named after Sir Pherozeshah Mehta. the garden was relaid in 1936. It covers an area of 32,110 square yards and has been beautified with lushgreen laws, skirted by hedges and innumerable flower beds, with mnay hedges trimmed in the shape of different animals. To Facilitate teh visitors to relax in comfort have been provided four shady summer houses with benches. The model of the Vaitarna-Tansa schems completed by the Municipal Corporation for augmentation of teh water supply has been placed on the earth mound in the garden. the garden commands a beautiful biew of the Arabian Sea towards the west. The Muncipal Corporation of Greater Bombay is reuired to spend about Rs.55,000 annually on the maintenace of teh Garden.

The Pherozeshah Mehta Garden (formerly known as the Hanging Gardens) and the Kamla Nehru Park are located close to each other and provide a pleasant evening resort to Bombayites.


Joseph Baptisa Garden was laid out on top of Bhandarwada Hill reservoir in 1937. It is located in the dock area and covers an area of 3,75,000 sqaure feet. It commands a panoramice view of Bombay harbour with vast sea stretching beyond, the dock area and the northern portions of teh city. The Muncipal Corporation of Greater Bombay is required to spend about Rs.50,000 per year on the maintenance of this garden.


The Gateway of India has been erected at a picturesque spot at the Apollo Bunder to commemorate the landing of King George V and Queen Mary when the royal couple visited the country on a State visit in December 1911. Shelter was provided to the waiting passenger formerly by an iron shed with a carved roof after the styleof a Mughal tent. This shed was removed and a temporary pavillion and hall were erected for the reception. It was suggested by the then Governoe of Bombay Lord Sydenham, that a permanent pavilion should be erected to commemorate the event to form a sea gaetway of India and provide a reception hall for all important occassions. The scheme however was carried out by Lord Willingdon, The successor of Lord Sydenham.

The gateway consists of a Central Hall with the great archway forming the entrance with side halls providing seating accomodation to the visitors. The gateway designed by Mr.G.Wittet is Indian in character and its architecture is based on the work of sixteenth century in Gujrat. The Gateway is constructed in yellow basalt obtained near Bombay , but the pierced stone work in the arches of teh side halls is from the former princely State of Gwalior.

The Gateway is the centre of tourist attraction and picnics. It givesa fantastic view of the vast exoanse of the sea with the distant horizion lined by the mountain ranges of Saht\yadri, thepeak of the funnel hill or the fort Karnala forming the most distinctive feature. INthe background of the Gateway could be seen the Bombay High Oil rig towers and a number of naval ships in thevast ocean beyond. On facing the Gateway to the left of the visitors is te life size statue of Swami Vivekanand on a raised pedestal with a garden surrounding it. IN fornt of the Gateway is the fine equestrain statue of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj erected in 1960. The gateway is alos flanked by the famouse Taj and the Taj International.


The General Post Office is located near the Victoria Terminus of the Central Railway. It was designed in the Bijapur style of architecture by J.Begg and was constructed under the supervision of Mr.G.Wittet. The building consits of apartial basement, ground and three super floors and was completed in 1911. All the rooms are welllighted and airy. It is a magnificent building with a fine architecture.


The Girgaum Chaupati or the Girgaum beach is loacted on the west of the Charni Road railway station on the suburban section of the Western Railway and extends from the Band Stand to Mafatlal Swimming Pool. Its splendour and view of the vast expanse of the sea attracts a number of evening walkers and children. Towards the band stand have been planted trees which have changed the entire face of the beach an dthe original scene of a sand beach is no more seen. Many young and old alike are found taking stroll on the beach tow ash their feet in the waves that lap the shore. The night times are especially enchanting with the slow rhythm of teh sea with a beautiful glimpse of the lighted marine drive, eating bhelpuri,panipuri , cocoanut and other eatables which are sold at the Chaupati at anumber of stalls erected for the purpose. The beach is also famouse venue for mamoth publicmeetings. Opposite the Wilson College could be seen the status of the Late Shri Vithalbhai Patel in black stone installed on araised pedestal. Another statue of Lokmanya Tilak whose body was consigned to flames at Chaupati by the special permission of the British Government after he breathed his last in 1920 stands at the other end. A plaque gives the famouse saying of the Great leader

i.e meaning,"Independence is my birth right and I would get it". By the side of the statue couls be seen the Birla Kreeda Kendra and a swimming pool. To cross the Marine Drive towards the Opera House an escalator has recently been installed by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay.


In 1757 the Bombay Government on the advice of Capt. De Funck decided that most, if not all the upper pait of the Fort House must be pulled down, and resolved to purchase Mr. John Spencer's house in Apollo street. This house was purchased in the same year by Government and tiansformed into Government House. It was known as ' New House ' until 1767, and after that as the ' Company's House' or the ' President's House'. In this house Governor Jonathan Duncan died in 1811; and after that date the Governors gradually discarded it as a residence in favour of Parel, which became a hot-weather residence about 1750, and then of Malabar Point. In 1829 it ceased to be Government House and became the Secretariat, the Governor's residence having been removed to Parel. It continued to be occupied by the Secretariat till 1873, and was known for a long time after the removal of the Secretariat from it as the ' Old Secretariat'. It is of this Government House that Bishop Heber in 1825 wrote:—

"Though large and convenient, it is little used except for holding Councils, public darbars, and the despatch of business. It is a spacious dismal looking building, like many of the large houses in Bombay, looking like a Stadthouse in a Free German City." Valentia had described it a few years earlier (1802-06) as a handsome building with several good apartments, but inconvenient by reason of the largest apartment on both floors being a passage to other rooms.


At the date of Fryer's visit to Bombay, a church and convent belonging to the Jesuits stood on the site of Government House at Parel. The principal establishment of the Society was at Bandra, where they had also a college, which was defended like a fortress with seven cannons, besides small arms. When Bombay was ceded to the English, the Bandra college claimed much land and various rights in the island. On the claims being disallowed, the Jesuits threatened a resort to arms and went so far as to assist the Sidi in his successful invasion of the island in 1689-90. As a punishment, when the war was over, all their property on the island, including the monastery and lands at Parel, was confiscated. In 1720 the building was alienated from its original use, and from that date Parel House was used as an occasional residence upto 1829, and thereafter until 1883 as the permanent residence of the Governors of Bombay.

Of Government House, Parel, Grose wrote in 1750: " At Parel the Governor has a very agreeable country house, which was originally a Romish chapel belonging to the Jesuits, but confiscated about 1719 for some foul practices against the English interest. It is now converted ioto a pleasant mansion house and what with the additional buildings and improvements of the gardens, affords a spacious and commodious habitation. There is an avenue to it of a hedge and trees near a mile long; and though near the seaside, is sheltered from the air of it by a hill between. Here the Governor may spend most part of the heats, the air being cooler and fresher than in town; and nothing is wanting that may make a country retirement agreeable."

Mr. W. Hornby (1771-83) was the first Governor who took up his residence in the Parel House. His name was inscribed on a small tablet on the walls. Records show that dances and balls used to be held at this house on the birthday of H.M. King George III and of the Queen Consort, annually on the 4th of June and the 18th of January respectively. About 1803 Sir James Mackintosh, then Recorder of Bombay, writes: " We live about 5 miles of excellent road over a flat from our capital. We inhabit by the Governor's kindness his official country house, a noble building with some magnificent apartments and with two delightful rooms for my library, in which I am now, writing, overlooking a large garden of fine parkish ground. " " In 1804 the Governor (Jonathan Duncan) gave a grand ball at Parel, when that sheet of water, to which succeeding generations of wearied dancers have repaired to recruit the exhausted energies, became a fairy scene of gorgeous fireworks, which blazed away far into the night and early morning over the faces of fair women and brave men."

The original building was enlarged and embellished by Mountstuart Elphinstone (1819-27). Heber in his Narrative of a Journey through India (1838), describes the appearance of Parel House as " very handsome, having a fine stair-case and two noble rooms, one over the other of 75 or 80 feet long, very handsomely furnished." " The lower of these, " he continues, " which is the dining room, is said to have been an old and desecrated church belonging to a Jesuit College, which had fallen into the hands of a Parsi, from whom it was purchased by Govern­ment about sixty years ago. Behind the house is a moderate sized old fashioned garden in which is planted a slip of the willow, which grows on Bonaparte's grave. Adjoining is a small paddock or lather yard, full of different kinds of deer, who are fed like sheep by hand, and another little yard containing some wild animals. " The latter included "a royal tiger, stretched at his ease in a cage ", a tiger cat, a porcupine, an ostrich and an orang-outang. The house was repaired during the regime of Viscount Falkland (1850). Sir Seymour Fitzgerald and Sir Philip Wode-house also had the house repaired and refurnished in good style. It was during the latter Governor's regime that H.R.H. the Prince of Wales (Later King Edward VII) occupied a rooniin the building from the 8th to 15th November 1875. The chief reception held in this house was that in honour of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh in 1870.

Sir Richard Temple refused to live at Parel, because the house was so much out of the way, and he transferred his head-quarteis to Malabar Point. Sir James Fergusson, who followed Sir Richard, occupied Govern­ ment House, Parel, in November 1880. In his time all the rooms at Parel were called by the names of towns. Thus one room was known as Madras, another as Agra, the third as Lahore, etc., the names being painted over the doors in half-inch letters. The rooms in the Aide- de-Camps' bungalow were named Aden, Zanzibar, Kandahar, Quetta, Sibi and Khelat. In 1883 Lady Fergusson died of cholera in the house. This house, which was the permanent residence of the Governor from 1829, was abandoned after the term of office of Sir James Fergusson (1880-1885). After this, the house was offered to the Municipal Commissioner for the Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute. In 1897 the advent of plague suggested its use as a convenient hospital and within its walls hundreds of plague patients were treated in 1897-98. In August 1899 the Plague Research Laboratory was removed thither, the opening ceremony of the laboratory being performed by Lord Sandhurst. The house continues up to now to be occupied by the laboratory, which has since been styled " The Bombay Bacteriological Laboratory," subsequently the " Haffkine Institute ". The garden in the compound of the house was very spacious and well looked after. The house and ground were vested in the City of Bombay Improvement Trust under section 60(I) of Act IV of 1898, at a valuation of Rs. 9,91,407 and were dealt with by that body under the provisions of the Act.


This very agreeable resort, known as Marine Villa in old records, is pleasantly situated on the summit of Malabar Point, a bold promontory which runs out into the ocean on the western side of the island. It commands a splendid view of the greater part of the island. On this part of the hill there stood about 1774 a lofty tower, in which Raghunathrao passed the period of his exile from Poona and whence he sallied forth occasionally to pass through the holy cleft (Shri Gundi) at Malabar Point. The ruins of this tower have been noticed by Maria Graham in her Journal of a Residence in India 1813. In Price's memorials (1839) it is stated that Malabar Point was the occasional retreat of the Governor, General Medows. Sir Evan Nepean, who was Governor of Bombay from 1812 to 1819, had a small room at Malabar Point, and his successor the Hon'ble Mountstuart Elphinstone (1819-1827) erected a bungalow, which Heber describes as " a very pretty cottage in a beautiful situation on a rocky and woody promontory and actually washed by the sea spray ".Lady Falkland, wife of Viscount Falkland (Governor, 1848 to 1853), was very fond of Malabar Point, and it is said that she spent one or two hot seasons here. Malabar Point, which was in use for many years more or less as a hot weather or occasional residence, became the permanent residence of the Governors of Bombay after the abandonment of Parel House at the end of Sir James Fergusson's term of office (1880-1885), and it being the only residence in Bombay available for the Governor, much money has been spent from time to time in making it suitable for the purpose. A dining-hall, billiard room, porch and verandah were constructed in 1868; considerable alterations were made in 1877, and many improvements and additions have been made since that date. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales (later King George the Fifth) stayed here in 1905. In 1909 Government House consisted of a number of good bunga­lows, besides the residence of the Governor, which were used for various purposes including the accommodation of the officers on the staff of the Governor and of the office of the Private and other Secretaries. Quarters were also provided for servants, bandsmen and other staff. The entrance lodge was built by Sir Seymour Fitzgerald. After ascending Walkeshwar road one noticed half way up, a winding lower road leading to the Government House, which together with the upper road was lined with well-tended trees, shrubs and creepers. The lower road was first constructed by Lord Elphinstone (1853-1860) and was widened in 1869, in which year were also constructed the lodges at the entrance of the road. The drive along this road afforded charming glimpses of Bombay. The house has a band stand, which is situated on the east side of the dining hall. It also boasts of an extensive garden. A flagstaff 100 ft. in height stands at Government House, and a flag is kept floating on it all the time that the Governor is in residence. It may be noted that a small fort was built here in connection with the harbour defences and was guarded with heavy artillery. Government House was almost uninhabitable during the monsoons as Malabar Point was exposed to the full fury of the wind and waves; but during the rest of the year it was a far more agreeable residence than Parel. Electric lights and fans were installed throughout the house in 1908-09. It is now styled as Raj Bhavan.


The International Society for Krishxia Consciousness (ISKCON) is established with a view to spreading the cult of Krishna bhakti and has an international coverage with Ashrams and shrines dedicated to Lord Krishna at New York, Los Angeles, Honolulu, London, Amsterdam, Stockholm, Teheran, etc. The ISKCON unfolds India's rich spiritual heritage in a thoroughly modern setting. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada was the founder of the ISKCON.

The ISKCON complex in Bombay is located at Juhu, two minutes walk from the Juhu Beach and about eight minutes walk from the Juhu Bus station. The complex comprises a Yoga Institute, an Auditorium, Vedic Library, Ashram, a dining hall known as Govinda's, a refreshment alcove, a Bank and marble temple dedicated to Lord Krishna, popularly known as Hare Krishna Hare Ram Mandir. The entire complex covers an area of about two hectares. The main attraction is the temple.

The temple constructed in the Vrindavan style of architecture is replete with 24 domes of sculptured white marble. It has a finely carved red sandstone gate and a short marble stairway. On entering the temple gate the visitor's eyes are pleased to find a large courtyard bordered by marble pillars and floral engraved arches. In alcoves on either side of the court­yard there are fifteen colourful dioramas depicting scenes from ancient Ramayana and Bhagavadgita. Going from the right after entering there are three main altars with huge teakwood doors and brass castings. Beyond the door the Sanctum Sanctorum reveals the transcendental splendour of the deities. The idol in the central altar is that of Radha Krishna flanked by Rama Panchayatan in the altar on its right and that of Balram Krishna in the altar on its left while facing the deity. These idols are placed on hand-carved silver plated teakwood platforms.

Besides the temple, the ISKCON ashram has lodging and boarding facilities for visitors and their life members. The twin-towered seven storied edifice, finished with finely carved red and white sandstone has over fifty air conditioned rooms with balconies overlooking the coconut palms of Juhu Beach. Each room is equipped with a private bathroom, hot shower, two channel devotional music and telephone. It houses an international library with volumes on Vedic literature in more than thirty Indian and foreign languages.

The ISKCON has an auditorium that can accommodate 420 viewers. The centre for performing arts provides an array of entertainment facilities with advanced sound and lighting equipment, stage lifts for special effects, a recording studio and comfortable green rooms for the performing artists. One feature of this auditorium is the earphones for simultaneous translation in three languages. The rich devotional culture of the country is presented through various plays and devotional music in this auditorium. The ISKCON has a troupe to perform these plays.

The dining hall known as Govinda's offers pure vegetarian food.from fresh ingredients in both Continental and Indian styles. The interior is designed with Rajasthani decor with beautiful ceiling and wall paintings in natural colours which are based on the events in Indian history.


JEHANGIR ART GALLERY has been the most important venue for art exhibitions in Bombay, perhaps in India as a whole, since the early ' fifties'. The institution is established with the objective of providing gallery facilities to artists from all parts of the country and abroad to exhibit their work on rent within their means and also for organising activities for the promotion of a national movement in contemporary visual arts.

Sir Cowasji Jehangir, the Second Baronet, who was closely associated with activities in the contemporary field, recognised the need of an art gallery in Bombay. To fulfil this need, he made an offer of Rs. 2,50,000 in 1946, on condition that the Government provided a suitable plot of land. Sir John Colville, the then Governor of Bombay and his successor Raja Sir Maharaj Singh took keen interest in the project. The latter in particular and Mr. B. G. Kher, the then Chief Minister, were associated with it in its various stages of growth till it took final shape.

Initially it was planned to construct the Gallery near Cooperage, but later it was suggested that a part of the Prince of Wales Museum com­pound be set aside for the purpose. The suggestion was placed before the Trustees of the Museum by the Government, at whose instance the plot of land on which the Gallery now stands was made available. The Gallery thus came into being with the munificence of Sir Cowasji Jehangir, on the one hand, and the Board of Trustees of the Prince of Wales Museum, on the other, as well as the active interest of the State Government, who agreed to make a regular yearly grant towards the upkeep of the building. These three parties signed a tripartite agreement on July 25, 1951 for the Gallery.

The construction of the Gallery building had already been taken in hand, the foundation stone having been laid on March 22, 1950. Sir Cowasji personally looked after every small detail of the project and paid every bill towards its cost which ultimately added up to Rs. 7,04,112. This amount was shown as a donation to the Trustees of the Museum, and hence the ownership of the building still vests with them.

Dedicated to the memory of Sir Cowasji's late son, Jehangir, after whom the gallery is named, Jehangir Art Gallery was formally inaugurated by Mr. B. G. Kher on January 21, 1952. The inaugural exhibition, the 61st Annual Exhibition of Bombay Art Society, was opened by Raja Maharaj Singh a few weeks later.

According to the terms of the tripartite agreement of 1951, the entire administration of the Gallery, including the upkeep of the building is the responsibility of a Committee of Management, consisting of ten members including one member or representative of the donor's family; two representatives of the Trustees of Prince of Wales Museum; two representatives of Bombay Art Society; one representative of the State Government; Executive Engineer, Bombay Presidency Division; Dean, Sir J.J. School of Art, Bombay and two nominees of the committee constituted as above.

The Gallery building consists of two exhibition halls. One has a floor area of 2,700 sq.ft. with a wall space of approximately 180 running feet. The other has 3,500 sq.ft. of floor area and a wall space of 218 running feet, with facilities for dividing the Gallery into two parts, if necessary, with the help of movable screens which also provide additional hanging space.

The walls have concealed fluorescent lighting at the height of nine feet from the floor, in addition to general lighting and arrangement for spot lights wherever desired. Hence the Galleries are suitable for the display of all types of visual arts and crafts.

Allotment of the Galleries is made by a Booking Committee, consis­ting of senior artists and art critics. The increasing popularity of the Galleries with exhibitors from all over India, is evident from the figures given below:—







Bombay Outstation

Group—by artists
Group—by institutions
Group—by profitmaking bodies










It will be seen that the total number of exhibitions held in the Galleries in 1978 was 67. In 1979 the number went up to 89.
The number of visitors to the Gallery is also on the increase. At present the average number of gallery-goers per day is estimated to be about 2,500.

The upkeep of the Gallery building and the administrative expenses are met out of the rent earned from the two Galleries and some additional space, given to a few parties some time ago on leave and licence. The Gallery has launched several projects recently, within the scope of its objectives, to augment its income. A brief description of these is given below.

The library gives original paintings and sculptures to its artist members on rental or on hire purchase basis. Individuals as well as institutions can join this library as members. This scheme is primarily meant for those who value original works of art but are unwilling to invest large sums to acquire them. These works are collected from artists, who receive the amounts of rent or sale proceeds after a deduction of a small commission by the Gallery.

Through the Sales Room of Prints and Publications the institution aims at providing gallery-goers with art publications and reproductions of outstanding merit, published by various renowned publishers. The entire stock in the Sales Room is taken on sale and return basis from publishers, who pay commission according to their terms.

Designed for laymen, the Art Appreciation courses aim at strengthening rapport between artists and the public. The Gallery has organised several courses on Art Appreciation, Art History and Art Criticism. All these proved to be quite popular. A small fee is charged to participants.

The Gallery sponsors exhibitions of the works of artists of proven merit. Known as Monsoon Shows—named after the season when the show is held—these exhibitions are now popular annual features in the art life of Bombay. The Gallery has also initiated a scheme of honouring senior artists of distinction through prestigious shows, as sources of enjoyment or inspiration for art lovers and artists. A beginning has been made with an exhibition entitled ' the Art of Hebbar since 1938'. The Gallery also earns a nominal commission on the sale of exhibits in all these exhibitions.
Dr. Homi Bhabha Art Reference Library was started some time ago for reference and research on topics of visual arts. It has a collection of valuable books on art and also subscribes to the foremost art journals from all over the world. Normally available to members only, the library also allows casual readers on payment of nominal fees, on monthly basis. All the above projects are useful to the cause of art and artists, and have also proved to be economically viable.

The gallery has plans to start a technical service cell for providing display and other services to the gallery-users. A library of slides as an adjunct to the Art Reference Library with facilities for projection and duplication, is also on the board.

Over the years Jehangir Art Gallery has rendered exemplary service to Indian art and culture. It has a potential of further growth and it promises to keep pace with the global movement in visual arts.


Jogeshwari (The Jogeshwari cave is described by Du Perron (1760), Zend Avesta, I. CCCL XXXVIII—CCCXC; Hunter (1784), Archaeologia, VII. 295-299; and Salt (1806) Trans-Bom. Lit. Soc. (Reprint) I. 44-47. Du Perron speaks of a ' female lingam' over the central altar. But his drawing is more like the present pair of footprints than the case of a ling. He carried off a small bull about a foot long which was still worshipped and covered with oil.) or Amboli Cave, in Bombay about four kilometres south­east of Goregaon station on the Western railway, is a very large, once richly ornamented, now decayed Brahmanic temple of the eighth century. It is cut in a low dome of crumbling volcanic breccia in the waving uplands that rise between the Jogeshwari railway station, now forming part of Jogeshwari, and the central Vehar hills. The rock lies within the limits of Amboli village from which the cave was formerly known as the Amboli Cave.

About the approach to these caves the old Gazetteer of Thana has given the following information :

" About three-quarters of a mile south from the Goregaon station along the Bombay high road, a good cart tract turns to the east. On the left, soon after leaving the high road, in the enclosure of Goregaon temple, are some Brahmanic stones, probably of the eleventh or twelfth century, which have been brought from a ruined temple, of which interesting traces remain in a thick thorn brake about 300 yards to the north. Beyond Goregaon temple the road leaves the rice fields and crosses about two miles of prettily wooded waving uplands. The low rounded rock in which the cave is cut is covered with grass and thorny bushes. It might be easily passed unnoticed but for a whitewashed lamp pillar and large pond to the west of the entrance. "

However, the cave has now come in the heart of Jogeshwari just at a distance of about a kilometre from the Jogeshwari railway station in a thickly populated surrounding. A good black topped road now leads towards the caves to the east of the Jogeshwari railway station. Now the cave is known as the Jogeshwari cave.

From the two lamp pillars, of which one seems a later addition, a plain rock-cut passage, about eight feet broad and fifty feet long, leads to an open court much ruined, perhaps unfinished, and with some remains of carving. From this court twelve (of which six seem to be later additions) steps lead down to a portico 20'by 18' and about 20' high. Formerly there was a door very richly carved to pass through this portico. The walls of the portico, and the walls of its two end recesses, were once covered with figures/But the crumbling rock and the low damp site of the cave have rotted away almost all traces of carving. At the ends of the portico were two richly ornamented chambers (about 18' x 12' x 10' high) separated from the body of the porch by two pillars and two pilasters now in a totally dilapidated condition. These pillars have wasted away to the quaintest skeletons with rough corkscrew like ridges of harder stone, like the wreaths round the prentice pillar at Roslin Chapel. The large figure in the right chamber seems to have been Shiva in the form of a seated Buddha-like ascetic, and below there is a trace of a side figure now practically defaced, perhaps the giver of the sculpture. The figure in the left chamber seems to have been Shiva dancing the wild tandava of which nothing now remains. In the middle of the back wall of the portico is a highly ornamented door with the remains of large warders on either side, and in other parts, with traces of delicate carving of which only a few glimpses are visible.

The central door opens on an immense hall about ninety feet square and ten feet high, once dark and damp and the floor deep in mud and slime but now almost clean. About seventeen feet from the side walls a square cordon of twenty cushion-capitalled pillars, six on each side, divides the cave into four aisles and a central hall about fifty feet square in excellent condition. In the middle of the central hall is a rock-cut shrine about twenty-two feet square with an entrance door in the centre of each face. Within the shrine, on a low altar, is a stone about a foot square, apparently modern, on whose surface are cut a pair of feet. Formerly it was under a rough wooden canopy with four corner pillars about four feet high adorned with tinsel and coloured paper. At present placed on an altar is an idol of the Goddess Jogeshwari, where a number of devotees assemble on Tuesdays and Fridays and during the Navratra. The east outer face of the shrine was once covered with figures of Shiva's attendants or gans of which only traces remain. The north wall of the hall is blank with no outlet. The south wall of the hall is pierced with a central door, two pillared windows and two side doorways. The doors open on a veranda, sixteen feet broad and about 120 feet long, whose outer cave is supported on a row of ten pillars and two pilasters in the Elephanta style, of which now only one remains. On the capitals are struts, carved with a female figure and a dwarf standing under foliage, as in the great Badami caves which have suffered with the passage of time. The face of the back wall of the veranda, though much rotted, has remains of rich carving round the central door. Beyond the veranda is an open court surrounded by ruined and waterlogged cells. On a parapet at the east end of the veranda was a worn writing with the words ' ni ko ro' etc., in eighth century Sanskrit, of which nothing now remains. A little to the right, at the east end of the court-yard, a curious winding passage leads, on the right, to a shrine with a large carved image of Meshmargiri, which is now worshipped as Hanuman. The east door of the great hall opens on a large vestibule or porch. The inner wall of this porch, that is the outer face of the east wall of the main cave, is covered with figures. On each side of the door is a giant warder and many images of gans or attendants of Shiva. Above the door is a seated Shiva worshipped by ascetics. The group on the right is Shiva and Parvati; that on the left is Shiva's wedding all in perfect condition. The porch or vestibule is about thirty feet long. It has a central hall, about twenty-three feet broad and eighteen feet high, and side verandas sixteen feet broad, separated, from the central hall, by a row of four pillars and two pilasters. In the outer face of the east wall of the porch is Shiva dancing the tandava, and, above the door, is a cell said to be entered from the top of the rock, most of it in a dilapidated state. Across an open court, about forty-seven feet long is an outer porch, in form like the inner porch, a central hall (about 39 feet by 18) with the side rows of four pillars and two pilasters, and behind the pillars, aisles about twelve feet broad which have now fallen. The back wall of the north aisle is carved in groups of figures, goddesses and Ganapati. Outside of the porch, a rock-cut passage, about nine feet broad, rises by about thirty steps to the level of the top of the rock.

Next to the Kailas at Ellora this is the largest known cave in India. Its length from east to west is 240 feet, and including the two rock-cut passages it is 320 feet; and its breadth, including the long passage in the south, is 200 feet (Cave Temples, 475). According to Dr. Burgess it has the special architectural interest of showing almost no trace of the arrangements of a Buddhist monastery. Its large porticos and courts point to the development of the style that appears in the built temples of Ambarnath near Kalyan (1060), of Pattan Somnath in south Kathiawar (1198) and of the Abu temples in Rajasthan (1197-1247). If the Dumar cave at Ellora was cut in the first quarter of the eighth century, and the great Elephanta cave very soon after, this Jogeshwari cave probably dates from the latter half of the eighth century.(Cave Temples, 476. Mr. Bhagvanlal agrees that the Elephanta and Jogeshwari caves are of about the same age. But from the character of the pillars and the sculpture, he would place Jogeshwari before, not after, Elephanta. He considers that the inscription in the south veranda in eighth century Sanskrit is later than the building of the cave.)


Juhu Beach is located at a distance of five kilometres to the west of Santacruz railway station on the Churchgate-Virar suburban section of the Western Railway. The Juhu road emanating from the Swami Vivekanand road near Santacruz railway station leads to Juhu beach. Juhu beach is regarded a Brighton of India and is the most popular bathing resort in Western India. It is one complete stretch of silvery beach extending about 5 km. north-south. It provides safe bathing from November to May. The shore is studded with coconut palms which add to the beauty of the resort.
There are a few starred hotels near Juhu beach. Besides, there are many excellent wayside hotels. The most refreshing drink is coconut water for which Juhu is famous. There are many stalls of bhelpuriwalas.

Sundays and holidays at Juhu provide enjoyment in good measure for a number of persons to pass their holidays in swimming, riding, playing beach games, etc. The Bombay flying club has a modern club house and airfield within a stone's throw of the beach. The Juhu beach is frequented by thousands of merry makers on the full moon day of Ashvin, i.e., the Kojagiri Paurnima.


Juma Mosque is one of the most spacious mosques in Greater Bombay. According to an old Urdu account of 1836, the original Juma mosque of Bombay was situated near the reservoir of the ' Dongri Fort' and that attractive construction was built by the Konkani Muhammedans.

All the land around the mosque was occupied by the Konkani Muhammedans but during the period of the administration of Mr. Bourchier [1750-60] the mosque and the houses were demolished. Subsequently, the new Juma mosque was erected on the Esplanade in front of the tomb of the Saint Pedro Shah. This mosque was also dismantled in 1770 by an order of the Governor, Mr. William Hornby which forbade the existence of any building within 548.640 m (600 yards) of the walls of the fort.

For devotional purposes the Sattar mosque in Mandvi was therefore utilised until the present Juma Mosque which lies about half way up Sheikh Memon Street, was built. Although its erection was commenced in 1775, it was not ready for use until 1802 owing to the disputes about the ownership of the land, which was eventually handed over to the Konkani Muhammedan community during the Governorship of Sir William Medows (1788-90).

The date of its completion (A.D. 1802 A. H. 1217) is derivable, from the chronogram Jahaz-i-Akhirat ' the ship of the world to come ' which contains an allusion to the fact that it was constructed over a tank. In the eighteenth century this tank was situated in the midst of gardens and open land, and belonged to a Konkani Muhammedan merchant, trading in Goa and Calicut, who, about 1778, agreed to the erection of a mosque on the spot, provided that the tank was preserved intact. A one-storeyed building was therefore erected over the tank and formed the original nucleus of the present Juma Mosque. The persons chiefly concerned in the completion of the mosque were Nathu Patel, headman of the Musal-man butchers of Bombay and his brother Ibrahim Patel, who in 1789 obtained the permission of the Kazi to complete the mosque, and who together with their nephew, acted as managers of the mosque until 1834 when in accordance with a decree of the High Court, all the affairs of the Juma Mosque were handed over to the Konkani Musalman Jamat. In 1837 the building was repaired and enlarged by the addition of an upper storey at the expense of Mr. Muhammad Ali Rogay, and shops were added to serve as the demesne of the mosque.

In 1897, a scheme had been framed by the High Court, and under it the Mosque and its properties are managed by a Board of eleven Directors triennially elected by the Konkani Jamat. The executive functions of the management are carried on by a Nazir appointed by the said Board of Directors. The staff of the Juma Mosque consists of an Imam and an assis­tant Imam, a Bangi, Assistant Bangi and various other subordinates. The Imam leads the faithful to prayers and Bangi calls the devotees to prayers.

The Juma Mosque is a quadrangular structure of bricks and stones, encircled by a ring of terrace-roofed and double  storeyed building, the ground-floors of which are let out as shops. The chief or the eastern gate of the mosque leads directly across an open courtyard to the ancient tank, which is now furnished with masonry steps and embankments built in 1893 and contains about 3 m (ten feet) of stagnant water filled with gold and silver fish. From the depth of the tank rise sixteen black stone arches, constructed in 1874 which support the whole fabric of the mosque, the upper storey being upheld by five rows of wooden pillars each of which contains a receptacle for sacred books. The arches in the tank were built in 1874 at a cost of Rs. 75,000 while other noteworthy additions to the premises are the large windows in the north, east and south sides constructed in 1898 and the school building erected at a cost of Rs. 20,000 in 1902. Subsequently extensive repairs and alterations were made at an estimated cost of Rs. 65,000.

The annual income of Juma Mosque is about Rs. 60,000 derived from the surrounding chawls and the landed properties. Attached to the Mosque is a school called Madrasa Muhammadiah with a Boarding House,wherein religious and secular education is imparted to Muhammedan youths gratuitously. The income of the said Madrasa is about Rs. 10,000 a year. According to old Gazetteer of the Bombay City and Island the annual income of the Juma Mosque amounted to about Rs. 75,000 and the expenditure to Rs. 24,000.


(In 1860, Dr. Bhau Daji Lad numbered the caves. He was followed in 1860-61 by Mr. E. W. West. The following account of caves is based on the work of Mr. H. Cousens which has been furnished in the Thana District Gazetteer of 1882. The present numbers given by the Archaeological Survey of India do not tally with the original ones.)

The Kanheri Caves, in north latitude 19° 13' and east longitude 72° 59' lie in a wild picturesque valley in the heart of the former island of Salsette, about eight kilometres (five miles) west of Thane and 32 km. (twenty miles) north of Bombay, a few kilometres away from the National Park at Borivli.

The caves, which are more than 100 in number, are reached from the Bhandup station of the Central railway or the Borivli station of the Western Railway by a good black topped road emanating from the Western Express Highway and passing through the National Park at Borivli. From Bhandup, 24 km. (fifteen miles) north-east of Bombay, the Kanheri road runs north-west for about a mile, formerly across rice fields and grass uplands, till, at the foot of the Salsette hills, it joins the old Bombay-Thane road. It then climbs a pass in the hills, and winds about a mile across the rugged upland of Vihar, the gathering ground of the Vihar lake, which, starting on the left, stretches about 8 km. (five miles) to the south-west, its surface broken by wooded islets. Beyond the Vihar gathering ground, the path passes, for about a mile, through a thick belt of forest, over the slightly raised watershed that separates the Tulsi and the Vihar valleys. Near Tulsi the road swerves to the left, keeping to the south-west of Tulsi lake, a beautiful sheet of water surrounded by wild forest-clad hills. For the two remaining miles, from Tulsi to Kanheri, the road though formerly not fit for carts is now black-topped and motorable. The first mile lies along the Vihar-Borivli road, with rises and falls, down the wooded Tulsi or Tasu valley, surrounded by high forest-clad hills, through glades of withered grass, thick copsewood, and bright green clumps of bamboos. The last mile is along a footpath that strikes from the Borivli road north to Kanheri.

From Borivli station, on the Western Railway twenty-two miles north of Bombay, the way to Kanheri lies, for about half a mile south, along the Bombay road. Then, crossing the railway and passing south-east through about a mile, formerly through rice-lands, inters a great belt of brabpalms with patches of brushwood and grass land. After about a mile, the valley of the Tasu narrows, and the brab grove and grass give place to forest. Carts pass through this forest for about a mile and a half, when, not far from where the Bhandup track leaves the Borivli road, a footpath strikes north about a mile to Kanheri.

In the bed of the Tasu or Tulsi, near where the Kanheri footpath leaves the Borivli road, is a small rock-cut cave whose mouth is under water except in the hot weather. The first signs of caves are to the north-east, in the high cliff of Kaman, the main range that runs north-west from Tulsi. Further north the paths from Borivli and Bhandup join, and pass among thick trees losing sight of the Kaman range. Then suddenly on the right, from thickly wooded slopes, rises a rugged cliff, the end of the Kanheri spur, that runs about north-east and south-west, nearly at right angles to the Kaman range and several hundred feet below it. A bare black scarp that runs along the west face of the Kanheri spur is greatly worn by the storms of the south-west monsoon. There remains a black brow, as if roughly cut in a series of arches, overhanging a hollow gallery (West's 38-41) of light brown rock, the burying ground of the old Kanheri monks. Above the overhanging crest, the rounded slope of the hill-top swells, without bushes or grass to a flat plateau of black rock crowned by patches of brushwood, prickly pear, and stunted trees. The rest of the Kanheri spur, like its south-west face, is one long dome-topped block of black trap, a paradise for cave cutters.

Passing under the west cliff, up a deeply wooded ravine, a flight of steps leads, across a broad brushwood-^covered terrace, to the slightly over­hanging scarp in whose west face is cut the Great or Cathedral Cave (No. 3). The Great Cave stands near the mouth of a narrow ravine, which runs nearly east and west in a deeply worn channel. On both sides of this narrow ravine the face of the rock is carved into caves. Along the low north bank there is room for only one row of caves. But the lofty dome of the south bank is carved into three irregular tiers, joined by long roughly cut flights of shallow steps. Behind the lines of caves, on the north bank, approached by roughly cut flights of steps, are two knobs of rock, with the remains of relic shrines or burial mounds, and on the top of the south bank above the lines of caves, the sloping sides and along flat table of rock are carved into steps and cisterns, and were once crowned by burial-mounds and relic shrines or temples.

The view from the hill top is bounded to the north by the scarp of Kaman, which, rising from a thickly wooded slope, though hollowed and broken by the weather, bears traces of more than one cave front. To the south a high wooded bank hides the distant view. But east and west Kanheri hill commands the whole breadth of Salsette from Bombay harbour to the mouth of the Vasai creek. To the east, across forest-clad slopes, lies Tulsi lake, with its small bare islets and its circle of high-wooded hills. Beyond Tulsi is a belt of thick forest, then a gleam of Vihar lake, and, beyond Vihar, hatches of rice fields and salt wastes stretch dim and grey to Bombay harbour. To the west lies the beautiful Tulsi valley, a large deep-shaped hollow. Its gentle slopes are richly covered with forests, brightened by tufts of light green bamboo, with lines of black-rock and glades of withered grass. Beyond the hills, the deep-green belts of brab-palms and mango groves are broken by yellow-patches of rice and grass land. Then, through a flat of bare brown salt waste, wind the narrow sail-brightened waters of the Gorai creek, and beyond the creek, stretches the long level line of Gorai island. Along the north-west winds the Vasai creek, and over the ruins and palm groves of Vasai, the sea fades into the sky.

The site of the caves, lonely, picturesque, and not far from the once famous and rich trade centres of Sopara, Kalyan and Chemula or Chaul, combines the three leading characteristics of the sites of the chief groups of Western India rock temples. But Kanheri is the only rock-cut monastery in Western India that has the feeling of having been, and of being ready again to be, a pleasant and popular dwelling place. The rows of cells, water cisterns, dining halls, lecture halls and temples joined by worn flights of rock-cut steps, and the crowded burial gallery show what a huge brotherhood must once have lived at Kanheri. In many of better caves the front courtyard with its smooth rockfloor, broad benches and gracefully rising side walls, the shaded water cistern, the neat flight of steps leading to the cave door, the deep flat cave, the cool veranda, the well-lit hall with its windows of stone lattice, the slim graceful sculptures, and the broad easy benches hewn at many of the best view points, have a pleasing air of comfort, refinement, and love of nature; while the long stretches of clean black rock, the steps and the courtyards free from earth, weeds, or brushwood, look as if lately swept and made ready for a fresh settlement of religious recluses. It is, says Mr. Nairne, a town carved in the solid rock, which, if the monks and the worshippers returned, would in a day or two, be as complete as when first inhabited. " All things in their place remain as all were ordered ages since."(Nairne's Konkan,15. )

The centre of trade and population, on which the Kanheri monastry originally chiefly depended, was, probably, about three miles to the west at the mouth of the Tulsi valley, somewhere near the site of the deserted village of Magathan, which appears in one of the cave inscriptions as Mangalthan. Pilgrims, no doubt, came from the east, by Vihar and Tulsi, but the main approach was from the west, perhaps by way of Padan hill, up the Tasu valley, which was probably cleared and tilled and provided with an easy road.

Kanhagiri, the old name of the hill, perhaps the Prakrit corruption of the Sanskrit Krishnagiri or Krishna's hill, rose to fame and holiness from the rise of Buddhism. The Buddhist legends place the conversion of the Konkan to Buddhism as early as the lifetime of Gautama (B.C. 563-483). The story is that Purna, the chief of the Sopara merchants, was so affected by hearing Buddhist hymns sung by merchants from Shravasti, that he determined to become a follower of Gautama. Leaving Sopara he set out for Shravasti where Gautama was living, and on presenting himself as a disciple, was received with honour. He soon rose to a high place among Gautama's followers, and anxious to show his zeal for the faith, asked leave of his master to preach the law in the country of Shrunaparanta, apparently the Konkan. Gautama reminded him how fierce and cruel the people were. But Purna persisted, and, promising to overcome violence by patience, was allowed to make the attempt. His quiet fearlessness, disarmed the wild men of Aparanta. Many became converts, and monasteries were built and flourished. Shortly after, Puma's brother and some merchants from Shravasti, on the point of shipwreck off the Malabar coast, called on Purna to help them, and, he, appearing in their midst calmed the storm. On reaching Sopara they built a Buddhist temple with their cargo of sandalwood. About B.C. 246, when Ashok determined to spread Buddhism throughout India, Dharmarakshita was sent to Aparanta or the Konkan and made many converts.

None of the Kanheri caves shows certain signs of being as old as the time of Ashoka. But the simple style of Caves 5, 8, 9, 58 and 59 ranks them amongst the earliest class of caves which vary in date from 100 B.C. to A.D. 50. This early date is supported by an inscription (No 26) in Nasik Cave III, which shows that, in the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196), Kanheri though so small a hill, was famous enough to be  ranked   with  the   Sahya,   Vindhya   and   Malaya  mountains. An inscription in Kanheri Cave No. 5 shows that, as early as the reign of Vasishthiputra (A.D.140), cisterns were made for older caves. Of about fifty inscriptions that have been deciphered, ten, from the form of the letters, seem to date from before the Christian   era. The rule of the Satavahana kings (225 B.C.-A.D.233) especially the reign of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196), seems to have been a time of prosperity at Kanheri. To about this time belong twenty of the fifty inscriptions, recording grants by kings, ministers and traders, of caves, cisterns, lands and money. Among the caves that belong to this period are the entire third tier, including the great Cathedral Cave No. 3. It was probably in the fourth century that the sculptured stone tope in cave No. 38 was built; and it was followed in the fifth century by a tope near cave No. 3. Additions both of fresh caves and  of new ornaments in old caves seem to have continued through the fifth and sixth centuries, ten of the fifty inscriptions dating from that period.    These additions belong to the late or Mahayana school and are much more ornate than the older caves. To this period belong the Darbar Cave (No. 10) and others at the end of the first row, the two large statues of Gautama at the ends of the veranda of the Cathedral Cave (No. 3), and several chapels.   In the beginning of the fifth century (420) Fah Hian described from hearsay a monastery in the Deccan, in a hilly barren land, whose people were heretics, knowing neither the Buddhist nor the Brahman religion. Windows were pierced in many parts of the hill, and ac the four corners, flights of steps led up the hillside. The monastery was well supplied with water. A spring at the top flowed before the rooms encircling each tier,  and on reaching the lowest chamber passed through the gate. Hiuen Tsang (640) though he passed through the Deccan, seems not to have heard of Kanheri. This was the time of the spread of the Rathods of Malkhed, near Hyderabad, staunch followers of Shiva and connected with the Ellora and perhaps with the Elephanta caves, who during the eighth and ninth centuries, seem to have wrested the north Deccan and Konkan from the Chalukyas. Before the end of the eighth century, gifts were again made to Kanheri. Two of the Kanheri inscriptions dated 853 and 877, belong to the ninth century. These gifts are of little importance, none of them being more than grants of money. So far as the inscriptions have been read, no further additions were made. Up to the middle of the thirteenth century, Thane was under the rule of the Shilaharas,  who though Shaivas seem not to  have interfered with the practice of Buddhism. From the Shilaharas it passed to the Devagiri Yadavas (1250-1318), who were staunch Shaivas. But neither the Yadavas nor their Musalman successors were firmly established in the Konkan. Only a few outposts were held, and it is not certain whether Salsette was under Gujarat or under the Deccan. In either case Kanheri seems to have been undisturbed, and, as late as the middle of the fifteenth century  (1440),  Buddhist monks were building relic shrines. Nearly a century later (1534), when the Portuguese conquered Salsette, the Kanheri caves were still the home of a large colony of monks. The Portuguese speak of the ascetics as Yogis and they may have been Brahmanic ascetics. But several details recorded by the first Portuguese writers (1538-1603) make it probable that they were Buddhist monks, and that the great Buddhist monastery of Kanheri remained in life until its leaders were forcibly made Christians by the Portuguese.

The twelve hundred years of Buddhist ascendancy (450 B.C.—A.D. 750) may be roughly divided into four periods, each period marked by the development of a new theory or gospel, of the way to enlightenment and rest. The gospel of the first period was conduct, of the second meta­physics, of the third mysticism, and of the fourth magic. Conduct dates from Gautama (500 B.C.), metaphysics from about 200 B.C., mystery from about A.D. 100 and magic from about A.D. 500. Though the older systems were to some extent eclipsed by the younger, they seem to have continued side by side till the fall of Buddhism.

Gautama's maxims have been so changed and so overlaid by later teachers, that it is hard to say how much of Buddhism comes from the founder of the faith.

Of the fifty-four inscriptions which have been more or less completely deciphered, except the three Pahlavi inscriptions in cave 66, two in caves 10 and 78 in Sanskrit, and one in cave 70 in peculiar Prakrit, the language of all is Prakrit ordinarily used in cave writings. The letters, except in an ornamental looking inscription in cave 84, are the ordinary cave characters. As regards their age, they appear from the form of the letters to belong to the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162), twenty to the Gautamiputra II, period (A.D. 177-196), ten to the fifth and sixth centuries, one to the eighth, three to the ninth or tenth, one to the eleventh, and several coins to the fifteenth. Three of them in caves 10 and 78 bear dates and names of kings, and three in caves, 3, 36 and 81 give the names of kings but no dates. The dates of the rest have been calculated from the form of the letters.

Though almost all are mutilated, in most cases enough is left to show the name of the giver, the place where he lived, and the character of the gift. Of the fifty-four, twenty-eight give the names of donors, which especially in their endings differ from the names now in use; twenty-one of them give their professions mostly merchants, a few gold-smiths, some recluses, and one a minister. Except seven women, four of whom were nuns, all the donors were men.

The places mentioned in the neighbourhood of the caves are the cities of Kalyan, Sopara, and Thane (Sthanak), and the villages of Mangalsthan or Magaihan, Sakapadra probably Saki near Tulsi, and Saphad(?). Of more distant places there are Nasik, Pratishthan or Paithan, Dhanakat or Dharnikot, Gaud or Bengal, and Dattamitra in Sind. The gifts were caves, cisterns, pathways, images, and endowments in cash or in land. Only four of the inscriptions give the names of kings. One in cave 36 gives the name of Madhariputra and one in cave 3 gives the name of Yajnashri Satakarni or Gautamiputra II; two Andhrabhritya rulers of about the first and second centuries after Christ. Of the two, Madhariputra is believed to be the older and Yajnashri Satakarni to be one of his sucessors. Madhariputra's coins have been found near Kolhapur and Prof. Bhandarkar believes him to be the son and successor of Pulumavi Vashishthiputra, who is believed to have flourished about A.D. 130 and to be the Shri Pulumai whom Ptolemy (A.D. 150) places at Paithan near Ahmednagar. Yajnashri Satakarni or Gautamiputra II appears in the Nasik inscriptions, and his coins have been found at Kolhapur, at Dharni­kot near the mouth of the Krishna, the old capital of the Andhrabhrityas, and on 9th April 1882 in a stupa or burial mound in Sopara near Vasai.

The two other inscriptions, in which mention is made of the names of kings, are caves 10 and 78. These are among the latest at Kanheri, both belonging to the ninth century, to the Shilahara kings of the Konkan who were tributaries of the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed. They are interesting as giving the names of two kings in each of these dynasties, as well as two dales twenty-four years apart in the contemporary rule of one sovereign in each family. Kapardi II, the Shilahara king, the son of Pulashakti, whose capital was probably Chemula (Chaul) was reigning during the whole interval between 853 and 878, and apparently Amoghavarsh I, was the son of Govind III one of whose titles was Jagattung; but he must have ruled from 810 to 830, and Amoghavarsh II was the son of Indra II. Indra either bore the title of Jagadrudra or Jagattung, or was succeeded by a son of that name. But the dates seem to point to Indra II himself, who may have borne the title of Amoghavarsh, and he succeeded Jagattung about 850.

The caves were discovered by the Portuguese in 1534 and since then they have continued to be objects of much interest and wonder. Many foreign travellers visited the caves at different periods of time. They have left behind some interesting descriptions and their impressions about these rock cut monuments. The following were the more important of the foreign travellers who were attracted to the caves:—

(i) Dom Joao de Castro in 1539.
(ii) Garcia d' Orta in 1540.
(iii) De Couto in 1603.
(iv) Sir Thomas Herbert in 1625.
(v) Fryer in 1675.
(vi) Gemeli Careri in 1695.
(vii) Anquetil du Perron in 1760.

Several other foreigners also visited the caves but their descriptions are of little consequence. Dom Castro gives the following account of caves. The account given by other travellers is reproduced from the Thana District Gazetteer of 1882.

At the foot of the hill on one side are the bases of seven pillars so deep and broad that the columns must have been of great height. A little further is the first edifice high and admirable, full of pillars and wonderful works. The first storey where one enters goes into the rock with great rooms and halls, but to this I did not go as the ascent was difficult and steep. Close to it is a great gallery forty yards by eighteen without columns. At the end are two chapels worked in relief with a great round ball the object of adoration, and in the middle an inscription almost worn out through time. Beyond the porch of this gallery is a magnificent temple. Outside is a large yard with two high columns admirably worked in relief. The column to the right hand, has on the top a wheel like a Catherine's wheel, placed above four lions beautifully carved. The column on the left hand has some men supporting in their hands a great ball like the world and looking as if they were much borne down by the weight. On this side of the second column are many chapels and rooms. Passing from this yard and before getting to the door of the temple are two other pillars each about fourteen feet high, with an inscription on each in clear and beautiful characters. A little beyond is a corridor, where, on one side, is a ferocious, and great giant of thirty-six spans high and the limbs well proportioned. In the rest of the corridor are, in relief, many figures and faces of men, Beyond the corridor is the temple very high and beautifully vaulted, 120 feet long by fifty broad and fifty-four high. At the end of the temple is a great altar, with, on its top, the world or a masomy ball nineteen yards round. On each side is a row of thirty-seven columns, and between them and the walls is a cloister which goes round the body of the temple. Over the main entrance is a platform supported on two great colonnades, just like the place for cloisters in Portuguese churches. Outside of the temple a way of steps runs from the foot of the rock to the top, so steep that it seems to go to heaven, and all along the way from below upwards are many edifices, houses, porches, cisterns, chapels, and yards all cut out of stone. I shall speak of those only which I have seen. There are eighty-three houses, among which is one 120 feet long by sixty wide and others where you could keep 100 men; the rest are generally high and roomy. Besides houses there are fifteen chapels, all worked in relief, and thirty-two cisterns hollowed in the rock with plenty of good water, and fifty-six porches some in relief and in fifteen of them legible inscriptions. Most of the houses and rooms have entrances with seats of stone all round. The length of the staircase that runs from the foot of the rock to the top is 930 paces, and besides it, there are many other staircases with many buildings. It is a city cut in the rock that can hold 7,000 men. To the north is another higher hill at whose feet runs a small stream. Across the stream is another rock with many dwellings. But I had no time to visit them.

About the year 1540, Garcia d'Orta mentions two underground temples in Salsette, one of which was in a hill larger than the fortress of Diu and might be compared to a Portuguese village of four hundred houses. There were 300 houses with images carved in stone. Each house had a cistern, with conduits bringing rain water.

According to De Couto (1603), the Pagoda of Canari was cut out of the lower part of a great hill of light grey rock. There was a beautiful hall at its entrance and at either end of the yard which is outside the door of the hall, were two human figures engraved on the same stone so beautiful, elegant, and well executed, that even in silver they could not be better wrought. Near the front door were some cisterns hewn out of the rock which received the rain water, which was so cold in the summer, that no hand could bear it. From the foot to the top of the hill, like a winding staircase, were more than three thousand small rooms in the form of small cells, cut out of the rock, each of them with a water cistern at the door. What was more to be wondered at was an aqueduct constructed so ingeniously that it passed through all the three thousand apartments, received all the water from the hill, and supplied it to the cisterns that were at the doors of the rooms. When the Reverend Antonio de Porto (1534) lived in the Church of St. Michael (Cave No. 3), he was told by the Christians whom he had converted, that there was a labyrinth in the hill whose end had never been traced, and it was moreover stated that it extended as far as Cambay. The priest desirous of exploring this labyrinth took one of his companions, and gathered twenty persons with arms and matchlocks to defend themselves against wild beasts; and some servants to carry water, rice, biscuits, and vegetables for the journey, and oil for torches. They also took three persons laden with ropes to lay along their way. They entered the caves through an opening about four fathoms broad, where they placed a large stone to which they fastened one end of the rope. They travelled through the caves for seven days without any interruption, along places some of them wide and others narrow, which were hollowd in the rock, and on each side they saw small chambers like those in the sides of the hill each of which had at its entrance a cistern, but no one could say whether these contained water, or how they could receive any water, for in all these passages they could not discover any hole, crevice, or anything which could throw light on the subject. The upper part of the building was cut out of the rock, and the walls on each side of these roads were cut in the same way. The priest, seeing that they had spent seven days without finding any opening, and that their   provisions and water were almost   finished, thought it necessary to return, taking for his clue the rope, without knowing in these winding whether he was going up or down or what course they were taking as they had no compass for their guidance.

Couto also mentions that the Portuguese found the caves inhabited by ascetics or yogis. One of the ascetics, who was 150 years old, was made a Christian and named Paulo Raposo; and Coleta another yogi who had a more saintly reputation than Raposo, was named Francisco da Santa Maria. With regard to the origin of the caves, De Couto was told by one of the earliest converts that they were made by a king whose son became a great religious teacher. Astrologers told the king that his son would become a great ascetic. To prevent this and wean his mind to pleasure, the king kept his son in a splendid palace full of life and beauty. As he grew up the son wearied of his confinement and was allowed to drive in the city near his palace. During his first drive he saw a blind man, during his second drive an aged beggar, and during his third drive a corpse. Hearing that death was the end of all men he loathed his life of thoughtless pleasure, and flying from the palace, became an ascetic. De Couto's details of the life of this prince so fully and correctly agree with the legend­ary life of Gautama, that they strongly support the view that the yogis whom the Portuguese found at Kanheri were Buddhist monks. Couto also heard from some wealthy Cambay Vanis, that the king who made the Kanheri caves lived 1300 years before the coming of the Portuguese, that his name was Bimilamenta, that he was a wise good king, a native of Magor, Cedepur, and Patan, who had civilised the country reclaiming the people from wild wandering to a life of settled order.

In 1625 Sir Thomas Herbert mentions two temples of profane worship at Salsette. He gives little detail, only noticing that one of them had three

Fryer gives the following account of a trip to the caves, in 1675. The way, he writes, to the anciently famed, but now ruined city of Canorein, is so delightsome, I thought I had been in England. It is fine arable pasture and coppice, After passing five miles to the foot of the hill on which the city stands, and half a mile through thick wood peopled by apes, tigers wild buffaloes, and jackals, and some flocks of parakeets, we alighted where appeared the mouth of a tank or aqueduct, cut out of a rock whose steaming breath was very hot, but the water cold. From hence it is thought the whole city was supplied with water; for as we ascend we find places, where convenient, filled with limpid water, not overmatched in India. If it be so, that it should have its current upwards through the hard rocks artificially cut, the world cannot parallel so wonderful a water course. From hence the passage is uneasy and inaccessible for more than two abreast, till we come to the city, all cut out of a rock, where is presented Vulcan's forge supported by two mighty colosses, bellied in the middle with two globes. Next comes a temple with a beautiful frontispiece. Within the porch on each side stand two monstrous giants, where two lesser and one great gate give a noble entrance; it can receive no light but at the doors and windows of the porch, whereby it looks more solemnly. The roof is arched seeming to be borne by huge pillars of the same rock, some round some square, thirty-four in number. The cornice work is of elephants, horses, and lions; at the upper end it rounds like a bow; near where stands a great offertory somewhat oval, the body of it without pillars, they only making a narrow piatzo about, leaving the nave open. It may be a hundred feet long and sixty or more in height. Beyond this by the same mole-like industry, was worked out a court of judicature (West's No. 10), or place of audience, fifty feet square, all bestuck with imagery well engraven according to old sculpture. On the side over against the door, sat one superintendent, to whom the Brahman who went with us, paid great reverence, not speaking of him without a token of worship; whom he called jogi or the holy man. Under this, the way being made into handsome marble steps, are the king's stables not different from the fashion of our noblemen's stables. Only at the head of every stall seems to be a dormitory or place for devotion, with images, which gave occasion to doubt if ever for that end, or rather made for a heathen seminary of devotees; and these their cells or chapels, and the open place their common hall or school; more aloft stood the king's palace, large, stately and magnificent, surrounded with lesser of the nobility. To see all would requiie a month's time. But that might see as much as could be in our allotted time, we got upon the highest part of the mountain where we feasted our eyes with innumerable entrances of these cony burrows, but could not see one quarter part. Whose labourt his should be, or for what purpose, is out of memory; but this place by the gentiles is much adored. It is probably a heathen fane or idolatrous pagoda, from the superstitious opinion they still hold of its sacredness; wherefore the Portugals, who are now masteis of it, strive to eiaze the remainder of this Herculean work that it may sink into the oblivion of its founder.

About twenty years later (1695), the Italian traveller, Gemelli Careri, gives the following details. The first piece of workmanship that appears, consists of two large columns two spans high, the third part of them from the bottom upwards is square, the middle part octangular, and the top round. Their diameter is six spans; they are fifteen spans distant from one another, and each of them eight from the rock which is cut after the same manner. These columns support a stone architrave forty-four spans long; four in thickness and eight in breadth, cut like the rest out of the same rock. These three porticoes lead into a sort of hall or passage room four spans long cat in the same rock. At the end of it are three doors, one fifteen spans high and eight in breadth, which is the middlemost, and two others four spans square on the sides, which are the way into a lower place. Over these doors is a cornice four spans broad, of the same stone; over which thirty spans above the ground, there are other such doors or windows cut in the rock. At the same height there are little grots or dens six spans high of which the middle most is the biggest.Thirty-four spans above the ground, in the same place, is such another grot. It is no easy matter to conceive what the use of all this was. Ten paces towards the right, is a sort of grot, open on two sides twenty-four spans in length and fifteen in breadth, over which was a round cupola fifteen spans high and ten wide, with a square cornice like that about the grot. Here there is an idol cut in the rock in half relief, which seems to hold something, in its hand, but what it is does not appear. The cap it has on is like the cap of the Doge of Venice. By it stand two statues in a submis­sive posture, as if they were servants. They have conical or sugar-loaf caps. Over their heads are two little statues, holding their hands on a staff and two children by their sides with their hands put together as if in prayer; on their backs is something like a piece of wood. Close by is another round cupola all of one stone, and shaped like the other; the top of it is broken. Both this and the other are supposed to have been sepulchres of the ancient gentiles; but there is no ground to make this out, no opening appearing to put in the bodies or ashes; on the contrary, it is clear they are not hollow within, only cut without in the shape of the cupolas. About this second there are four great figures carved in half relief, holding in the left hand, something like a garment, and the same sort of caps on their heads with small figures at their feet, and two above. Opposite to them, there are three little ones sitting, and six other large ones, and three of a mid ding size standing all cut in the rock after the same manner. That in the middle, which seems to be the idol, in its left holds a tree with fruit on it. On the other side are sixteen figures, all sitting with both hands on their breast, and the same caps; one of them seems to be superior to the rest, because there are two figures standing by its side and two children above. At a small distance northward is a little grot eight spans square, and in it, as it were a bed of the same stone, four spans broad and eight long. On the other frontispiece is a statue sitting on its legs, after the manner of the east, with the hands together on the breast; and another standing with the branch of a fruit tree, and above a winged infant. Beyond the grot, and on the same front, which runs sixty spans within the rock, there are two statues sitting after the same manner, their hands placed the same way, with conical caps on their heads and two like servants standing by them. On the same side is the famous pagoda of Canarin. The entrance to it is through an opening forty spans long, in a wall of the same stone, fifty spans long, and eight spans thick, on which there are three statues. On the right hand, before you go into the pagoda, is a round grot, more than fifty spans in circum­ference, in which, round the wall, there are many statues sitting, and some standing and one on the left is bigger than the rest. In the middle rises a round cupola cut out of the rock, like a pillar of the same stone, with several characters carved about it, which no man can explain. Going into the first porch of the pagoda, which is fifty spans square, there are on the sides two columns sixty spans high, with their capitals and six spans diameter. On the column, on the right as one comes in, there are two lions, with a shield by them; on the other upon the left two statues. Beyond these columns at the entrance of a grot, on the left, there are two great statues standing, and looking at one another. Still further in are two vast big statues on the left, and on the right of the door, all standing, with several little statues by them, only within the space of that porch; for going into the adjoining grot, which is twenty-four spans square, there is nothing worth observing. On the right hand, where the lions are, there are no statues, but two large vessels upon convenient pedestals. Hence there are three equal doors thirty spans high and eight broad, but that in the middle even with the floor, those on the sides five spans above is, into another plain place. Here there are four columns twelve spans high, standing on the rock itself, between the five windows that give light to the pagoda. On the right side of the door there are some unknown letters worn with age, as is all the rest of the work. In this place, on the sides, besides several small figures, there are two vast statues of giants standing, above twenty-five spans high; showing that right hands open, and holding a garment in the left, on their heads the same caps, and in their ears pendants after the Indian fashion.

At the entrance of the great gate of the pagoda, which is fifteen spans high and ten in breadth, there are on the right four statues standing, one of which is a woman holding a flower in her hand; and twelve others, some sitting and some standing, with their hands on their breasts, and something in them. On the left are four other statues, two of women, with large rings about their ankles of the same stone, and sixteen little statues on their sides, some sitting, some standing, and some with their hands on their breasts as was said before. Over the said door there are other two great ones and as many opposite to them, with three little ones standing.

On the left hand within, is another inscription in the same character; over the arch of this door is a window forty spans wide, which is the width of the pagoda, with a stone like an architrave in the middle, supported on the inside by two octangular pillars. The pagoda is arched, forty spans in breadth, and one hundred in length, and rounded at the end; besides the four columns at the entrance, there are thirty more within, which divide it into three aisles; seventeen of them have capitals and figures of elephants on them; the rest are octangular and plain; the space between the columns and the rock, that is the breadth of the side aisles is six spans. At the end of the pagoda there is a sort of round cupola, thirty spans high and sixteen paces about cut in the same rock but not hollow within. All that has been hitherto described is cut in the rock, without any addition to the statues or anything that may be parted. But on the floor of the pagoda there are several hewed stones which perhaps served for steps to some structure.

Coming out of the pagoda and ascending fifteen steps, all cut in the rock, are two cisterns of rain water, good to drink; and as many steps above that a grot sixteen spans square, and a great one further on with much water standing in it. Mounting twenty paces higher, is another grot twenty spans square, which led to another of the same dimensions, and that into one of twelve. In the first was a rising window with steps to it cut in the rock, with two columns near a small cistern.

At a small distance from these grots is another pagoda, with a hand­some plain place before it, and little walls about to sit down, and a cistern in the middle. Five doors cut in the rock lead into the first arch; and between them are four octangular pillars; all but the middle door are two spans above the ground. On the sides of this arch, whose length is the breadth of the pagoda, that is eight spans, there are on the left several statues sitting like those above mentioned, and others on the right stand­ing. All about the frontispiece, there are many sitting and standing, no way different from the rest already described. Then there are three doors to the pagoda, that in the middle twelve spans high and six in breadth, the two on the sides ten spans high and four broad. The pagoda is sixty spans square, no way proportionable, being but twelve spans high. On both the sides, and over the entrance there are above four hundred carved figures great and small, some sitting, some standing, like those before spoken, of two on the right bigger than the rest, are standing, as is that in the middle of the frontispiece, which is of the biggest idol, and another on the left in the same posture; but all worn with age, which destroys everything. On both sides there are two grots fourteen spans square with a low wall within two spans above the ground.

Going up ten steps further northward is a grot and within that another less. On the right is another like it, with another little one within it, in which is a low wall like those before mentioned. The great one is about twenty spans in length and ten in breadth; the other ten square, and all of them have small cisterns, on the right side, is another of the same bigness, with two small pillars before it, two little grots and three cisterns, one on the right and two on the left; and another adjoining to it, with another within it and a cistern of the same size as the other. It is likely these were the dwellings of the priests of the pagoda, who there led a penitential life, as it were in a pagan Thebaid.

Descending from that great height by fifteen steps cut in the rock, there is a little pagoda, with a porch before it thirty feet square through three doors, between which there are two square pilasters. On the left hand there are four statues, two sitting and two less in the middle standing. On the right hand a little open grot and another pagoda, with a cistern before it, the way into which is first through a door ten spans in height and six in breadth into a room twenty spans square, which has on the right another very dark room twelve spans square, which makes the pagoda somewhat dark. In the midst whereof is a round cupola of one solid piece, fifteen spans high, which is the height of the pagoda, descend­ing fifty upright steps there is a plain space cut in the rock, which is not very hard, and eight octangular columns twelve spans high, which leave nine intervals to ascend five steps that led into an arch. In this place on the left side, which is ten spans, is a great idol sitting bareheaded; two other great statues standing, and some small ones; on the right side two other statues, sitting and two standing, besides many little ones about them. Then the way into the pagoda is through three doors, twelve spans in height and six in breadth, with two windows, over them. The pagoda is a hundred spans in length, fifty in breadth, and ten in height. About it runs an arch eight spans broad, with ten square columns. Here are four rooms or grots twelve feet square, besides seven in the front and left side of the pagoda, where the cistern is, all which seem to be rooms for the priests of the temple. In the niche of it, which is ten feet square is a great idol sitting, with two statues standing, another sitting on the left, by which also there are two statues standing, and several small figures in half relief about it. Ascending ten spans over against it is a little grot supported by two small columns, ten spans high. There is a door ten spans high, and four in breadth out of it, into a room or grot, sixteen spans square, and thence into another of twelve, where there is a large idol sitting, holding his hands on his breast.

Then descending twenty steps there is a plain space, whence four steps on the left lead up into an arch where there are four pilasters twelve spans high, the distances between which are the way into three little rooms cut in the rock. Twenty steps lower there are another grots cut in the rock, with small cisterns, but for what use cannot be imagined, unless we suppose all these cavities were dwellings of the idolators.

In 1720 Hamilton calls Canra the only city on Salsette island and hewn out of the side of a rock. It was nearly a mile in length and had antique figures and columns curiously carved in the rock and several good springs of water. He wrote, it was inhabited only by wild beasts and birds of prey.

Mr. Boon, who was Governor of Bombay between 1716 and 1720, had drawings made of the temple columns and of the colossal statues. He gives a good description of the great temple cave and notices several channels cut from all parts of the hill to supply the cisterns, many of which were continually full of very good water. " This stupendous work ", he writes " must have been the labour of forty thousand men for forty years." Time and the zeal of the Portuguese imagining those places to be the habitations of spirits and demons, they used constantly to discharge their great guns at them, which has left so many of them in a very maimed and broken condition.

Anquetil du Perron, who travelled through Salsette in the beginning of December 1760, has left a detailed account of the Kanheri caves. He came by the road from Vehar, and leaving his palanquin and several of his people at cave 8 of the lowest tier, perhaps West's 93, he crossed the ravine to the caves on the smaller hill. Beginning in the west he walked eastward up the valley till he reached the line of the old dam. On his way he passed nine caves which seem to correspond to West's 79 to 87. The cave most to the west, West's 79 or 80, was at great cavern about thirty-six feet long by twenty-four broad with many low openings. The next (81) had in front a porch with two pillars. At the end was a room with a shrine in which was a seated man. The cave was called the shop and the figure the Banian. The third (82) was a porch four feet deep with two windows four feet broad and inside a room fourteen feet broad by eight deep and six high. At the back of the room in a shrine were three seated men. The man on the left was between two standing servants with whips, probably fly-flaps, in their hands. Under the two other men were seated figures like servants and under the middle one, two little figures holding the pillar that supported the throne on which the figure was seated. To the right and left of the three first figures were other figures holding a string in their raised left hands, on the left at the cave mouth was an opening in the rock below. The fourth cave (83) was a ruined room 20' X 10'. The fifth (84) was a veranda 20' x 20' x 8' and inside a room 20' X 20' with a stone bench along the east and north walls. To the left a room eight feet square with a stone bench on the west side. Above a little cistern which had once held water was a writing in fair order on a stone 3½ feet square. The sixth (85) was a ruined cave sixteen feet square. The seventh (86) was a cave 60'x24'. At the end were six rooms, each eight feet square except the third, which was twelve feet broad and twelve long and had an inner chamber eight feet squaie. Outside of the cave to the left was a cistern. The eighth (87) had a veranda twenty feet broad and six deep with two broken eight-cornered pillars, and within the veranda a room twenty feet broad and sixteen deep furnished with a stone bench. At the end was a niche with the figure of a seated man. Out­side above the cistern mouth was an eight line inscription on a stone two feet high and two and a half broad, of which only eight inches remained. The three first lines and the fifth were nearly complete; the rest were almost worn out. The ninth (88) cave was about the same size as the eighth. Inside of a veranda was a room and on its right a second room. At the back of this last was a third room eight feet square. There was a little cistern outside of the entrance.

After finishing this row of caves in the smaller hill, Du Perron crossed the ravine at the old dam and turned to the right walking down the ravine apparently to cave 11, then turning sharp to the left he took a row of ten caves which he calls the first tier going from south-west to north-east. This row he divides into two groups a western group low down, corres­ponding to caves 11 to 15, and an eastern group higher up, probably including West's 16 to 21. Of these groups he gives the following details. The first cave (West's 11) had a porch 24' x 8' with a little cistern on the right, on the left a niche with two seated women and a child standing between them, inside of the porch a room twenty feet square and six high; at the back a shrine with a strangely shaped lingam (this is a relic shrine or dagoba) in the middle, and to the right of the shrine a second room eight feet square. The second cave (perhaps West's 12) had a porch twenty feet broad, six deep and eight high, with two eight cornered pillars. At the back was a room twenty feet square and on its right a second room twelve feet square. Facing a little cistern was a writing on a stone five feet broad, above another cistern of the same breadth as the stone. The writing had lines, then a line and a half division, and then five lines more. The third cave (West's 13) was twenty four feet broad and twenty deep. At the entrance were two rooms, the outer twelve feet square and the inner four feet square. Three other rooms were in ruins. Outside on the little cistern was an almost worn-out wiiting of five or six lines cut on a stone, three feet broad and one and a half high. The fourth cave (West's 14) had a porch 32' x 12' and on the left a dry cistern. The porch led into a hall 24'x20' with at each corner a room eight feet square. At the back was a recess with two pillars, the wall opposite the entrance being covered with figures. At the two ends of this recess on either side were standing men. Within this room was an empty chamber eight feet square.

Climbing a little up the hill side the second or eastern groups of the first tier had six caves, corresponding to West's 15 to 21. Of these the first (15) was sixteen feet large and eight deep forming two openings; the second (16) was six feet square and six feet high with a lingam or relic shrine in the middle; the third was 24' x20' with a stone bench along the east and west sides and three small rooms on the left the fourth was a room 10 feet square; the fifth (19) was a damaged cave 16'x4' with a stone bench; and the sixth, probably 21, was a porch supported by four pillars forming two arches. On the left, at the back of the porch was a cistern full of water, on the right a seated man with two small men standing beside him, holding in their left hands a tree whose fruit was like an apple.In front at the end of the porch was a seated man and opposite him another man standing, holding a bush with a flower (a lotus), like a sunflower, growing as high as his ear. Within the porch was a room 24'x20', and on either side another room eight feet square. At the end was a shrine and in front of the shrine a seated man with standing attendants. On the side walls were nine seated figures one ot which had two attendants.

Du Perron next climbed the hill to the east end of what he calls the second tier of caves. Beginning from the east he travelled west passing sixteen caves, an eastern or lower group of nine and a western or higher group of seven. This second tier of caves seems to correspond to the irregular row in West's map that runs in a broken line from 69 on the east to 8 in the west, and includes 69, 70, 71, 72, 42, 43, 99, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 10, 9 and 8. According to Du Perron the opening, most to the east (West's 69), is a porch 16' x 6' with two pillars, and inside of the porch a room sixteen feet square. The next cave (West's 70) was a porch without pillars and inside of it a room twenty feet square. To the left of that room were two small rooms of eight feet and to the right a lecess. This cave had many figures of men both standing and seated, among others a bas-relief of a seated man and two attendants. Under this man, were two men holding the pillar that supported his seat. At the entrance was a large inscription on a stone five feet broad and three high. At the top about a quarter of the stone was broken. The inscription contained eleven lines of which seven were in large and four in small characters. No. 3 (West's 71) were plain cut reservoirs, a small cistern, and a ruined room, the whole sixteen feet square. Cave 4 (West's 72), a porch 16' x 12' with two pillars one of them broken, with two rooms at the ends, one on the right the other on the left. Inside was a great hall sixteen feet square, into which a room opened on the left. At the back was a shrine with a seated figure, and on the wall to the right two seated figures, one over the other. Cave 5 (West's 42) was a porch twenty-four feet long with three broken pillars with fluted shafts. On the capital were four tigers with a child seated behind them. At the two ends of the hall were seated men each with two attendants or servants, one of whom held a whip and the other a fair sized branch. Within were two large rooms sixteen feet square with a small room at the left of each. In the middle of the second room was a niche, and, outside of the niche, a well-carved statue, of a man or women with a cap pointed in the form of a mitre, seated cross legged like a tailor, and the breast adorned with jewels. Cave 6 (West's 43) was in the same style as cave 5; only four feet smaller. At the back was a niche with a small figure. Cave 7 (West's 44?) was twenty feet long with side rooms each with two pillars. Within was a room sixteen feet square in which were three recesses with two pillars eight feet large. In this cave there were altogether eleven rooms. Two ruined caves 8 and 9 (Perhaps West's 99 and 73) were twenty feet square with two rooms each and a cistern. These completed the eastern group of the second tier. The western gioup of the second tier, a little further up the hill than the eastern, included six caves apparently corresponding to West's 75, 76, 77, 10, 9 and 8. Cave 10 (West's 75) was a damaged cave about the same size as cave 9. Cave 11 (West's 76) was like cave 10 with two rooms and two entrance pillars, and an inscription showing the remains of six lines on a stone two feet high by three broad. Cave 12 (West's 77) was lour feet larger than cave 11, with two pillars and a well preserved inscription of nine lines, on a stone 3½ feet broad and two high. Cave 13 (perhaps part of West's 77) was about the size of 12, and lay above 8 (perhaps West's 93), with a room more to the right and an inscription of four lines much worn, on a stone one foot high and five broad facing the water cistern beyond the room to the right. Cave 14 (West's 10), the school or Darbar cave, had a porch 26' x 6' with pillars. In the porch, on the right of the entrance, was a stan­ding figure holding an apple and a branch as high as his ear, and on his side two standing women. In the porch were fifty-seven seated figures seven of them large. Beyond the porch was a room about twenty-nine feet square round which ran a stone bench. The wall was covered with figures to the floor. The people called the cave the school because of the number of figures, but Du Perron thought it more like a Prince's court. On either side of each Prince were two ministers, one with a raised whip, the other holding in his left hand a bush, like that in the porch. There were 100 figures on each of the three walls. Du Perron thought they were twenty Indian Princes with their retinues. The cave also contained four rooms two on either side without figures. The next two caves 15 and 16 (West's 9 and 8?) were small openings one with two, the other with three rooms.

Next comes Du Perron's third tier of six caves taken from the west-eastward. They seem to correspond, but this is doubtful, to West's 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35. These were small openings of little interest except that caves 2 and 3 had inscriptions, the one in 2 much worn, the one in 3 with seven lines on a broken stone. Du Perron next passed from the end of his third tier to fourth tier with sixteen caves. These he divided into an eastern group of seven and a western group of nine. The eastern group seems roughly to correspond to West's 47 to 68, and the western group to West's 48 to 55. But the arrangement is confused and the identification doubtful. Du Perron begins about the middle, perhaps near West's 56, and mentions seven going east. Cave 1, perhaps West's 56, had three rooms with six pillars. It had a writing of eleven lines on a broken stone 2 1/2 feet broad and three high above the outside cistern; Cave 2 (West's 57?) was a ruined cave twelve feet square with two pillars; Cave 3 (West's 58?) was a little lower down eight feet square; Cave 4 (West's 59) was like 3 with two inscriptions one of three lines on a stone 2 1/2 feet broad above a water cistern, the other with longer lines over the entrance; Cave 5 (West's 60) was a little higher and well preserved; Cave 6 (West's 62?) was an opening of the same size with two small rooms and an inscription of two lines in the front wall; Cave 7 (West's 63?) was a porch 16' x 4' with two pillars, a large room inside, another room on the left, and at the back a pillared shrine in ruins.

Du Perron then retraced his steps along these seven caves till he passed his first cave (West's 56). Between this and the west end of the tier he mentions eight caves; Cave 8 (Perhaps West's 50) was about the size of Cave 7 and was reached by three steps. Below, at the entrance on the right, were two rooms. At the back was a great square room and to the left of it a little room; Cave 9 (West's 51) was like 8 and had damaged figures in the porch; Cave 10 ^West's 52) was twelve feet square and in ruins; Cave 11 (West's 53) had a porch 14' x 6' with two pillars; and an inner room with the same figures as the school cave (14 of the second tier; West's 10). To the right were two other rooms with doors opening into the outei room. In the middle of the back room were two attendants but no figure. There were two inscriptions, apparently modern, each of twelve upright lines lightly graven in Mongolian characters. Cave 12 (West's 54) had a porch with two pillars, on the right broken figures, on the left no figures, within a hall twelve feet square. In the shrine was a seated figure with two attendants. In the wall, between the hall and the shrine, was an opening about ten inches in diameter, through which women accused of bad conduct were made to pass and stuck half way if they were guilty. Cave 13 (West's 55) was a similar cave without figures. It had a small cistern and a much worn inscription of nine lines above the cistern on a stone 2 1/2 feet high and three broad. Cave 14 was twelve feet square and had one pillar.

On the top of the hill were two rock-cut cisterns, 8' X 6' X 3'. Below was an open space with seats where the priests came for fresh air. These Du Perron numbers 17 and 18. From the top of the hill Du Perron climbed down to the lowest tier joining it at West's 1. He follows this tier along eight caves, which like West, he numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The first seven correspond to West's one to seven. Du Perron's 8 is perhaps West's 93. Cave 1, known as the Prison, was forty feet high and twenty-four, broad, with an upper story of windows without any rooms and with no stair leading to them. Below were two wells and at the back three dark rooms. At the entrance were two pillars ten feet high. Cave 2, measuring 48' x 28' x 40', had two rooms at the back with a stone bench running round. At the entrance were two strangely shaped lingams (relic shrines). Cave 3 was a great cave reached by three steps. The central hall, which was vaulted, was 76' X 28' x 32'. The Jesuits had made a church of it and it was still called the Church. There were fourteen pillars in the length, separated from the wall by an aisle. At the end was a headless lingam (a relic shrine). On the first two pillars were tigers, and on the others four elephants. On each side were six pillars in this style. The portico was about fourteen feet deep. At each end was the figure of a man sixteen feet high, and above each figure was a belt adorned with flowers and winged figures and with fluted pillars. In front were eight chief figures four of men and four of women, on either side. The entrance to this cave was open with two pillars twenty-four feet high. On the right pillar was a grindstone. On the left was a room whose walls were covered with figures of sitting men and women. This first part of the cave had a passage into the portico by windows. There were two inscriptions on the pillars, the first of twenty-three, the second of eleven lines; the inscription stone was four feet and three feet broad. Cave 4 was a small room, in a hollow within was the lingam (relic shrine) and on the left, attendants. Gave 5, higher up, was an opening four feet square with two figures, holding fire. In front was a great cistern with two openings. On a broken stone, above the two mouths of the cistern, was an inscription of two long lines. Cave 6, lower down, measured 20' x 10' and had two rooms; above a cistern on the left was inscription of seven lines. Cave 7 was an opening with five windows and three rooms measuring altogether 20' x 14'. Above the four mouths of the cistern were traces of an inscription of two lines. Cave 8 (perhaps West's 93), a great cave called the stable, measured 60' x 24'. At the back were six rooms, the fourth of which was a shrine with a seated figure and attendants and other figures on the sides. In the central hall on the left were the doors of four rooms, and on the right, a recess with four pillars. The centre of the cave had five pillars on each face. The entrance was a gallery upheld by eight pillars joined by walls. On the left of the gallery was a little room where were three sealed men surrounded by attendants. Above the cistern was a great inscription of dghteen lines, aid in front a second inscription of six lines in modern Sanskrit.

This ends Du Perron's account of the caves. About three weeks after Du Perron (28th December 1760), a party of Englishmen from Bombay visited Kanheri. They specially noticed one cave, apparently No. 3, which was 8 3/4 feet long by 21 wide and 50 high, ornamented, with thirty-two pillars each twenty-seven feet high and 8| feet round the base. At the upper end of the cave was a large pillar fifty feet round at the base. It was still worshipped by the people. The cave was entered by a portico 36' x 15' with at each end a figure twenty feet high. Round the portico were small idols. After passing several caves cut into small square rooms, they entered a veranda 75' x 12' supported by nine pillars. Then was a hall 63' x 25½" x 9'. Within this were ten small rooms for living in, neatly cut and measuring 11' x 6'. In the veranda were several English names, among others W. Aislabie, E. Baker (1708), John Hanmer (1697), and J. Courtney. They noticed the great number of cisterns of excellent water. The writer repeated the story that the caves were the work of Gentoo King who wished to secure his son against the attempts to gain him over to another religion. The Marathas, he states, made a yearly pilgrimage and held them in great honour.

In 1781, Dr. Hunger published a short account of the Kanheri, Elephanta and Jogeshwari caves. In his account of Kanheri, he notices only the great temple and the two statues of Buddha. Dr. Hove, the Polish traveller, who visited the caves in 1787, notices only the Great cave No. 3. The relic shrine was still worshipped. 'At the head of the caves' he writes, ' Stands a round pillar resembling the crown or a hat, to which the Hindus to this day pay their adoration.' He noticed two cisterns close to the entrance which were fed by a spring of water that issued ' Very sponta­neously ' out of a chasm from the upper adjacent rock of the cave. In 1804, Lord Valentia wrote: ' The Kanheri caves are formed out of a high knoll in the middle of the range of hills which divides Salsette into two equal parts. The great cavern, like the Karli cave, is oblong and has a carved roof, but is inferior to it in size, in elegance of design, and in beauty of execution. It has the same singular building at the upper end and the vestibule is equally adorned with figures. Its peculiar ornaments are two gigantic statues of Buddha nearly twenty feet high, each filling one side of the vestibule. They are exactly alike and are in perfect preservation, in consequence of their having been christened and painted red by the Portuguese, who left them as an appendage to a Christian church, for such this temple of Buddha became under their transforming hands. The image of the presiding deity, in all the usual attitudes, embellishes several other parts of the vestibule; and one in particular is ornamented with conical cap worn by the Chinese Fo. The entrance, on which there are several inscriptions in the unknown character, faces the west. In a large cave close to the chief temple are many figures, especially one of Vishnu fanning Buddha with a fly-whisk. The innumerable caves which have been formed in every part of the hill are square and flat-roofed. They cannot but be intended for the habitations of the attendant Brahmans.

In 1825 Bishop Heber considered the caves in every way remarkable from their number, their beautiful situation, their elaborate carving, and their marked connection with Buddha and his religion. The caves, he writes, are scattered over two sides of a high rocky hill, at many different elevations, and of various sizes and forms. Most of them appear to have been places of habitation for monks or hermits. One very beautiful apart­ment of a square form, its walls covered with sculpture and surrounded internally by a broad stone bench, is called the Darbar, but I should rather guess had been a school. Many have deep and well-carved cisterns attached to them, which, even in this dry season, were well supplied with water. The largest and most remarkable of all is a Buddhist temple, of great beauty and majesty. It is entered through a fine and lofty portico, having on its front, but a little to the left hand, a high detached octagonal pillar, surmounted by three lions seated back to back. On the east side of the portico is a colossal statue of Buddha, with his hands raised in the attitude of benediction, and the screen which separates the vestibule from the temple is covered, immediately above the dodo, with a row of male and female figures, nearly naked, but not indecent, and carved with considerable spirit, which apparently represent dancers. In the centre is a large door and above it three windows coitf ained in a semicircular arch. Within, the apartment is fifty feet long by twenty, an oblong square terminated by a semicircle, and surrounded on every side but that of the entrance with a colonnade of octagonal pillars. Of these the twelve on each side nearest the entrance are ornamented with carved bases and capitals, in the style usual in Indian temples. The rest are unfinished. In the centre of the semicircle, and with a free walk all round it, is a mass of rock left solid, but carved externally like a dome. On the top of the dome is a sort of spreading ornamented like the capital of a column. The ceiling of this cave is arched semicircularly and ornamented in a very singular manner with slender ribs of teakwood of the same curve with the roof and disposed as if they were supporting it. The caves were next described by Mr. Vaupell in 1837, and six years later Mr. Fergusson gave a short account of them in his paper on the Cave Temples and Monasteries of Western India.

In 1850 Dr. Stevenson translated some of the Kanheri inscriptions and brought to light some historical names and facts. In 1860 Dr. Bhau Daji numbered the caves. He was followed in 1860-61 by Mr. E. W. West, who published a plan of the caves and copies of the inscriptions with short notes on their position and condition. Mr. West also in the same year gave an account of some of the topes in galleries 38 to 41 and of some stone pots and seals found in digging cave 13.

The following account of the caves, originally contributed by Mr. H. Cousens, Head Assistant to the Archaeological Surveyor, and the substance of the inscriptions by Pandit Bhagwanlal Indrajit from facsimiles taken in 1881 have both been slightly revised. Most of the caves are cut in two knolls of bare rock separated by a narrow stream bed. Of the 102 caves all are eatily entered, except five small openings. Of the rest about twenty-seven are good, fifty-six are small, and fifteen are partly or entirely ruined. Except temples or chaityas, and the peculiarly planned cave 10, which was probably a place of assembly, nearly all the caves bear marks of having been used as dwellings, and many of them have stone sleeping benches ruinning round the walls: The doorways were fitted with frames and doors, which were fastened by horizontal bars held in holes in the stone jambs. The windows were either latticed or provided  with  wooden  frames  and shutters. The whole monastery tery was well supplied with water. On the hill top are several rock-ponds, and almost every cave has its cistern filled from channels cut above the caves or the cave. To the east of the caves a massive wall, now ruined, ran across the stream that separates the two cave-cut knolls and formed a small lake whose bed is now silted and full of reeds.

For a hurried visit of one day, perhaps the best order for seeing the hill is, after visiting 1,2 and 3, to pass to the left across the ravine, and, keeping up the sloping face of the knoll, see the sites of relic shrines or burial mounds and the remains of an old temple behind. Then come back to the ravine and pass along its north bank examining the line of caves. Next struggle up the stream bed, pass through the breach in the dam and crossing to the south bank of the stream come down along the lowest tier of caves from 21 to 10. At 10 turn back and up to 77 and pass as far as possible in front of the second tier of caves to the quarry on the hill top. See the view, the cisterns, quarries, remains of the retaining wall, and the ruins of relic mound. Then pass down seeing as many as possible of the third tier of caves 68 to 90. Pass from 90 to 36 and 37 and then along a flight of steps to the burial gallery 38 to 40 returning by the same way.

CAVES NO. 1-2 : Climbing the footpath from the valley, the group of three temples 1, 2 and 3 attracts attention. They face west and have in front of them a large level space which had once some remains of the stupa or relic mound of which an account is given later on. Passing a little to the south of 3, the most striking of the group, a cave 1 should first be examined. It is the beginning of a large temple or chaitya, the only finished portions being two large pillars supporting the front screen, whose general clumsiness seems to show that this is one of the latest caves on the hill; 2 is a long low excavation, irregular in plan, being originally more than one excavation the partition walls of which have broken down. At the south end are three rock-cut relic shrines or dagobas. Of these nothing remains of the middle dagoba except its base. On the wall behind the first relic shrine, is the curious sculptured panel which occurs again in caves 21 and 66, at the Aurangabad caves, at Ellora, and at Ajanta. This is known as the Buddhist litany, a prayer to the good lord Padma­pani to deliver his worshipper from the different forms of battle, murder, and sudden death. In the centre a lifesize image of the Bodhisattva Padmapani or Avalokiteshvar, stands at attention holding in his left hand a lotus stalk and flowers on his right and left are four shelves each suppor­ting a couple ol little figures which are much defaced. In front of each of these little groups, and between it and Padmapani, is a human figure with wings. In the upper group to the left, that is, on Padmapani's right, a kneeling figure appears to be praying for deliverance from a lion which is in the act of springing upon him. In the next group below, a kneeling woman with a child in her arms tries to avoid an old hag, disease or death. In the third compartment a kneeling man prays a winged figure to save him from one who holds a drawn sword over his head. In the lowest compartment the figure prays to be saved from a cobra which is crawling towards it from an ant-hill. At the top on the other side the kneeling figure is about to be attacked by an enraged elephant; in the west compartment a man in the background has his hand raised in the act of striking the kneeling figure. In the next, perhaps the petition against false doctrines, heresies, and schisms an orthodox Naga is attacked by a flying Garud, the type of Vaishnavism. In the last, two figures pray from deliverance from shipwreck. The winged figure to whom each suppliant turns for help is probably a saint, an intercessor between him and the deified Padmapani. On either side of Padmapani's head are cherubins with garlands and at his feet kneels a devotee. Other figures of Padmapan and Buddha which adorn the wall on either side of this panel seem to have been added by different worshippers. There are three inscriptions in this cave. In one corner of the recess behind the large relic shrine, partly on the left and partly beneath a standing figure of Buddha saluted by nine men near his feet, is an inscription of six short and one long lines. The length of the lines is six inches and twelve inches. The inscription gives nine names, probably of the nine persons represented owing to Buddha. The names are Nannovaidya, Bhano (Sk. Bhanu), Bhaskar, Chelladev, Bopai (Sk. Bopyaki), Bhattabesu, Survai (Sk. Suvrati) and Pohi (?). The characters seem to be of the fifth century. In the back wall, above a long bench set against the wall, is a deeply cut distinct inscription of two lines two feet two inches long. It is inscribed in letters of the time of Vashisthi-putra (A.D. 133-162) and records the gift of a refectory or satta (Sk. satra), by Nakanak (inhabitant) of Nasik. A few feet to the north of the second inscription, and nearer to the cistern in front of the cave, is a third deeply cut and distinct inscription of two lines two feet nine inches long. It is inscribed in letters of the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162) and records the gift of water(?) by Samidatta (Sk. Svamidatta) a gold­smith of Kalyan.

CAVES NO. 3 : Close to No. 2 comes No. 3, the cathedral or chaitya Cave 3, the most important of the Kanheri caves. The style and plan are much the same as in the great Karli cave, but, owing to its softness, the rock is much destroyed. The measurements are 86 feet long, 39 feet 10 in­ches wide including the aisles, and 37 feet 7 inches high. In front is a spaci­ous court, entered through a gateway in a low parapet wall, whose outside has been prettily decorated with the rail pattern and festoons along the top. In bas-relief, on either side of the doorway, stands a rather stunted gatekeeper, and attached to the walls of rock on each side of the court are great eight-sided columns on square basement with broken shafts. The capital of the northern columns once supported three fat figures holding something behind them like a great bowl, and on the capital of the southern column bore four seated lions only outlines of which are seen today. A great rock screen separates this court from the veranda. This screen has three large square openings below, separated by thick massive pillars, the central opening being the entrance to the veranda. Above it is divided by four pillars into five open spaces which admit light to the arched front window. These pillars support the outer edge of the roof of the veranda. In each end of the veranda, cut in the end walls, a gigantic figure of Buddha twenty-five feet high stands on a raised plinth. Low on the left leg of the figure in the north end of the veranda, are cut, in old English characters, A. Butfer, K.BJ.,B., J.S., 78, initials, which as is shown by a writing in another cave, stand for Ann Butfer, K.Bates, John Butfer, K.Bates, John Butfer, and John Shaw, who visited the caves in 1678. Between the two sides and the central doorways, the front of the cave is adorned with life-size statues in bas-relief of men and women after the style of the Karli figures. The men wear the same curious head-dress, and the women the same heavy earrings, bracelets, and anklets. Above these arc rows of sea ed Buddhas, and above the Buddhas again is the great arched window, through which light passes into the nave of this great Buddhist cathedral. The roof is high and vaulted, and at the far end is a semi­circular apse, in the centre of which stands the object of adoration a relic shrine. Separated from this central space by two rows of pillars are two aisles. These are continued round behind the relic shrine where they meet forming an unbroken row of pillars, It is from the plain entablature above these pillars that the vaulted roof springs, the ceilings of the aisles being flat and very little higher than the capitals of the pillars. Of these pillars only eleven on the north side and six on the south side have been finished, the others are plain octagonal columns from top to bottom. The finished pillars have water-pot bases and capitals. The base rests on a paramidal pile of four or five flat tiles or plates and the capitals support a similar pile of plates in inverted order. Over each of these pillars is a group of figures. In two cases the figures worship a relic shrine which is placed between them, on another a tree is worshipped, and on the rest are men riding elephants and horses. Some of the pillars once bore traces of plaster with painted figures of Buddha. The relic shrine is plain and has lost its umbrella which was supported by a pillar of which the base may still be traced. Round the drum or cylindrical base are square holes at equal intervals apparently for lights. The roof of the nave has had arched wooden ribs similar to those at Karli, their positions being marked by dark bands on the rock. Under the great arched window and over the central doorway is a wide gallery supposed to have been used by musicians. There are now no means of getting to it except by a ladder. There are nine inscriptions in and about this cave. In the right gate-post is a deeply cut and distinct rather defaced inscription of 22 1/2 lines. The right side is imperfect as that part of the gate-post was built of squared stones which have been removed. The original length of the lines was three feet eight inches, which by the removal of the stones has been reduced to two feet in the upper part and three feet one inch in the middle. This is a valuable inscription, but much of importance has been lost in the upper lines. As it now stands, all that can be gathered from it, is that the cave was made in the time of king Yajnashri Satakarni Gautami-putra (A.D.117-196), by two merchant brothers Gajsen and Gajvir from Datamiti (?) (Sk. Dattamitri) in Upper India, and that the temple was dedicated to the Bhadrayani school of Buddhism. The inscription mentions the names of several Buddhist monks, Kalvarjit, the reverend Thera (Sk.Sthavira), Achal, the reverend (Bhadanta) Gahala, Vijaymitra, Bo. Dharmapal and Aparenuka, the son of a Buddhist devotee and merchant. The inscription closes with the words Finished by Badhika, the manager, and the pupil of the old Buddha monk Seul. The cave was carved by the great mason Vidhika with Shailvatak, Kudichak and Mahakatak. Cut into the left gate-post is another inscription of elevan lines, originally three feet four inches long. It is deeply cut, and the rock being smoother and of a lighter colour it is more distinct than the last. The left side is imperfect in the upper lines owing to the outer angle of the gate-post having been broken off. The inscription, which is in characters of the second century, records gifts. The name of the giver is lost. It mentions gifts made in several places, in the Ambalika monastery in Kalyan, something given in the old district (Sk.ahar) of Sopara (Sk.Shurpa-raka), a monastery, vihar, in Paithan (Sk Pratishthana), a Chaitya temple and thirteen cells in the cave of Pratigupta, the grant of an endowment to support the Rajatadag reservoir on the way to Paithan Asana and Chulkappikuti(?) a cistern and some other things. The third inscription is under a standing figure of Buddha, on the inside of the outer wall of the veranda, between the left gate-post and the left colossal figure of Buddha. It is of three lines each two feet eleven inches long. The letters belong to about the fifth century. It refers to the carving of the image of Buddha below which it is set and states that the image was made by the Shakya friar Buddhaghosha, residing in Mahagandhkuti a disciple of Dharmavatsa and teacher of the three great Buddhist books, tripitaka. There is a fourth inscription of one line, three feet one inch long, under a sitting Buddha sculptured on the back wall of the veranda, above the dancing figure on the right side of the doorway. It is cut in letters of about the fifth century, and is tolerably distinct but high up. It records, ' The meritorious gift of the Shakya mendicant Dharmagupta'. The fifth inscription, of one line ten inches long, is cut into the square shaft of a small bas-relief relic shrine on the right wall outside the veranda. It is deeply cut in characters of about the fifth century, and, as it stands is complete. It gives the  well   known   Buddhist   formula.   The   sixth inscription, of nine lines each ten inches long, is cut into a pilaster on the right side of a standing Buddha which is sculptured on the western wall inside the small chamber to the left of the entrance. It is faintly cut in letters of about the fifth or sixth century and records that the image was the gift of Acharya Buddharakshita. A seventh inscription, of three lines, was found on the face of a squared stone, 19 1/2 inches long by 10 1/2 broad, that lay on the outside terrace under the trees in front of this cave. The letters are' of the fifth or sixth century, and the inscription is about the building of a house or ghar (Sk.griha). The name of the person who built the house is doubtful. An eighth inscription of two lines, was found on the face of a smaller stone in front of the cave. It is probably part of the same inscription and seems to contain a portion of the lower two lines. The letters are of the sixth century. On the right of the inner doorway an inscription of four lines is painted in white upon one face of the octagonal column. It is very faint in places, but the date is fairly clear, especially in the afternoon sun. The date may be "either samvat 921 or 927 Ashvin Shuddh 1...................... ...". A similar inscription occurs on the next face of the column, and two others on two faces of the column on the opposite side of the doorway. These are fainter and less legible.

In the open space in front of Cave 3 there were once two or three large relic mounds, of which the largest was built of stone and brick and was from twelve to sixteen feet high. Dr. Bird gives the following account of the opening of this relic mound in 1839: " After digging to the level of the ground and clearing the materials, the workmen came to a circular stone, hollow in the centre, and covered at the top by a piece of gypsum. This contained two small copper urns, in one of which were some ashes mixed with a ruby, a pearl, small pieces of gold, and a small gold box containing a piece of cloth; in the other were a silver box and some ashes." Two copper plates accompanied the urns containing legible inscriptions in the cave character, of which the following is believed to be the translation: Salutation to the Omniscient (Buddha). In the year 245 of the increasing rule of the Traikutakas, in the great monastery of Krishnagiri, Buddharuchi, an inhabitant of Kanak? (Kobhoka or Katoka) a village in the Sindhu country, the son of the glorious Buddhashri and Pushyavarman, intent on religious duties, of the religion of Shakyamuni (who was) strong in the possession of the ten powers, revered, possessed of perfect knowledge, an Aryagana of his (that is Shakyamuni's) Shravals, erected this relic shrine, chaitya, of dressed stone and brick to last while the moon, sun and ocean endure, to the gieat Shravak of the Paramamuni (Buddha), the noble Sharadvatiputra. Therefore let the Devas, Yakshas, Siddhas, Vidyadharas, Ganas and Manibhadra, Purnabhadra, Panchika, Arya Vajrapani, Vankanaka(?) and others be propitious. Moreover, as long   as the milky ocean, the waters of  the whirlpools   of which are whirled round by the sea monsters which are driven about by its thousand waves, is an ocean of. milk, as long as the clear river flow into the ocean; so long may this enduring and auspicious, fame attach itself to the excellent son of him named Pushya (Varman).Only the faintest traces of this relic mound remain.

CAVE NO. 4-5: Cave 4 is a small circular chamber to the left of Cave 3 containing a relic shrine. This cave is adorned by a series of monk figures in three panels. It has an inscription of three lines and two letters, cut into one side of the square tee of the relic shrine. It is cut in letters of about the fifth or sixth century, and states that the relic shrine was made to hold the relics of the reverend old Buddhist monk Dharmapal by Shivali-tanika, wife of the goldsmith Dhamanaka. Turning north, up a broad flight of steps, is Cave 5, a plain two-mouthed water cistern with a long inscription cut over it. The original length of line was probably nine feet ten inches of which one foot ten inches on the left have entirely peeled off. Though deeply cut the inscription is much defaced, which is specially to be regretted as it is one of the oldest and most important in the series. It is inscribed in rather corrupt Sanskrit, the letters being of the age of Vashish­thiputra (A.D. 133-162). It records the gift of a water-pot by the minister Shatoraka. Though nothing distinct can be made out of the rest of the inscription, it appears from the fragments that this Shatoraka was the minister of the queen of Vashishthiputra. The queen is mentioned as belonging to the Karadamaka dynasty and it further appears that she was connected with the Kshatrapas, the word Mahakshatrapasya being distinct. She was perhaps a grand-daughter on the maternal side of a Mahakshatrap.

CAVE NO. 6-9: Entering the ravine of watercourses, between the two knolls, and continuing on from Cave 5, come caves 6 and 7, both much ruined and of little consequence. Above the two mouths of the cistern, at the left end of Cave 7, two deep distinct inscriptions, one of three and the other of four lines, are cut into the rock side by side and about six inches apart. The length of line in the first is two feet four inches and in the second two feet nine inches. Both inscriptions refer to the cisterns. One records that one cistern is the gift of Samika, a merchant of Sopara; the other that the other cistern is the gift of a goldsmith Sulasdatta of Chemula (Chaul), the son of Rohini Mitra. The letters are of the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162) or perhaps a little earlier. After passing two great rocks in the stream bed and up some notches in the rock, is number 8, a water cistern, and beyond it Cave 9, a large plain room with four thick square columns in front. It is unfinished and forms the lower storey of Cave 10 above.

CAVE NO. 10: Following the ravine, a long flight of steps leads to Cave 10 generally called the Darbar Cave, the next largest cave to 3. Its arrangement differs greatly from that of most other caves. The frontage is a long veranda 72' 6" by 8' 4" supported outwardly upon eight octagonal columns. A little chapel at the eastern end has some figures of Buddha and attendants. Three doorways and two windows communicate with the inner hall which is a long rectangular room, the same length as the veranda. Round the two sides acd back of this inner hall runs an aisle separated from the room by pillars. In a shrine that stands out from the middle of the back wall across the full depth of the aisle, is a large seated figure of Buddha, and in the back walls of the aisles are two small cells. The most curious feature in the cave are two long low seats or benches running down the whole length of the centre. They seem to show that, like the Marathwada at Ellora, the cave was used as a place of assembly or as a school. In this cave are two inscriptions, one much older than the other. On the left wall, outside the veranda and above a recess over the cistern, is a minute inscription of sixteen lines, six feet four inches long, with part of another line and two half lines. Where not defaced it is tolerably distinct, and seems to be written in letters of about the fifth century. The language is pure Sanskrit and the whole inscription is in verse. It records the excavation of the cave by a merchant whose name is gone. In the fourth line he is described as famous among the millionaires of the great city of Chemula, as one whose widespread fame had bathed in the three seas. In the fourteenth line is mentioned the grant, to the Kanheri friars, of a village called Shakapadra at the foot of the hill. In the last part of the inscription some account is given of a preceptor, acharya, named Kumar. The other inscription is on the architrave over the veranda colonnade. It consists of three upper lines eleven, feet long, three lower lines eleven feet seven inches long, and two additional lines five feet six inches long, to the left of the three lower lines and on the same level. It is faintly cut but distinct, and the letters apparently belong to about the ninth century. The inscription records an endowment, akshaya nivi of 100 drammas by a great Buddha devotee from Gaud (Bengal) or Upper India, on the second day of the dark half of Margashirsha (December-January) in the Prajapati year, after seven hundred and seventy-five years, in figures Samvat 775, of the Shak king had passed, during the victorious and happy reign of Amoghvarshdev, the great sovereign, the great king of kings, the noble lord, meditating on the feet of the great sovereign, the chief of kings, the majestic lord, the illustrious Jagattung; and during the flourishing and victorious reign of Kapardi, king of the Konkan, who by Amoghvarsh's favour has gained the five great titles, a jewel among the chiefs of districts, meditating on the feet of Pulashakti, the gem of the great chiefs of districts.............................. On the wall, cut in thick plaster, to the right of the middle door, are some records of English visitors with the dates 1697, 1706, 1710, and 1735.

On the opposite side of the ravine, Cave 70 has a long inscription of about the same date as that over the pillars in Cave 9 and very like from same hand.

CAVES NO. 11: The next cave on the original side is Cave 11, which is further up the ravine. It consists of a veranda supported outwardly on two small pillars, an inner room about fourteen feet square, and a chapel with a large relic shrine in the centre. Opposite to Cave 11, on the other side of the ravine, is Cave 79. Next to Cave 11 on the original side is Cave 12, a plain small room with a veranda and a water cistern on one side. On the left wall, outside the veranda and over a large recess, is an inscription of about ten lines, five feet six inches in length. The letters, which are of the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162), are deeply cut, and, where they have not peeled off, are distinct. They record the gifts of a cave, a cistern, a sea.t and a sleeping bench by an inhabitant of Kalyan, (name gone), a merchant, son of Shivmitra. There is a further gift of clothes and, Karshapanas and one Pratika a month to the friars who lived in the cave in the rainy season. Over against this is cave 80. Cave 33 is a group of three or four broken caves with some ruined relic mounds. In this cave some interesting discoveries were made by Mr. West in 1853. In the centre of the floor, which was covered with earth, were found the founda­tions of four small relic shrines of unburnt bricks. In one of these founda­tions, which seemed to have been undisturbed since the destruction of the shrine, fragments of clay seals were found representing a sitting Buddha surrounded by ornaments. Further search showed many similar impres­sions in dried clay, also several impressions of round seals of various sizes bearing inscriptions. Some larger fragments of dried clay which had been moulded into peculiar forms, were discovered to have been the receptacles in which the inscription seals had been embedded. The larger fragments of dried clay were found to be portions of six varieties of seal receptacles. The impressions of inscription seals were laid face to face in pairs, and one pair was embedded in each receptacle. They were small round pieces of dried clay with a flat face bearing an inscription in relief, evidently the impression of a clay with a flat seal, and a rounded back, which bore the impression of the skin markings of a human palm, showing that the clay was laid upon one hand while the seal was impressed with the other.

An examination of the most distinct of the seal impressions showed some words of the Buddhist formula, and this led to the deciphering of the whole inscription. On many of the other seals, the inscriptions, though differently divided into lines, were precisely alike, and represented in letters of about the tenth century, the well known Buddhist formula. One seal had an inscription in sixteen lines, the last three of which were found to be the Buddhist formulas. All the impressions representing a sitting Buddha seemed to have been made with the same seal as the same defects occurred in all. The figure was represented cross-legged under a canopy, surrounded by ornaments and with three lines of inscription beneath it. Portions of seventy distinct impressions of this seal were found in Cave 13 of which two were broken, fifty-five were pieces containing the whole sitting figure, the rest were in smaller fragments. The flat faces of the impressions were painted red, while the round backs bore distinct impres-ssions of the skin markings of human hand, showing that the seal was impressed in the same manner as the inscription seals.

There were a variety of fragments of moulded clay found with-the seal impressions. It was doubtful what they represented, but several of them, fitted upon others, formed mushroom shaped ornaments which would fit on to the broken tops of the receptacles. One was a fragment of a larger umbrella-shaped canopy; another appeared to be one-half of a mould for casting coins, bearing the impiession of a coin which might possibly be a very rude representation of a man on horseback. A brass or copper earring was found embedded in a small ball of ashes.

Two stone pots were found buried in the earth between two topes. They were of laterite or some similar stone, and had covers fitting a sunken ledge on the top of the pots. Each of them held about a table-spoonful of ashes, one pot had three copper coins and the other two copper coins. Of the coins, the first three appeared to have been little worn and were covered on both sides with well cut Arabic letters which differed in each coin, though all three bore the date H. 844 coinciding with A.D. 1440-41. The latter two were much worn and the inscriptions weie difficult to read and contained no date. On the other side of the watercourse are caves 81 and 82.

CAVES NO. 14-15: Still following the ravine and crossing an upward flight of steps is cave 14, a well finished cave but infested with bats and bad smells. The shrine at the back of the hall has a little ante-chamber with two slender pillars in front. The roof has remains of plaster. Opposite Cave 14 is Cave 83. Over the cistern corner of Cave 14 a rough path leads to Cave 15, an unfinished cave that seems to have contained a built relic mound. On a tablet, cut on a detached rock between Caves 14 and 15, is an inscription of four lines one foot four inches long. It is deeply cut and complete but not very distinct. The letters, which are of the time of Vasishthiputra (A. D. 133-162), record the dedication of a pathway by one Kumar Nand (or son of Nanda?) of Kalyan. Opposite to this on the other side of the ravine, is Cave 84.

CAVES NO.. 16-21: Cave 16 is a small cell cut in the rock with a relic shrine. Cave 17 is open in front with a group of cells walled off in one end, and a low bench running round two of its sides. Across the ravine are Caves 85 and 88. Cave 18 is a water cistern and Cave 19 a small cell. On the left wall of the porch of Cave 19 is a faintly cut and rather indistinct inscription of 2 1/2 lines three feet long. It is cut in letters of the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162) and records, the gift of cave by a recluse (name gone, perhaps Asad), brother of the reverend Vir, who also gave and endowment from which to supply a garment to the monk living in the cave. Cave 20 is a broken cavern with some low benches. Cave 21 is rather a good cave with a cistern on the right and a projecting porch supported outwardly by two pillars with cushion capitals. Beyond the porch is the veranda, the hall twenty-six feet ten inches long by twenty-two feet four inches wide, and the shrine with a seated figure of a teaching Buddha. There are Padmapanis on each side and Buddhas in the side niches with angels about. The most curious feature in this cave is a figure of Padmapani on the right of a seated Buddha, in a niche to the west of the porch with eleven heads. Besides his proper head he has ten smaller heads arranged in three rows above, four in the central row and three on each side of it. There is also a litany group, like that in Cave 2, but much damaged. On some plaster to the right of the shrine door are the painted outlines, of several Buddhas.

Dam : At this point the ravine widens into a large basin and has, across its mouth, the remains of the massive stone dam of which mention has already been made. On a detached rock, between Caves 21 and 22, is an inscription about the making of the dam. It is deeply cut and distinct, but most of the first line and part of the second have peeled off. The letters are of the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162) and record the gift of a reservoir by a merchant named Punaka.

CAVES NO. 22-28: Continuing in the same direction is 22, a small cave, neatly cut, with a veranda and a cell furnished with a sleeping bench. Cave 23 is a long straggling excavation much like 13 with some benches along the back wall; Cave 24 is a small cell; 25 is the beginning of a cave and 26 another small cave, 27, which comes next was meant to be large, but never went much beyond a beginning. In front are two half-cut pillars with cushion capitals. Some little distance lower is 28 which is of no importance. From this, as 29 is back towards 3, it is best to return by the other side of the ravine taking the caves from 87 to 78.

CAVES NO. 87-78: Cave 87 is a little room and veranda with a water cistern; 86 is similar in plan but rather larger; 88 is the beginning of a cave up above between 85 and 86; 85 is a small room much ruined; 84, which has a figure of Buddha in a niche in the back wall and one of the more modern inscriptions; 83 is a long straggling cave with a row of six cells in the back wall and the remains of one or more built relic mounds. 82 is a small broken cave; 81 is a neat little cave with a long inscription and a doorway and little lattice window on either side. The veranda is open and pillarless. 80 originally included three rooms, which are now broken into one another and much destroyed; 79, a plain little room with a veranda and two piJlars, is apparently unfinished. In the back wall is a long rectangular niche with a number of small seated Buddhas. In the inner dark chamber of cave 78, on the front of a pedestal or altar before a sitting figure, is an inscription of four letters. The surface of the stone is much honeycombed and the first two letters are illegible. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196), or a little later, and the language may be Sanskrit. On the architrave over the veranda colonnade, is another inscription in Sanskrit of two sets of five lines, each line seven feet long. Each line is over the space between two pillars and the short line below is on the capital of a column. The first part, which is inscribed in letters of the ninth century, records the gifts, by the reverend Nainbhikshu, of an endowment of 100 drammas to the friars living in the large monastery of Kanheri during the reign of Kapardi (II), king of the Konkan, the humble servant of Amoghvarsh, Shak 799 (A.D. 877). Near the above but separated by a line to avoid confusion is another inscription which seems to mean: During the reign of Pulashakti, governor of Mangalpuri in the Konkan, the humble servant of (the Rashtrakuta) Amoghvarsh beloved of the world, the great devotee Vishnuranak, the son of Purnan-hari, living on the lotus-like feet (of the king) requests the honourable brotherhood (of monks) living in Kanheri to ' Read three leaves of the revered (books) Panchvinshati and Saptasahasrika '. Vishnuranak gave 120 drammas to keep up this sacred reading. On the left wall, outside the veranda of Cave 81 over a recess, is an inscription of twelve lines, each line three feet nine inches long. It is cut rather deep md is fairly distinct, the last four lines being clearer and probably later than the rest. It records the gift of a cave and cistern by the devotee Aparenuka, son of Ananda, inhabitant of Kalyan, on the fifth day of the first fortnight of Grishma (April) in the sixteenth year of Gautamiputra Yajnashri Satakarni (A.D. 177-196). Also of 200 karshapana and a field in the village of Mangalthan (Sk.Mangalasthan), as an endowment to provide sixteen clothes and one pratika a month during the rainy season. On the right wall, outside the veranda of Cave 82, is an inscription of probably more than five lines, originally three feet three inches long. It is cut rather deep but the rock is honeycombed and weatherworn, so that in places the letters are very indistinct. About three letters are wanting at the end of the first line and a corresponding number below. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196), and record a gift by a nun (name gone), the disciple of some reverend friar. On the right wall, outside the veranda of Cave 84 and above a recess over a cistern, is an inscription of eight lines, three feet three inches long. It is faintly cut on a tablet surrounded by an ornamental border, the surface of the tablet being much corroded. The letters are of about the fifth century. It probably records the gift of a cave.

CAVES NO.. 29-36: About fifteen yards to the north of and on a much higher level than number 3, the cathedral cave, is 29, an ordinary sized cave with a hall twenty feet nine inches by eighteen feet five inches. A low bench runs round two sides of the hall, and the walls aie adorned with numerous Buddhas, seated on lotus thrones supported by Naga figures. There is a plain open-window on the left of the hall door and a latticed window on the right. This cave is provided with the usual water cistern on one side. On the inner wall of the veranda, o\er and between two grated windows is an inscription of one line seven feet six inches long, and of seven lines three feet one inch long. The inscription, which is deeply cut on a rough surface and tolerably distinct, records, in letters of the time of Gautami-putra II (A.D. 177-196), the gift of a cistern and a cave by a merchant Isipal (Sk.Rishipal), son of Golanaka, inhabitant of Kalyan, and (the gift) of a field in the village of Saphad as an endowment from which to supply a garment to a monk during the rains and in the hot season to make an awning mandap. 30 and 31 are small caves of little interest. 32 differs in plan from any cave except 45. A long veranda is supported along the front on four pJain thick octagonal pillars. Instead of having the doorway of the hall in the centre of the back wall of the veranda it is pushed towards one end, the other end being occupied by a group of cells. Two oblong windows much larger than usual light the hall, one on either side of the doorway; and further along the wall, another similar window opens into the cells. Round two sides of the interior of this hall runs, a low bench. A water cistern is attached to this cave. Passing up the steps between 30 and 31, keeping to the left, is 33, a much damaged cave with a water cistern and long benches against the rocks outside. 34 is a small cave with two pillars supporting the front of the veranda; and two little lattice windows one on either side of the doorway, admitting light into the little room. Cave 35, next in size to 10, has the floor considerably raised above the outer court and has a well cut flight of steps leading to the veranda. The front of the veranda is supported on four thick plain octagonal pillars. Between each of the pillars, except the middle pair, is a low bench with a back that forms a low parapet wall from pillar to pillar. The outside of this wall continues straight down to the floor of the court. The upper part is adorned with the Buddhist rail pattern and an upper horizontal edging of festoons, which, in timber fashion, are shown as if resting on the cross beams pf the veranda floor, the square ends of which are allowed to project a little beyond the face. These again rest on a long horizontal beam which runs the whole length of the front of the cave, the beam itself resting upon vertical props which at intervals rise from the ground. The veranda walls are covered with representations of Buddha in different attitudes. A central and two smaller side doorways enter on a large hall, forty-five feet six inches by forty feet six inches, with a bench running round three sides and cells off the two side walls. These inner walls are also covered with sculptured figures of Buddha and Padmapani. A good water cistern is attached to the cave. From 35 the path leads up the rock, over the cistern near 33, southwards, across an upward flight of steps, about fifteen yards to 36 a much damaged cave. Outside the veranda on the right and left walls of cave 36 are two inscriptions. The right inscription of seven lines, three feet eight inches long, is faintly cut on a somewhat honeycombed surface. The lines seem to have originally been ten inches longer and in this part have become illegible. The left inscription, probably of eight lines three feet six inches long, is faintly cut on a honeycombed surface and is indistinct. Both inscriptions relate to the same subject and have the same date. The names of the donors are different. The inscription runs:' In the eighth yeai of king Madhari-putra the lord Shirisena, in the sixth fortnight of Grishma (April-May) on the tenth day, a merchant householder, the son of Venhunandi, merchant, living in Kalyan, made this cave of Satta (?) with the respectable .......... , with his father Venhunandi, with his mother Bodhisama, with his brother.................... hathi, with an assembly of all co-religionists.' On the left wall, outside the veranda and near a recess over a cistern, is a third inscription of ten lines three feet long. It is faintly cut, on a rough surface exposed to the weather, in letters of about the time of Gautami-putra II (A.D. 177-196). It records the gift of a cave, a cistern, and a bathing cistern by Lavanika, wife of Ayal (Sk. Achal), a merchant, son of Nandana and inhabitant of Kalyan, and of an endowment of 300 Karshapanas. The inscription also mentions something done in the Ambalika (monastery?) in Kalyan.

CAVES NO. 37-41: Further in the same direction, passing a dry cistern, is 37, a small cave with two front pillars broken away. It has a latticed window on either side of the doorway to the inner room and a cistern outside. On the rock, near the entrance to the open gallery (38) is a deep cut and distinct inscription of one line fifteen inches long. At a little distance below it, to the left, is this symbol |-|\ 10 /2 inches square and apparently of the same age.

The four long open galleries, under the south-western brow of the hill, 38, 39, 40 and 41, though rarely visited have several objects of interest. From the Tulsi side, 38 is the first to come in sight, as the path passes under it about a mile from the Cathedral Cave (No. 3). Like the three other galleries, 38 seems to be an enlarged natural hollow in the face of the cliff, where a band of soft rock lies between two harder layers. The harder belts are blackened by rain, while the soft band has worn into dust and been blown away, leaving a long hollow under the brow of the hill, where the rock, being sheltered from the rain, keeps its natural sandy colour. The only safe entrance to 38 is from above, where a path, cut in the rock and furnished with steps, crosses the lower plateau of rolling ridges, and may be reached either down the steep slope of 55, or by keeping below the terrace wall in front of 36. Following this path south­wards, it turns suddenly to the right over the brow of the precipice, alongside which it descends by broken steps cut in a semi-detached rock, which end in another rock-path leading north to 39 and south to 38. The path to 38 goes down some steps and up others to the level of the floor of the gallery and is soon sheltered by the rock above. The floor of the gallery is covered with brick-dust, the foundations of fifteen to twenty small brick topes or relic mounds, buried in their ruins. Beyond the brick ruins are the remains of a large stone tope, and behind the stone tope, are three small chambers, with much sculpture greatly decayed owing to the perishable quality of the rock. The first chamber has a group on both sides and at the back, each consisting of a large sitting figure with attendants, two of the attendants in each group being life-size. Between the first and second chambers is a small sitting figure with attendants on the left wall; a standing figure with attendants on the right. The third chamber has a standing figure with attendants, on both side-walls, a sitting figure with attendants on the back, and outside the remains of some sculptures. All these chambers have remains of plaster and traces of paint. Beyond the large stone tope, the floor of the gallery suddenly rises about fourteen feet to a short level space, on which are the foundations of eleven small brick topes, buried in their ruins. Another rise of three feet leads to a level containing the foundations of thirty-three brick topes, also buried in their ruins. These topes have been built on platform paved with brick, and in some places the rock above has been cut to make room for them. Brick ruins, the remains of other topes, extend beyond the fourth chamber, which is semicircular, with a small ruined relic shrine in the centre and a small recess at the back. From this point, brick disappears for about eighty feet, the floor beginning to rise past another semicircular chamber, above the level of the gallery, with a small rock relic shrine in the centre and an umbrella shaped canopy cut in the ceiling. It then passes a relic shrine in bas-relief and the beginning of a cell, where broken bricks again appear and go on for about two hundred feet, no doubt covering the foundations of brick topes. The floor of the gallery then rises rapidly to the end, where a bench is cut in the rock, commanding a fine view of Vasai. Near the end of the gallery are three recesses, with benches from six to ten feet above the level of the floor; and below the first recess are three sockets cut in the rock for fixing wood work. A rock-path formerly passed the end of the gallery, leading to steps up the hill. But the first part of this path has slipped down the cliff and communication is cut off.

Of the numerous topes in this gallery, the ruins of the large stone tope have been fully explored, and many of the brick topes have been cleared. In 1853 the large stone tope presented the appearance of a heap of dust and stones decaying into bluish earth, which had probably not been disturbed for ages. It was noticed that one or two of the stones were covered with small sculptured figures, and the whole heap was carefully turned over and cleared in search of sculptures. The result was the dis­covery of the lower part of a large tope, built of stone, differing from the neighbouring rocks, and of some architectural merit. This stone tope has been a sixteen sided polygon for a greater height than the present ruins, and above that it must have been circular. The many-sided base of the tope, which measured about twenty-two feet in diameter, was, for twenty-seven or twenty-eight feet from the ground, ornamented with level belts or friezes of sculpture, separated by narrower bands of tracery, and perhaps,   divided into panels by upright pillars and pilasters. Too little of the tope is left to show for certain the number of tiers or friezes of sculpture which encircled the base. There seem to have been nine tiers or belts, several of which were sculptured into figures or tracery. Portions of the two lowest belts remain in their original position the other fragments that have been recovered were found scattered among the ruins. The lowest belt seems to have been plain and less than an inch broad. The second belt was about two inches broad and had figured panels. One of these (Mr. West's 1), measuring eighteen inches square, has a central and two side figures. The central figure is a broken spirit or Yaksha-like form, which with both hands steadies on its head a relic shrine, apparently a copy of the tope. Its many-sided base seems carved into six level belts and supports a semicircular-cupola, from the centre of which rises a tee of five plates, each plate larger than the one below it. On either side of the central tope bearer are two larger human figures, and behind are damaged figures which seem to bring offering in dishes. Mr. West's fragment two, which he thinks may belong to a higher belt is about six inches broad, it has two rows of heading, and is divided into three small panels. On the right (visitor's left) is a central kirtimukh or face of fame with a body and an elephant's head on both sides. The next panel is a man holding a rosary, beyond him are two elephant's heads neck to neck, and the end is a panel of tracery. The next four fragments (Mr. West's 3, 4, 5 and 6) perhaps belonged to a fourth belt about six inches broad. They are groups of lions, tigers, cattle and deer, peaceful and undisturbed, showing how under Shakyamuni's influence the lion and the lamb lay down together. Mr. West's fragment seven, which he thinks may have belonged to the fifth belt, is about nine inches broad.  Above is a scroll of tracery about three inches broad, divided by upright lozenge panels. Below is a plain rounded moulding, about six inches broad. The sixth frieze was about eighteen inches broad. What remains of it in its place is plain. But Mr. West thinks that the groups of figures in his fragments 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, may have belonged to this belt. In fragment eight (3' 6" x 13"x7") in the extreme right (visitor's left) a man, probably an ascetic without ornaments and with his hair standing out from his head in a great circle of curious tufts, sits under a tree on a stone bench, perhaps draped with cloth; his right leg is drawn up across the bench and his right hand holds near his chest a short broad bladed dagger. His left leg rests on the ground and his left hand is set on his left thigh. On the ascetic's left a man, who, has dismounted from his horse, kneels on stones before the ascetic, and with joined hands, seems to ask his help. This figure has a curious head with hair falling below the ears or it may be a cap, and wears a waistcloth tied in behind, and a belt or waistband. His horse, sturdy long-tailed cob, has a bridle without a head-piece, a saddle except for its high pommel much like an English saddle, a girth and two belts, one passing round the chest, the other under the tail. To the left of the horse the ascetic apparently again appears though the head-dress is a little different. He is seated and rests his right hand, in which lies something, perhaps bread, on his right knee, and he holds up his open left hand as if forbidding. A male figure, apparently the same as the kneeling figure in the last, stands with shock hair and a dagger in his right hand, and something, perhaps bread, in his left hand. Behind and above, a women seizes the hands, and a man the feet, of a male figure who struggles to get free. It is difficult to make out the meaning of this group. Perhaps two travellers have been waylaid by thieves, one is carried off, the other escapes. The traveller who escapes goes to a holy man who takes from him his sword and gives him food to offer the thieves and induce them to give up his friend. To the left (visitor's right) of this group the stone is bare and worn. It was once written with letters of the fourth or fifth century. One letter ko is still plain. On the same slab, separated by a plain pilaster, is a group of three figures under tree. In the background a standing man, his hair tied in a double top-knot and with a plain necklace and bracelet, blows a conch. Below on the left (visitor's right) a woman, with big round earrings, a necklace, and a top-knot, kneels holding her hands in front. On her right is a kneeling male figure with a double top-knot and bracelet with something broken, perhaps a musical instrument, in his raised left hand. The object of worship, which these figures are reverencing, has gone. Fragment ten measures 2' x 1' 3". In the right (visitor's left) is a standing woman with a sword in her left hand, and, behind her, another woman. These figures are separated by a pillar square below and rounded above, in the fourth or fifth century style. To the left (visitor's right) of the pillar, under a tree is standing woman, with bracelet, waistcloth, and anklets. Her right hand is on her breast and her left is raised to pluck the leaves of a tree. Behind her is a man's face, and two male figures stand in the background. On her left is a seated figure apparently an ascetic; with his hair in the domecoil or fata style, no ornaments, and waistcloth passed round his knee. His right hand is up to his chest and held something which is broken. His left hand is stretched forward and seems to clutch a sword which is held in the right hand of a male figure who seems to be running towards him. This figure, whose head-dress, like a three-plaited tiara, seems to show that he is a king, wears a necklace and armlet, and a waistcloth which falls in a tail behind. A woman, perhaps the same as the woman to the right of the ascetic with a big earring and back-knot and an anklet, kneels in front and clasps the king's right knee as if in fear. The king seems to brandish his sword as if about to kill the woman, and with his left hand tries to free the sword from the ascetic's grasp. On the king's left a woman, standing under a cocoa-palm, clutches his waistcloth and seems to try to hold him back. On her left is a running figure with a royal tiara, brandishing a sword in his right hand and his left hand set on his left hip. The story of this group seems to be that a king's wife, the standing woman, on the ascetic's right, has left her home to live in the forests with the ascetic. Her husband comes in search of her, and, finding her, threatens to kill her, while the ascetic clutches his sword and the wife throws herself at his feet asking for pity. In the right of fragment eleven, which measures 2' 2" x 9", is a seated teaching Buddha under a tree, and, on his right, a seated disciple in the attitude of thought. A man, with a second man on his shoulders, comes from the right and behind them is a band of women dancing and singing. Behind the dancers are lotuses, and, in the extreme right is a dwarf carrying a dish on his outstretched hands. In fragment twelve (2' x 8") in the right panel are elephants and trees, and in the left (visitor's right) panel a man on a barebacked horse with two attendants in front with shields. Fragment thirteen (which measures 1' 6" x 6") is a line of six small broken male figures, some seated, others standing. In fragment fourteen (9" x 7") an elephant with two riders enters from the right. Before it goes a man on foot with a shock head of hair and a coarse waistcloth. He carries a dagger in his right hand and a long shield in his left hand. Four more fragments (15-18) are believed by Mr. West to belong to a higher belt. They are panels (about 2' 2" x 9") divided by pillars, in the Elephanta Cave style, showing groups of Buddha, alternately teaching and in thought, with, in each case, two attendant fly whisk bearers. Two more fragments (19 and 20) measure 1' 6" x 6" and 2' x 5". Nineteen is part of a belt of festooned drapery and twenty has an overhanging belt of rosebuds above and a plain withdrawn band below. The character of the figures, the shape of the letters, and the style of the pillars, seem to show that these sculptures belong to the fourth and fifth centuries.

Some time after the building of the tope, the sculptures were covered with a thin coat of white plaster, on which the features of the figures were painted in red lines, which do not always correspond with the original features. After the lower sculptures had become broken, a circular brick moulding was built round the basement, so as to hide the two lower friezes; it was covered with a thin coating of white plaster. Besides the sculptures three flat stones were found, bearing portions of an inscription on their circular faces. These stones probably formed a part of the upper circular portion of the tope, below the level where it began to round into a cupola. Many plain stones were also found of the proper shape for foiming portions of the cupola. A stone moulding was also found among the dust round the tope. It is a part of the polygonal portion, and bears an inscription in Pahlavi letters, cut in vertical lines, and without diacritical points. The letters are finely but superficially cut, like those in the inscription on the three stones above-mentioned, and the inscription extends over only four lines. It reads, ' The year 390 (A.D. 1021) of Yazdakard Shatraiyar. Mah Frobag '. On another stone of the relic shrine is an inscription of which only two or three detached letters can be read. It appears to have consisted of seven vertical lines on a flat space between two groups of sculptures; but the,surface of the stone is so decayed that the letters are just sufficient to show that the words have been Pahlavi. The tope was probably solid, the inner portion being of stone cut from the neighbouring rocks. It had already been broken open and the square in the rock had been emptied of its relics.

Brick Stupas : The foundations of all the brick topes that have been cleared are of three sizes, six feet, five feet three inches, and four feet six inches in diameter. They are solid, of large flat segmental bricks shaped in moulds on the outside, and of square flat bricks within. All the brick work has been covered with a thin coat of white plaster, which does not appear to have been painted. As eight of these topes were carefully searched without any relics being found, it is probable that the place of deposit was in the cupola, which, in every instance, was destroyed. In two of the cleared topes a small plain stone was found occupying the place of a portion of two courses of the brickwork just above the mould­ings, and this probably existed in all. A similarly shaped stone was found among the broken bricks between the topes which had an inscription on its circular face. Many square stones cut in steps, and with a square hole through them, were found among the broken bricks and evidently formed ornamental tops for the topes. The great number of these brick topes, there must have been at least 100 of them, makes it probable that they held the ashes of the priesthood and that this gallery was the burying ground of the monastery.

Inscriptions : On the circular edges of three flat segmental stones, which were dug out of the ruins of the large built and sculptured stone tope were three inscriptions one of two lines, and a third of one line. The sizes of the circular surfaces of the stones were respectively 18 ½ X 5½ and 21½ inches by six. The inscriptions were cut in five lines upon a smooth surface. The beginning of all the lines was distinct, but the stone was corroded at the right end of the second and third inscriptions. They are probably parts of one inscription and the beginning^ of the lines were originally in the same vertical line. The first portion begins with the date 921 (A.D. 999) Ashvin shuddha. There was another inscription on one of the friezes of this tope alongside the sculptured representation, perhaps of a road robbery, where some faint traces of more ancient letters were barely visible. On the face of a stone, 8½ inches by inches and 9 inches deep, found among the ruins of a brick burial mound in the open gallery 38, is a three line inscription. The first two lines were distinct, except the third letter in the second line, but the lower line was much decayed. The letters belong to the fifth or sixth century. In the first line occurs the name of an old friar Aiashivanga (Sk. Aryashivanga). On the back wall of open gallery 39, is an inscription of one line six feet nine inches long, written in letters of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196). It is deep cut, but on a honeycombed surface, and records the gift of a cave.

CAVES NO. 42-43 : A little above 13 and 14, close to the steps that run between them is cave 42, much inferior to it in execution, but in plan, closely resembling Nasik cave 3. The pillars, though now broken, have had the same pot capitals surmounted by the flat tiles and groups of pictures. These groups remain attached to the ceiling and one of the pot capital lies on the ground. The pilasters at either end have a central lotus rosette, with a half rosette above, and the neck between is cut into three large flutes. These are very poor, and, like the pillars, show inferior and careless workmanship. Instead of the usual large hall, two rooms of equal size open from the veranda, each by its own doorway. A low bench runs round two sides of each room. Close by, separated only by a broken partition wall, is 43, a plain cave, with two octagonal pillars in front of the veranda and a small square hall with a figure of Buddha cut in a niche in the back wall. The pillars have been recently plastered with cement. On each side of the central doorway is a little lattice window and a cistern. On the right of the entrance over the mouth of the cistern is an inscription of eight lines whose middle portion is almost totally defaced. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196) and record the gift of a cave and cistern by an old nun, the disciple of the reverend Ghos. There is also the record of an endowment of 200 Karshapanas from which to give sixteen clothes and one pratika a month.

Cave Nos. 44-56 : Cave 44 is broken and unfinished. It differs from the rest by having a small chapel in each of the three inner walls of the hall, the fronts of each chapel being supported upon two pillars. There is a cell at either end of the veranda and a cistern outside. Cave 45 is identical in plan with 32. The long veranda is supported outwardly by four square pillars with octagonal necks that pass from the ceiling about one-third down their shafts. At either end of the veranda is a Buddha with attendants,and in a niche in the back wall is a seated Buddha. 46, 47, 48 and 49 are small caves, the last much destroyed. Outside the veranda on the left wall of cave 48 is an inscription of five lines, originally three feet four inches long. The letters, which are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196) are clear but not deep cut. The lines aie complete at the right hand end, but on the left the rock has peeled off. The upper lines are more indistinct than the rest. It seems to record the gift of a cave and an endowment of some Karshapanas from which to supply a monk with a garment during the rainy months. On the left wall outside the cave 49 is an inscription, probably of nine lines, which may have been four feet long. It is very imperfect, indistinct, and faintly cut. The few legible letters show that, like the last, the inscription is of the age of Gautami­putra II (A.D. 177-196).

Beyond 49, passing over the rock to the south is 50, a neat cave with a cistern, double veranda, a ruined front wall and a bench running round three sides of the interior. Further, in the same direction, comes 51, a tolerably large cave with nicely finished front. The outside of the parapet is of much the same style as 35. Cave 52 is plain but very neat. On the right wall, outside the veranda of cave 52 and above a recess over a cistern is an inscription probably of 9½lines, three feet four inches long. It is deeply cut, in letters of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196) but on a honeycombed surface. The upper three lines and part of the next two have peeled off, and it is difficult to make out anything of what remains. Cave 53 is like 52. On the right wall, outside, of the veranda and above a recess over a cistern, is an inscription of eleven lines, three feet four inches long. It is deep cut, but on a honeycombed surface, and the centre has peeled off. The letters, which are of the time of Gautami­putra II (A.D. 177-196), record the gift of a cave. Across a small torrent from 53, are caves 54 and 55, small and unimportant. From 55 the path runs back to the north-east, where, above 45, is 56, about the cleanest cave on the hill. It is of fair size and makes an excellent dwelling. As in many of the other caves four octagonal pillars support the front of the veranda; a low bench runs round two sides of the interior, two lattice windows aid in lighting the hall, and there is a cell in one corner with a small window opening into the veianda. In front, a fine open terrace with stone couches, commands a beautiful view of the sea, Vasai creek and Vasai. There are two inscriptions in this cave. Outside the veranda, on the left wall and above a recess over a cistern is one of eleven lines, three feet four inches long. It is cut to modeiate depth, but owing to the honeycombed state of the rock, is not very distinct and part of the centre has peeled off. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D.177-196) and record the gift of a cave and an endowment by Kalyan worshippei (name gone). On the pilaster, at the right end of the veranda, is the other inscription of 6½ lines, one foot seven inches long. It is faintly cut and indistinct, and is very modern (ninth or tenth century). A groove has been cut through its centre at a still later date to fix some wooden framing. The inscription refers to something done in the old cave, probably the setting up of some Brahmanic or Jaini mage.

Cave Nos. 57-66 : 57 is much decayed. 58 is a small but neatly cut cave in good preservation. On the inner wall of the veranda of 58, and to the left of a grated window, is an inscription of two lines, three feet long most of which has peeled off. The letters are of the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162). It reads, "The meritorious gift of a cave named Sea View (Sk. Sagara Pralokana) " by the reverend elder Mitrabhuti. This cave is rightly named Sea View as it commands a fine stretch of the Vasai creek and of the sea beyond. 59 is like 58. On the back wall of the recess over the cistern mouth was an inscription of three lines originally two feet nine inches long. It was deeply cut but most of it has disintegrated owing to the porous nature of the rock. " The letters are of the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162) and record the gift of a cave and cistern by a nun named Damila." On the inner wall of the veranda of the same cave, and above a small grated window, is an inscription of one line, frve feet thiee inches long. It is clear, though not deeply cut, and all the letters are perfect; three small letters under the line can also be easily read. The letters are of the time of Vashishthiputia (A.D. 133-162), and the inscription records the gift of a cave and a cistern by a nun Damila of Kalyan. 60 is plain and larger than the last two; it has a low bench running along one of the inner walls. 61 is like 60 but smaller; 62 is unfinished. A small chapel in the back wall has two pillars supporting its front and are now reinforced with plaster. It is probably the ante­chamber of a shrine that was ever begun. Caves 63 to 68 run parallel to these, on a higher level. Almost all of these caves were used as dwellings by Jogis and other ascetics. 94, is a large well cut cave in style of 35, 93, 64, a fairly large cave, has had its front pillars plasterd with cement.

The veranda walls are coveied with sculpture, and two large oblong windows light the hall which is a large plain room with a low bench round two sides. On the back wall of a recess over cistern mouth, to the right of the entrance of cave 64, is an insciiption probably of six lines faintly cut and indistinct. The two lowest lines have disappeared, and nearly half of the third and fourth lines are illegible. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196). It records the gift of a cistern by the recluse Jamadevikam, daughter of the very rich Sbivtana (Sk. Shivtanu) and the mother of Mahasakdeva. (65) 92 is small and much ruined. (66) 91 is rather an interesting cave from the amount and nature of the sculpture. It has the best representation of the Buddhist ' litany' that occurs at Kanheri. The arrangement of the little groups is much the same as in cave 2. Padmapani has two female attendants one on either side. The fourth compartment form the top on the right side represents a man on his knees praying for deliverance from a fire, in the middle of which is a human head. The figures are generally cut with greater spirit and more variety of pose than in cave 2; they are also in much greater relief. The rest of the well is covered with relic shrines and figures of Buddha on his lotus throne upheld by Nagas. In the back wall is cut a throne for a seated Buddha, but the seat is empty and a wretched attempt at a linga supplies its place.

On two of the outer pilasters and on the wall just above cistern are three Pahlavi inscriptions, the work of Par si visitors of the eleventh centuiy. The inscription on the wall above the cistern is illegible.

Cave Nos. 67-76: In the rock under 66 is a cave whose front is nearly filled up. 86(67), a small cave with much sculpture like that in 66, has a shrine in the back wall of the hall with a life-size seated Buddha with numerous little figures on shrine walls. (68) 88 the last of this group is a small plain cave neatly finished. On the left wall, outside the veranda is an inscription of seven lines, deeply cut and distinct but the upper lines partly defaced. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196) and record the gift of a cistern and a cave (?). The name and residence of the giver have been lost. He seems to have been a recluse named (Bu) dhak. A little way down the hill to the north-west is 87 (69), a plain muGh damaged cave. There is an inscription in this cave mentioning the eighth year of some king but too faint and worn to be read. (70) 80 is a larger cave but much destroyed. On the left wall outside the veranda are two inscriptions one above the other of seven and four lines respectively, originally six feet three inches long. The upper inscription is deep cut and distinct except at the top and left end. There is a blank space in the fifth line. The lower inscription is faintly cut and in places indistinct, the last two lines being very faint. The words used closely resemble Sanskrit and the language, though Prakrit differs much from the Prakrit of the other inscriptions. (71) 85 is smaller and in equally bad order; 84 (72) is a large well finished cave probably of late date with a shrine and seated Buddha; (83) 73 and (82) 74 are much decayed; 75 (81) is a plain cave in rather better order than either of the last two. On the right wall outside the veranda of cave 81 (75) is an inscription of eight or nine lines originally three feet long. It is deep cut, and tolerably distinct, though on a rough surface; the upper two or three lines and much of the other lines have peeled off. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196) and appear to record the gift of a cave and cistern perhaps by the daughter of Samaka. 76 is much ruined, but on the right wall outside its veranda is a deep cut and clear inscription. The rock is rough and the upper two or three lines and much of the other have entirely peeled off. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196) and record the gift of a cave and cistern by a reclufcs the daughter of Ramanaka, beloved of his family and inhabitant of Dhenukakata and the disciple of the old reverend monk Bodhika. She also gave an endowment from which to distiibute sixteen clothes. 77 is much like 76. It is only about twenty yards to the east of 35.

On the right wall outside of its veranda and over the entrance to a side chamber is an inscription of five lines originally six feet long. It is rather faintly cut on a rough surface. Nearly the whole of the first line, and about eighteen inches of the left and of the second line have peeled off, with a corresponding portion of the following lines. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputia II (A.D. 177-196) and record the gift of a cave by.......................... the mother of Khandnagasataka.............................

Cave Nos. 89-102 : On the left of the entrance of cave 77, on the back of the recess over the cistern, is an inscription of ten lines, three feet six inches long. It is faintly cut on a honey-combed surface, very indistinct and almost completely illegible. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196) and appear to record the gift of a cave. The ten next, 78 to 88, have been mentioned on the way down the ravine from 28. The remaining caves are 89, south of 66, on the edge of the stream-bed, which is not worth a visit. 90 and 91, between 36, 50, are both much ruined; 92 is a little to the south-east of 3, the cathedral cave; 93 and 94 are close to the stream across from 8 and 7; and 95, 96, 97 and 98 are ruined caverns and cells further up the ravine bank. 99 is a small cave near 44. 100 is high in the rocks over against 24 and 26, and 101 and 102 are broken cells in a great black hillock on the east of the hill above 100. On the back of a bench, the remains of cave 94 on the north side of the ravine opposite cave 7 is an imperfect inscription of two lines. The bench is ten feet six inches long, but only three feet six inches of the end of the last line of the inscription are legible. The inscription is deep cut, but the surface of the rock is much honeycombed and weather-worn. The letters are of the time of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196) and in the second line, there appears the name of village, perhaps Gorpad. On the back of a low bench, along the flight of steps just above cave 95, is a deep cut distinct and perfect inscription of 2 ½ lines, three feet nine inches long. It is of the time of Vashishthiputra (A.D. 133-162) and seems to refer to the dedication of a pathway by a Chemula (Chaul) goldsmith Dhamaka, the son of Rohanimitra (and brother of the giver of the cistern in cave 7). The pathway consists of a long flight of steps beginning on the side of the stream-bed opposite the cistern recess of cave 5, and climbing the northern hill as far as the ruins of the great relic mound. Above a recess, over a bench in the left veranda of cave 96, is an inscription of two unequal lines, three feet eleven inches and four feet eight inches long. Though faint and somewhat rude the letters are distinct and perfect. It seems to record the gift of a field as an endowment by the merchant Mudapal (Sk. Mundpal), son of the devotee Vhe (nu ?)-mitra. The letters are of the age of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196). Outside cave 99, on the left wall, above a recess over a cistern mouth, is an inscription of six or more lines originally three feet long. It is deep cut but indistinct, the rock being much decayed. About one foot eight inches of the left end of the inscription and all the lower lines have disappeared. It records the gift of cave in the eighth year of some reign probably that of Gautamiputra II (A.D. 177-196). There is an inscription of one line on the front of a small low platform cut in the surface of the rock near the top of the main hill. The platform is six feet long, but there are no letters on the first eighteen inches. The letters are very new and seem to have been scrawled by some nineteenth century ascetic.

Besides the caves, interesting remains crown the flat tops both of the main spur and of the smaller knoll to the north of the narrow ravine. Above the tiers of caves the upper slope of the main hill is in places cut into cisterns and crossed by long roughly traced flights of steps. Along the flat top are cut a line of quarries, and cisterns, and in several places, scattered lines of large dressed stones lie as if brought together for some large building. Along the eastern crest of the hill run the foundations of a wall, and, near it, are one or two mounds covered with blocks of dressed stone apparently the remains of relic shrines or of burial mounds. Further along towards the south, is a quarry with blocks of dressed stone, some ready to be taken away, others half cut as if the work of building had been suddenly stopped.

To the north of the small stream-bed, behind the line of caves, a flight of eighty-eight shallow roughly-traced steps leads from the south up a gentle slope of rock. Along each side of this flight of steps three clusters of prickly-pear bushes mark the sites of what seem to have been small temples or relic shrines. Most of these sites are too ruined to show the form of the building, that stood on them. But enough of the third site on the right hand is left to show that it stood on a stone plinth about seventeen feet by twenty-two, and apparently rose in steps into a central building of brick and stone. Close to this ruin is a little rock-cut cistern. The building to which the flight of steps led is completely ruined and thickly covered with brushwood. It seems to have been a round building of dressed stone, with a diameter of about forty feet surrounded at a distance of about twenty-four feet, by a rail or stone-wall apparently square. In a hollow, about fifty yards to the west of this mound, lie some large broken pillars, and behind them is a hole which seems to have been worked as a quarry.

Worship : To the common people the caves have no connection with Buddhism. The people have fully adopted the Brahman story that the caves are the work of the Pandavas. Several of the figures are worshipped, notably the two huge Buddhas on either side of the entrance to the Cathedral Cave (No. 3). Their feet are reddened with pink powder and spotted with yellow. But the figures are respected not for the sake of Buddha, but because they are believed to represent Bhima the giant Pandava. Besides Hindu visitors, Parsis and Christians come to see the caves during the dry season.

Fair : There are two yearly fairs, one on the eleventh of the blight half of Kartik (November-December), the Divali of the gods, and the other on the Mahashivaratri or Great night of Shiva, the Thirteenth of the dark half of Magh (January-February). On both occasions, a number of persons of all castes attend the fair, bathe in the ponds near the hill, examine the caves, and worship the linga in cave 66. Sweetmeats and other articles are sold in the Darbar Cave (No. 10), which is also called the Market or Bazar Cave.


The Kondivti or Mahakali (Mahakal, or the great destroyer, is one of the forms of Shiva. This Brahmanic name may have arisen from the Brahmans telling the people that the relic shrine in the chief cave (IX of the south-west line) was a great ling.) Caves form two rows, one of fifteen caves on the south-east face and one of four caves on the north-west face, of a low flat topped range of trap breccia, about 6.4 km. (four miles) north-east from the Andheri station on the Churchgate-Virar suburban section of the Western railway. The caves are Buddhist, probably between the second and sixth centuries. They are small, many of them little more than cells, and much ruined from the flawed and crumbling nature of the rock. From Andheri, a good road leads east to Kurla. It was passing formerly through rice lands and mango orchards, with wooded rocky knoJls. However, keeping pace with the changing time, all these things have disappeared and have given the surrounding area an urban look.

The easiest way to see the Kondivti caves is to go by Mahakali road, which forks towards the south-east from the Andheri-Kurla load. Formerly the pleasantest route was to leave the Andheri-Kurla high road at Mulgaon, and by a good cross country tract, to wind about three kilometres through waving uplands, prettily wooded with mangoes and barb palms, round to the north face of the hill, see the north line of caves and the burial mounds, see the south line, pass south through the lands of Vihirgaon about two and a half kilometres (a mile and a half) to Marol and from Marol, go back to Andheri by the high road. This round covered a total distance of more than fourteen kilometres (nine miles).

On the east bank of the Mulgaon pond are the ruins of an underground Buddhist water cistern (A.D. 100-500), and some old bricks probably Buddhist. From the north among the waving uplands the Kondivti caves are hard to find, as the hill rises only a few metres above the general level from where the road goes and as the caves are in a hollow. About fifty paces north of the caves, in a small mound of smooth black trap, is an underground water-cistern with two openings, about 1.011 m2 (three feet four inches square) and 1.219 m. (four feet) apart. About fifty paces south of this cistern is the north row of caves. They face the north-west and command a wide view. In this row are four small caves probably from the fourth to the fifth century. Beginning from the east, Cave I, a dwelling cave, has a veranda 4.1402 m. X 1.625 m. (13' 7" longx 5'4" broad) with two square pillars and two pilasters, now all crumbled, a cistern in the left corner, and a stone bench in a recess on the right ( Left and right here mean visitor's left and right.). The veranda opens into a plain hall 2.692 mx 4.826m (8' 10"X 15' 10"), with a bench on the right wall, and cells 2.0574 mx 1.9812 m. (About 6' 9" X 6' 6" high) on the left and back walls. Cave II has two doors and two windows in the front wall. It is about 1.394 m.2 (fifteen feet square) and 1. 829 m. (six feet) high, without carving or pillars, and except that it has no stone bench round it, looks like a dining hall. A door in the east wall opens on Cave III. Cave III is much like a Kanheri cave. It enters from a courtyard 4.826m. x 4.572m. (15'10" x 15') with a stone bench and cistern on the right. From the court four easy steps lead to a veranda, with a low front wall, carved in the Buddhist rail pattern, now defaced, divided in the centre by a doorway, and with two eight-sided pillars. The veranda 5.182 m. x 2.743 m. (17' x 9') has a stone bench at each end. The hall, which is entered by a plain door, measures nearly 4.267 m. (fourteen feet) square by about 2.438 m. (eight feet high). In the side walls are cells, and in the back wall is a door, with side pilasters surrounded by a belt of tracery, cut in a rough check pattern. The door opens on a shrine 2.515m. x 2.184 m. (8'3" x 7'2"), which has an altar in the back wall with a hole and sockets to support an image. On a narrow front of rock, between Caves III and IV there was a relic shrine or daghoba carved there of which even the remains are not visible. Cave IV, a dwelling cave, has a long veranda 9.449 m. X 1.829 m. (31' x 6'), with ten round capitalled pillars, and a cistern at the right end. The hall is plain about 4.572 m. (fifteen feet) square. It has two side recesses, and in the back wall, a niche, about 0.1524 m. (six inches) deep and 0.6096 m. (two feet) square, perhaps for a relic shrine. The low walls, against the right side of the cave, are modern, the remains of a liquor still. These four caves are all much of the same age, probably the fourth and fifth centuries, later than the Chapel Cave (IX ot the south row) which was probably the origin of the monastery. About 45.720 m. (fifty yards) in front of the north row are underground cisterns,   with four openings, each about 0.5588 m. (one foot ten inches) square. About thirty yards further to the west, are three or foui broken tomb stones, apparently originally square below and rounded above and from 0.6036 m. to 1.2192 m (two to four feet) high. To the south about 9.144 m. (thirty feet) above these broken tomb-stones, is the bare flat hill-top, about 45.720 m (fifty yards) broad most of it a rounded sheet of trap. About 3.048 m (ten feet) above the north caves, the rock has been hollowed, two or three feet, into a shallow bathing pond, which is now practically dry and silted up. About 9.144 m (ten yards) further south, lies a broken pillar about 1.219 metre long and 0.9906 metre square (four feet long and three feet square) at the base, rising into a round broken topped shaft. This is probably the tomb-stone that stood on the top of the mound about 45.720 m (fifty yards) to the south. This burial mound, or stupa has been a round dome ol brick and dressed stone about 8.229 m (twenty-seven feet) across the base. The centre has been opened and rifled, and bricks and dressed stones are strewn about or carried away. At a distance of about   one  and   a   half metre  to   the   south-east  is   a  smaller burial mound about 2.7432 m.  (nine feet) across the base.  To the north-east is a rock-cut passage. Close by, the surface of the rock is roughly dressed into two stone seats, one a few metres above the other. The upper seat was probably for the teacher and the lower seat for his disciples. The seats have a fine view both to the north and to the south. Close at  hand are the bare top and  upper slopes of the Andheri and Oshivara hills. To the south, beyond the hill slopes are the Snake or Sarpala lake, the smaller Barbai pond, and the large Church pond or Devalacha Talav with the ruins of a great Portuguese church. About half a kilometre to the south-west is the former village of Kondivti. On the south-east rise the withered slopes of Chandivli and to the north-east, the Vihar hills and a long stretch of the Vihar lake. Even though the overall landscape with the distant hills and palm groves has changed considera­bly with the rapid urbanisation and the growth of industrial establishments around, the general impression is however retained.

At some distance towards the south of the teacher's seat is an under­ground water cistern, and a little on one side, are holes in the rock for planting the pillars of a canopy. To the west of the big burial mound, eight or nine steep rock- cut steps, some of them broken, lead down the south face of the hill to the south row of caves. In a level space, in front of the steps, is a heap of dressed stones apparently the ruins of a Buddhist temple, which has been about, 3.6576 m. (twelve feet) square. The middle has been opened probably in search of treasure. About 18.288 metres (twenty yards) behind the temple, in a low scarp, hidden with fallen rock and brushwood, is the south line of fifteen caves, all of them small and making little show, and most of them in bad repair. The caves are numbe­red from west to east. In the west end, the mouth of Cave I, was filled with earth to within 0.61 m. (two feet) of its roof which is now cleared. The veranda has had two plain square pillars and two pilasters. Cave II has a front veranda wall, about 1.2192 m. (four feet) high, whose face is carved in the Buddhist rail pattern. From the wall rise four plain square pillars 2.336m. (seven feet) high, the middle pair about 0.9144 m. (three feet) apart. Below the veranda floor 2.286 m. x 6.858 m. (about 7 1/2' X 22.') is a water cistern with four openings 1.0668 m. x 0.9144 m.(3'6"x3') formerly covered with slabs. On the right the wall has fallen, and on the left is an opening into Cave I, which is a small plain room 2.972 m. x 2.616 m. and 2.134 metres high (9' 9" x 8''7" and 7' high) and had a good deal of earth on the floor now cleared and a recess in the north wall. In the middle of the back wall of the veranda of Cave II is a door with five sided pilasters, and, outside, of the pilasters, a belt of checked carving, cut some niches into the wall. Inside is a plain pillarless chapel 7.214 mx4.826 m.(23' 8"x 14' 10"), with an altar for an image in the back wall. The side walls of the hall are full of socket holes for wooden pegs, which seem to have held a rich wooden wainscot.( These holes about three inches square and three inches deep seem to be favourite sleeping berths for snakes. Visitors would do well to avoid going too near the wall Mr. H. Cousens.) On the left wall are two hollows, apparently the beginning of a cell which was stopped by a flaw in the rock. The cave is probably of the fifth or sixth century. Cave III, is a monk's dwelling. Like Cave I it was nearly filled with earth but recently completely cleared. Cave IV is a chapel. On the right wall of the entrance court, outside of the veranda, is a roughly carved seven-hooded cobra, about 1.372 m (four feet and a half) long and 0.5354 m. (one foot nine inches) across the hood. Close beyond the cobra is a water cistern. The cobra is perhaps connected with the Sarpala or Snake pond at the foot of the hill. The outer wall of the veranda had four eight-sided pillars without capitals. The veranda about 10.973x2.896 m (about 36' x 9½') opens on the left into Cave III. The back wall of the veranda has two windows and two side doorways opening on a hall or chapel 10.668 m long and 7.620 m broad (thirty five feet long and twenty-five broad). At the sides are aisles 5.791 mx2.134 m.x.1524 m (19'x 7'x 6") with two pillars in front and three plain cells 2.134 m. x 2.134 m.x 2.134m. (about 7'x 7'x 7') behind. In the back wall of the hall was a shrine with a centre and two side doors the central door opening on an unfinished chapel now fallen 3.657 m. x 1.829 m. (12' x 6'). This is older than Cave II, and perhaps belongs to the third or fourth century. Cave V a small dwelling with a veranda and an inner cell. Cave VIhas a veranda about 1.219 m. (four feet) broad, with, at the left end, a small cell with two stone benches and inside, a second cell with one bench. At the back of the veranda wall is a rough chamber and there is another chamber at the right end of the wall now completely out of repair. Cave VII has a veranda four feet broad opening on a hall 3.657 m. x 3 .657 m. (12'x 12') with side cells and a shrine in the back wall. The walls are much broken. Cave VIII is entered from VII; it is small and broken. Cave IX is a chapel, the most interesting, and probably the oldest, in the group. A ruind veraneda about 1.219 m (four feet) broad leads into a hall 7.620 m. (twenty-five feet) long, 5.334 m (seventeen and a half feet) broad, and 2.743 m. (nine feet) high. In the right wall were some carved figures now broken and defaced. The back wall is cut into a round towei-like shrine, with a central door 1.143 m. X 2.337 m. (3' 9"x7' 8" high) and two side stone latticed windows 0.991 m. x 0.736, m. (3'3"x2'5"). This shrine fills the whole of the back wall, from which it bulges about 1.524 m. (five feet), forming a semicircle about 6.096 m.(twenty feet) from end to end; and about 2.337 m. (7' 8") from the ground, with a round eave about 0.305 m. (a foot) deep. Inside, this round hut-like shrine measures about 3.962 m (thirteen feet) across and rises in a dome about 4.419 m.(fourteen nd a half feet) high. In the centre stands a whitewashed rock daghoba inrelic shrine, about 7.010 m(twenty three feet) round the base, ending n a cone about 2.438 m (eight feet) high. About 1.219 m. (four feet) from the floor is a belt, about 0.1524 m (six inches) broad, carved in the Buddhist rail pattern and on the top are four holes for an umbrella. Round the relic shrine is a passage about 0.9144 m.(three feet) broad. About the middle of its top, a flow in the rock has split the relic shrine into two, the cleft passing right to the floor. On the outside wall of the rounded hut-like shrine, above the east or right lattice window, was a Pali inscription of two lines, each line 0.8382 m (two feet nine inches) long now not very clearly visible and indistinct. The letters are of about the third century, very closely like those of the Rudra Dama inscription at Girnar in south Kathiawad. It runs, ' Gift of a Vihar, with his brother, by Pittimba a Brahman of ihe Gotamas gotra, an inha­bitant of Pachi Kama.( The Pali runs : Pachikamaye vathavasa Bahmhanasa Gotamasa-gotasa Pitulasa deyadhama viharo sabhatukasa; (SK.) Pachikammayah vastavyasya Brahmanasya Gautamasagotrasya Pitulasya deyadharmo viharah sabhratrikasya. Pachikama is per­haps Pachmarhi, the well known Hill Station in Madhya Pradesh. Pandit Bhagawanlal) This rounded hut or shrine is very like the one of Asoka's (B.C. 250) round huts at Barabar hill near Gay a. It is not found in any other cave in Western India, and, as far as is known occurs in only two other caves, the Lomas Rishi and the Sudama caves at Barabar in Bihar, about 25.749 kilometres (sixteen miles) north of Gaya. The sculptures on the east wall are later than the rest of the cave; they probably belong to the sixth century. Of the wall sculptures the one next the rounded tower is a seated Buddha, teaching two attendants, one on either side. His lotus seat is upheld by a five hooded Naga figure, with, on each side a naga woman with one hood, and beyond her a man now much defaced. Arhats or saints float in the air over Buddha's head. Above is a row of six teaching Buddhas in small panels. To the right is a headless standing figure perhaps Avalokiteshvar, as he seems to have held a lotus flower over his left shoulder, and as there is a seated Buddha above.(Avalokiteshvar (the manifest or ' the pitiful lord'), one of the Bodbisattvas or would be Buddhas, often mentioned by the Chinese pilgrims Fah Hian (415) and Hiuen Tsang (642) as the protector of the world and the lover and saviour of men, is invoked in all cases of danger and distress. He is the same as Padmapani (the lotus bearer) of Nepalese mythology, and is also known by the names of Kamali, Padmahasta, Padmakara, Kamalapani, Kamalahasta, Kamalakara, Aryavalokiteshvar, Aryavalokeshvar and Lokanath. To the Chinese he is known as Kwan-tseu-tsai, Kwan-shai-yin and 'The Great pitiful Kwariyin.' His worship had an early origin in India. He is shown in Indian sculptures holding a lotus stalk in one hand, with an opening bud, and generally with a rosary or jewel in the other hand. His abundant hair falls in ringlets on his shoulders. On his forehead is a small figure of his spiritual father and master, Amitabha Buddha,t he lord of Sukhavati or the Western Happy Land, who is the fourth Dhyani or divine Buddha, corresponding to Gautama among the human or Manushi Buddhas. Burgess1 Arch. Sur. Rep. III. 75-76. For Avalokiteshvar's litany,See Bombay Gaz. XII,  531, J.R.A.S. (New Series), II, 411-413.) The small worshipping figure below, on the left, is perhaps the person who presented the sculpture.(Cave IX is locally known as Anasicha Kamara or the granary, because of the round granary—like hut in the back. From the figure on the wall it is called the school, the Bodhisattva being thought to be master and the seated Buddhas the boys.) Cave X a little to the east is a monk's dwelling. It is plain and ruined. The only carving is a rough vandyke belt at the top of the east wall. Cave XI is a small broken veranda with two plain pillars and an inner and outer chamber for monks. To the east is a passage cut in the rock. Cave XII is ruined and confused. The outer wall  of the veranda has at the top, a belt of carving in the Buddhist rail pattern. The veranda is about 7.620 metres (twenty-five feet) long and seems to have had an image at the left end. The body of the cave is open to the east. It was originally cut off by a wall which is no longer there in piece. In the back were three cells, but the partitions are gone. To the left is a chamber. Cave XIII was once separated from XII by a wall which has fallen. In front is a courtyard, from which five steps lead to a veranda. On the right is a cistern. There is an outer and an inner veranda. The outer veranda 5.969 mx 3.962 m. (19' 7"x 13') has a bench in a recess at the right end. The outer wall of the inner veranda 6.401 m. x29.97 m. (21' x 9' 10") had two pillars and two pilasters with rounded cushion­like capitals which have   now   crumbled.   Ruined  steps  lead about 0.9144 m. (three feet) up into the inner veranda. The outer wall of the hall had a central and two side doors. The hall 8.839 m. x 8.737 m. (29'x 28' 8") has three cells opening from each other. The back wall  has a central shrine and two side cells. In the centre of the hall is a square space about 4.724 m. (15' 6") with four large eight-sided corner pillars with rounded capitals. The shrine door, at the centre of the back wall, has side pilasters and a deep-cut belt of check carving. The shrine measures 3.353 m (eleven feet) long by 3.353 m (elevenfeet) broad and 3.048 m. (ten feet) high. At the back is an altar which once had an image fastened to the wall by sockets. The side cells are about 2.134 m. (seven feet) square. Cave XIV is a small cell. Cave XV is blocked by a large fallen rock. It had a veranda with two pillars, of which now only one remains, and an inner and outer chamber. The door of the outer chamber has side pillars and a belt of check carving. An underground cistern beyond cave XV, and another to the left of the path down the hill complete the re­mains of the Kondivti monastery. The caves are very frequently visited by sight seers and the area has of recent become an excellent picnic spot.


Madh, a beautiful island on the west coast of Salsette with thick coconut and palm groves and other swamp bushes, is located to the west of Versova across the Malad creek. It can be reached by a number of BEST buses plying from Malad railway station on the Churchgate-Virar suburban section of the Western Railway. It is located about 13.4 km. south-west of Malad. The Malad-Marve-Madh route passes through green fields with some old monuments located on either side of the road. Madh island and beach is a picnic spot which is frequented by a number of visitors from Bombay and the adjoining areas.

There is a Ganapati temple, to which a village was formerly granted in inam. The temple was built during the time of the Peshwas. Subsequently the temple was not carefully looked after for want of funds. Recently it was renovated from public contributions. Close to the temple is a reservior with stone steps. About half a kilometer south of the temph is a fort known as the Madh fort and is located on the bank of the Malad creek. It is now in a dilapidated condition. The Madh beach is close to Madh village. Many visitors come here for swimming and other beach games.

During the Second World War, Madh Island was under the Military control and no public traffic was allowed there. During that time the transport in the island was improved. Where the main road closes, there are several former Military barracks, some being used for residence and some converted by the Bombay Municipal Corporation into primary school.


The temple of Mahalakshmi at Breach Candy is situated in an area named after the Goddess Mahalakshmi on a hillock at the extreme west of Bombay Island. The temple lies at a distance of about a kilometre from the Mahalakshmi railway station on the suburban route of the Western Railway. It can be reached by a number of BEST buses. The temple has a long tradition as has been mentioned in the Rise of Bombay by S.M. Edwardes, published in 1902. The traveller of early days, gazing westward from the kambal grove, would have marked the hill sloping downwards to the sea, and at its foot three shrines to Mahalakshmi, Mahakali and Mahasaraswati.

A legend connected with the Mahalakshmi temple relates that during the era of Muhammedan domination the goddess was so persecuted that she leapt from the shore into the Worli creek and remained in hiding there until after the Portuguese had ceded the island to the English. " The sovereignty of Bombay passed about the middle of the fourteenth century into the hands of the Emperor of Delhi, who sought by fanatical persecution to overthrow the power of Prabhadevi, Mahalakshmi and Valukeshwar."(The Rise of Bombay by S. M. Edwardes, 1902) When the first attempts were made to shut out the sea from the central portion of the island by building a dam between Mahalakshmi and Worli, the work was continually interrupted by the force of the incoming tide, and much money was wasted in apparently fruitless endeavours to check the force of the waves. At this juncture the goddess appeared in a vision to one Ramji Shivaji, a contractor, and promised that, if he tendered his services to Government for the construction of a causeway, she would remove all obstacles, provided that he first removed the images of herself and her two sister goddesses from their watery resting place and established them in a proper shrine on land. Ramji acted according to these divine instructions and even­tually, after the Hornby Vellard had been successfully built, obtained from the Bombay Government a grant of the site upon which the temples still stand. It is said that the temple in which were installed these images was built on the hill some time during the period 1805-1830. The present images of the Goddesses are the same as those salvaged from the sea.

The temple is a simple structure containing images of the goddesses Mahalakshmi, Mahakali and Mahasaraswati, who are themselves representations of the goddess Durga. The image of Mahalakshmi was represented as riding partly on the back of the demon Mahishasur and partly on a tiger. Not far from the temple was a small tank built by one Tulsidas Gopaldas in 1824 and on western side of the tank were the shrines dedicated to Shankar and Ranchhodji. Other temples in the enclosure are dedicated to Mayureshwar, Rameshwar, Dhakleshwar, Hari Narayan and Vinayakaditya. The temple of Dhakleshwar constructed at a cost of Rs. 80,000 and named after the builder Dhakji Dadaji is marked by excellent workmanship and is visible forty kilometres out at sea. The proximity of the  shrine  of Mama Hajiyani (Haji Ali) had given rise to a saying that under the British rule Mama and Mahalakshmi have joined hands, or in other words that the old animosity between the Musalman saints and Hindu gods has disappeared.In all probability the Mahalakshmi temple was originally patronised by the aboriginal Kolis and Agris only, and as time went on gradually attracted the attention of other classes of Hindus and other communities too.

The main entrance or the mahadwar of the temple facing the east was constructed in 1938. A flight of stone steps leads to the mahadwar of the temple. On the road leading to steps are the temples of Hanuman, Ram, Santoshi Devi, Rani Sati Mandir, and Sadhu Bela Ashram. At the top of the mahadwar is a drum-chamber or nagarkhana where drums i.e., chaughada are beaten twice a day. Inside the mahadwar to the left, there is a deepmala (a lamp pillar), which is approximately four and a half metres (15 feet) high. At the right also there is another deepmala which is approximately 4 metres (14 feet) high. The hereditary Bhopis of the temple reside in the houses constructed on the left of the main gate. The open space in front of their houses is occupied by shops selling materials of worship, viz., coconuts, incense sticks, flower garlands, etc.

The shrine of the deities which measures 6.096 m X 4.572 m (20' x 15') approximately faces the east. The floor of the shrine is paved with marble stone. The pinnacle of the spire of the temple is about 15.240 m.(50 feet) high from th.e ground. In the centre of the shrine, leaving a distance of about 0-762 m. (2 1/2) from the back wall thereof, for holy circumambulation, a stone platform (simhasana) measuring about 1.219 m. x 1.219 m. (4' X 4') and about 0.762 m. (2 1/2) in height from the ground level, is constructed. The platform is towered by a dome built in cement concrete resting on four pillars about 1.524 m. (5 feet) in height. In the space between the two rear pillars of the platform there is a stone wall about 1.524 m. (5 feet) in height which is lined with silver plates from inside. At the two sides of the platform there is a wooden railing about 0.914 m. (3 feet) in height, lined with silver plates. Canopies (Chhatra), cradles, etc., made of silver hung from the top of the platform over the heads of the deities, images of three deities, made of stone, are installed on the platform.

In front of the shrine, stands a sabhamandap (The Sabhamandap is being reconstructed at present (1985-86).) (auditorium) built on 18 pillars connected by arches constructed out of Porbandar stones, where programmes of bhajans, kirtans and pravachans, etc., are arranged. It measures about 7.620 m x 4.572 m (25'x 15') and its floor is paved with marble stones. The sabhamandap is open on all sides and at the centre of the sabhamandap facing the deities, an image of a wooden lion is installed on a stone pillar, both covered with silver plates. The pillar is erected on a stone platform measuring 0.762 m. X 0.762 m. (21/2 x 21/2) and 1.219 m. ( 4 feet) in height. At the entrance of the sabhamandap, a pit for lighting sacred fire (yajnya kunda) 0.762 m. x.07.62 m. (21/2 x 21/2') and 0.609 m. (2 feet) in depth, is provided which is used for performing havan (sacred fire) during the period of the fair and on such other occasions. Images of different saints are inscribed at the top of the sabhamandap on three sides, viz., the north, the south and the east. A hall 10.668 m. x 7.620 m. (35' x 25') constructed behind the shrine is used as a dharmashala.

The image of Mahalakshmi is in the centre of the platform and those of Mahakali and Mahasaraswati are to her right and left, respectively. In front of these images three small stools made of silver are placed. A gold plated mask of Goddess Annapurna is installed on the middle stool. Silver foot-prints of a Goddess are placed on another stool and the third stool is used for keeping worship utensils. An image of Goddess Annapurna is in a standing position and small images of other deities, all of silver, are kept in a niche in the back wall of the shrine and stone images of Ganapati and Vitthal-Rakhumai are kept in the niches in the right and left walls of the shrine, respectively.

Masks, plated with gold, are put on the images of the three deities. Nose rings (nath), ear-rings (Karnaphule), bangles, bracelets (patalya), necklace and waist belts (kamarpatta), all made of gold, are the ornaments of the deities for daily wear. The deities are also draped in saris, cholis and rich clothes and ornaments are put on the deities during the period of the fair and on special occasions such as Gudhi Padva (Chaitra Sud.l), Diwali (Ashvina Vad. 14), Tripuri Paurnima (Kartika Sud. 15), etc.

The temple is opened at 5-00 a.m. every morning when the images are bathed with water and scent, etc., and clothes, ornaments, flowers and flower garlands are put on them. Kumkum is also applied to their foreheads. A learned Acharya is appointed by the trustees on a part-time basis for reciting Sapta Shati Path daily in the morning. Arati is performed at about 7-00 a.m. and Mahanaivedya of rice, cakes of wheat flour, sweets and vegetables is offered to the deities at about 12-00 noon. Dhuparati (evening arati) is performed at sunset, i.e., at about 7-00 p.m. The Sayam Arati is performed at about 10-30 p.m. after which the temple is closed. During the period of the fair, on festival days and on other special occasions, the temple is kept open upto midnight.

Devotees in large numbers flock to the temple for darshan of the Goddesses on Tuesdays, Fridays and Sundays as these days are conside­red to be more auspicious for their worship.

It is customary to make vows to the deities for getting a child, perity in business, for regamning eyesight, etc. On fulfilment of their desire the devotees offer cradles, small canopies (chhatra), artificiallimbss (viz., eyes), etc., made of silver &nd some offer cloth (khan), coconuts, bangles, combs, mirrors, etc. Some also distribute sweets or sugar as prasad.

In course of time, it was decided by prominent persons to hold an annual fair in the month of Ashvina from Ashvina Sud. 1 to Ashvina Sud. 10, which are auspicious days for the worship of the deities.

The mahayatra starts on Ashvina Sud. 1 and ends on Ashvina Sud. 10. As the temple is situated on a hill and as there is no sufficient space around to accommodate shops and stalls in the compound of the temple, the fair is held at the outer premises.

Though the duration of the fair is ten days, no special programmes except bhajans, kirtans and pravachans are arranged in the temple from Ashvina Sud. 2 to Ashvina Sud. 9.

Ashvina Sud. 1 being the first day of the fair, a ghata (a metal pot) is installed in the temple early in the morning and special worship is offered to the deities. An abhisheka is also performed. Devotees belonging to different castes and creeds visit the temple, worship the Goddesses with kumkum, flowers, etc., make their offerings to the Goddesses, and some distribute sweets, sugar or gur as prasad.

On Ashvina Sud. 9, the important day of the fair, the ghata is removed and a sacred fire (homa) is lighted in the yajnyakunda and a great number of devotees gather for the purnahuti and offer coconuts, incense sticks, dhup, etc., to the homa. On the evening of Ashvina Sud. 10 (Dasara), most of the pilgrims offer leaves of apta tree to the deities as a token offering of ' gold '.

The second or Chaitra fair starts on Gudhi Padva (Chaitra Sud. 1) and lasts till Chaitra Sud. 9. Programmes of bhajan, kirtan and pravachan are arranged during this period. On Chaitra Sud. 19 Gudhi Padva (or new year day) a ghata is installed in the temple and a flag is hoisted on a pole just adjacent to the entrance to the sabhamandap. On Chaitra Sud. 9, the ghata is removed and the sacred fire (homa) is lighted. On an average, 1,000 pilgrims attend this fair every day, from Bombay and suburbs.

An adequate number of policemen are deployed for maintaining law and order at both the fairs. Volunteers of local associations also provide minor amenities to pilgrims at the temple as well as at the fair.

The temple trust is registered under the Bombay Public Trusts Act, 1950-The Board of Trustees includes prominent citizens. This trust looks after the management of the temple.



The Arthur Crawford Market, now known as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Market was founded by Mr. Arthur Crawford, C. S., Municipal Commissioner from 1865 to 1871, and was presented to the city in 1865. Recently the market has been renamed after Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, a celebrated social reformer of Maharashtra in the nineteenth century. The market consists of a Central Hall surrounded by a clock tower with a height of 39 014 metres (128 feet). The hall contains drinking water fountain donated by Sri Cowasjee Jehangir. The office as well as the residence of the superintendent and clock tower are situated on the north­west, the godowns, the purveying shops and fowl rooms on the south and the mutton and beef markets on the east. Completed at a cost of Rs. 19,49,700, it was once lighted by incandescent gas. The right-wing meant for fruits and flowers measures 45.120 m.(150 feet) X 30.480 m. (100 feet) and the left one meant for vegetables measures 106.680 m. (350 feet) x 30.480 m. (100 feet). The whole is covered with a double iron roof. Over the entrance gate are bas reliefs executed by J. Lockwood Kipling who designed the fountain also. The ground is paved with flag­stones from Caithness.

The mutton and beef markets are situated on the other side of the central garden. At the western end is a covered weighing shed, where consignments are first tested before being distributed to the stalls for retail sale. The enclosure was originally laid out as a garden with a handsome fountain in the centre.

The fish trade has recently been shifted from this market to the newly constructed Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Market opposite the Phule Market on the Palton Road. In the midst of a very busy locality and surrounded by buildings of modern design, the Arthur Crawford Market renamed as Phule Market and the newly constructed Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Market form a nucleus of the busiest centres of commercial activity of the Metropolitan city of Bombay. The Phule Market is the principal fruit market of Bombay.


The most noteworthy abode of peace at Mahim is the dargah of the Muhammedan saint Hajrat Makhdum Fakih Ali Paru. Mahim on the suburban section of the Western Railway is the nearest railway station and number of BEST buses on various routes touch the place. A huge urus is celebrated at the dargah in honour of the saint from the 13th to 22nd of the month of Madar. The urus is attended by over three lakhs of people, mostly from Bombay and belonging to different religions, during the ten days.

The saint Hajrat Makhdum Fakih Ali Saheb was of Arab origin, an ancestor of his having fled to India about A.D. 860 (A.H. 252) from the clutches of Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, the tyrannical governor of Basra and surrounding districts. Some five hundred years later there was born on the island of Mahim a very remarkable man, Shaikh Ali Paru or as he was subsequently styled Makhdum Fakih Ali " the worshipful jurisconsult Ali " whose shrine still attracts thousands of Musalmans annually from all parts of India. The saint died in A.H. 835 or A.D. 1431 al the age of 59, as we learn from the Kasful-Makhum or Revelation of the concealed by Mahommed Yusuf Khatkhate, and a mosque and shrine were straightway built to his memory which were repaired and enlarged in A.H. 1085 (A.D. 1674) and improved by the addition of verandahs in A.H. 1162 (A.D. 1748)(The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island, Vol. Ill, 1909, p 301.). After spending several years of his youth in travel and study he is said to have been appointed law officer to the Muhammedans of Mahim. He acquired a well-meritted reputation for piety and learning, his chief work being a commentary on the Qoran held in high esteem by the Sunni Muslims of India. It is believed that the saint is capable of fulfilling one's desires and those who come to the dargah generally make vows before it in order to get a child, success in business, etc., and on fulfilment of their desires offer sweetmeats, etc. to the dargah. Also ascribed to the saint are many miracles in his life time including one when he is supposed to have brought back to life a dead she-goat which he loved so much.

The dargah stands on the western side of the Cadel road and the main entrance faces the east. The dargah is constructed in stone and mortar coated with cement plastering. To the east of it is a two storeyed nagarkhana or a drum chamber with four arches on the ground floor, the roof of which is surmounted by a green flag. To the north of the tomb is the mosque.


The Mahim fort is located at the mouth of the Mahim Creek at the southern end of the Mahim causeway. In a letter written by Aungier and, his Council to the Court of Directors on 15th December 1673 it is stated " small lines or parapets and guard-houses have been raised at Mahim and Sion". It was strengthened and the small fortifications were built by Sir Thomas Grantham in 1684 during the eleven months that he held possession of Bombay. It is also mentioned that the small forts at Mazagaon, Sion, Mahim and Worli were also supplied with cannon.

In 1772 the Portuguese fired on Mahim fort. The English retorted with shells which "damnified their college at Bandora. In August of the same year the Portuguese attempted an invasion between Sewri and Sion (Ibid., Vol. II, p. 92, Note 2.) ".

What remains of the fort now are the rampart walls towards the Mahim creek. However, it is one of the very few old and historical objects in Bombay.


Mandapeshwar, called Montpezier or Monpacer or Mount Poinsur by the Portuguese lies about 13 km. south of Vasai and 2 km. north in a straight line from the Borivali railway station. The place can be reached by a BEST bus route No. 292 from the Borivali railway station. It is known for its Brahmanic caves turned churches by the Portuguese. The Portuguese seem to have occupied Mandapeshwar some time in 1538, expelled the Hindu Yogis and defaced the paintings ( In a recess on the left, as one enters, Lord Valentia in 1804 and Mr. Salt in 1805 noticed the painting of a saint still fresh on the wall. Trans. Bom. Lit. Soc. I.P. 48.) on the caves walls. For the vast area around, Mandapeshwar is easily known by a high whitewashed watch tower that crowns a garden around. Due to the development that has taken place of late there is no wooded knoll which could be seen previously, 91.440 metres (100 yards) to the north of the watch tower. On what was apparently a great isolated block of trap rock, are the remains of a Portuguese Cathedral and College. The buildings, especially the Cathedral with very high walls and high pitched roof, are of great size and cover a very large area. The eastern half of the Cathedral has been repaired and roofed and is used as a church. The east face of the great mass of rock on which the building stands, has been cut into several large Brahmanic caves. Beginning from the north end of the east side, a door opens into a long cave, about sixty six feet by forty and about twelve feet high. On the right hand, before entering, is a life-size defaced figure cut in the rock. The Cave has been fitted of a Portuguese Church, with a plain altar and seated wooden image as Virgin Mary at the south end, and a pulpit about the middle of the west wall.

The temple turned church consists of a central hall, two irregular aisles, and a vestibule or portico at the north end. The east aisle, originally a veranda, has a front wall built by the Portuguese with a central arched door and two square side windows. Inside of the east aisle or veranda, which is about nine feet broad, is a row of four pillars, and two pila­sters about twelve feet high. The pillars are plain and look rather slim as if a surface of figured ornaments had been hidden by mud and mortar and small figures of Parvati and Shiva with attendants may still be seen. The Portuguese must have indiscreetly been responsible for chiselling away the ornamental works on the pillars. Much unharmed tracery covers the shafts of the pilasters, and they end in fluted cushion-like capitals like the elephanta pillars. The central hall measures about twenty three feet broad and fifty long, a Chancel fifteen feet deep, being cut off at the south end by a wooden railing. The altar is plain and square with a wooden seated figure of the Virgin Mary, about life-size and a cross above.

The west aisle is very irregular and is little more than a passage from two to four feet broad. The west wall originally opened into three chambers. The southern chamber is entered by two steps and a threshold through a plain opening about six feet broad and eight high. The chamber inside is about nine feet square and seven high, with a rock bench along the south walls about three feet broad. The Portuguese filled the back wall with rough masonry. Formerly there was a square pillar with rounded capital, and the original caves went in about nine feet further. In the back wall there seem to be the remains of a figure.

The back wall, opposite the central door has been filled with masonry by the Portuguese. A five and a half feet square opening with plain wooden door posts gives entrance to a chamber about fifteen feet square and eight feet high, with some remains of carving on the back wall. On the floor are some well-carved Portuguese beams. Further north, a door in the back wall leads into a chamber fourteen feet by nine. The back wall, which has been filled by the Portuguese, was originally two plain square pillars and two square pilasters. A hole in the Portuguese masonry gives entrance to a chamber fifteen into six and nine feet high, and from this, to the north runs an inner chamber roughly fifteen feet into eight and five high. Both the chambers are plain. The vestibule or the portico, to the north of the hall, measures about eighteen feet into twelve and is about ten feet high. Round three sides runs a plain rock seat. In the east side of the north walls is an empty recess, about eight feet by five, with holes in the wall as if for closing it off. Before the Church was repaired this cave temple was used as a Christian place of worship for many years. It is now unused.

Passing south, outside of the church cave, behind the altar, cut off by a rough wall is a cave twenty feet into fourteen. The front is about half built. Passing through an opening left by the Portuguese as a window, is a cave twenty feet into fourteen.

In the back wall is a defaced statue of Shiva dancing the tandava or the frantic dance.( Except that it is somewhat larger, this representation of the tandava dance is much like that on the right hand side of the main entrance at Elephanta.) Above on the visitor's right, is Vishnu on his bird carrier or garud with attendants, and below are three worshippers, two women and a man. Above on the visitor's left are angels and a three headed Brahma, and below a Ganapati. Above is Indra on his elephant, and below are seers and a male figure, perhaps the man who bore the expense for cutting the group. Outside, to the left is an old cistern with a cross above, apparently cut out of an image of Shiva. The floating angel-like figures have been left untouched. Further along, an opening with two pillars and two pilasters with rounded capitals, gives access to a chamber eighteen feet by six. A door in this chamber gives entrance to a long plain hall 46' X 17' and 9' high, much filled with earth. In front are two great pillars about four feet square. There are two niches in the south wall, and to the east, is a six feet deep veranda with its north nearly filled with earth. Earth has recently been cleared when the excavations were carried out by the Archaeological department. From the rock, in whose east front these caves are cut, rises a great mass of Portuguese buildings. These buildings consist of three parts. In the south is the great Cathedral which runs east and west, to the north of the Cathedral is a large central hall surrounded by aisles, and behind the hall is a great pile of buildings, dwellings for priests and students and on the west a large enclosed quadrangle.(Vaupell (1839), Trans. Bom. Geog. Soc. VII, p. 146. About 1835 Mr. J. Forbes of Bombay, with the help of a pipal tree root, climbed to the top of the wall. He sat for a while and then slipping or losing his hold fell sixty or seventy feet into the court of the temple. He was carried to Bombay senseless and died that evening. Ditto.) To the west is a fine cross. The nave of the Cathedral, which is without aisles, is about seventy-five feet long by thirty-six wide. The side walls are about sixty feet high. The inner part of the nave has been covered with an open very high pitched tiled roof supported on massive teak timbers. Across the nave, about fifteen feet from the west door, two pillars with plain round shafts, about four feet high, support on plain square capitals, an arch of about thirty-four feet span which rises in the centre to about twenty-five feet. About thirty feet up the side walls are big square clerestory windows, and in the centre of the north wall, is a pulpit. At the east end of the nave is a transept about eighteen feet broad and fifty-four long, and beyond the transept is the chancel about thirty feet square and with a domed roof about fifty feet high. The whole is plain and simple, but clean and in good order.

To the north of the Cathedral is another large building which seems to have been a college hall. Inside of a row of cloisters, about nine feet broad and ninety feet long is a central hall, forty-five feet square, with four arches on each side. North of this hall and cloisters is another much ruined pile of buildings, and on the west, a great closed quadrangle.

At the foot of the west wall are two stones with Portuguese writing, one a dedication stone apparently dated 1623,(The writing states that the college was built in 1623 (1643?) as an appendage to the church by the order of the Infant Dom John III of Portugal (King Dom Joao IV?)Da Cunha's Bassein, p. 195, Trans. Bom. Geog., Soc. VII, p. 147.) the other a tomb stone.

About a hundred yards south of the Cathedral and the college ruins, on a covered knoll about 150 feet high, stands a high domed whitewashed tower, ending in what looks a belfry. The tower, whose height is about forty-six feet, stands on a plinth about fifty feet in diameter. Except to the east where there is a square out work with stairs leading to the upper story, the tower is round with a veranda about nine feet deep, and to the north, west and south, are seven vaulted guard-chambers about six feet in diameter and ten feet high. At a height of about fourteen feet the wall is surrounded by battlements about two feet high. Inside of the battlements runs a parapet paved with rough cement about eight feet broad, and from the centre rises a dome about fifteen feet in diameter and with stone side-walls about fifteen feet high. From the stone wall rises a brick dome about six feet from the lip to the crest, and on the outside over the dome, is a small building shaped like a belfry.

This tower, which was very notable for vast area round, was generally known as the high priest's dwelling, Sir Padri's Bungalow, but it was probably a watch tower. The upper platform commands a wide view. To the east rise the slopes of Kanheri and Tulsi hills. To the north-west are the ruins of Vasai, the Vasai creek to the north and beyond the creek the flat back of Tungar and the finely rounded peak of Kamandurg.

About the middle of the sixteenth century (1556) the Franciscans changed the cave temple into a Catholic chapel. They built a wall in front of the cave and screened off or covered with plaster most of the Shaiv sculpture; in some places they did not damage it .(De Couto states (Da Asia, VII. 245) that when in 1538 the Franciscans received charge of the Kanheri and Mandapeshvar caves, and expelled the Yogis, they did their best to destroy the sculptures. But as has been noticed under Kanheri, this seems hardly correct.) In connection with the large monastery founded at that time by the great Franciscan missionary, P. Antonio de Porto, a church and college were built on the site of the cave, the cave forming a crypt. The church was dedicated to Nostra Senhora da Conceicaoandthe college was meant for the education of 100 orphans. Round the hill there was a colony of 200 converts. In the height of its prosperity Dr. Garcia d' Orta (1530-1572) described it as Maljaz, a very big house made inside the rock. Within were many wonderful temples which struck all who saw them with awe.( Coll. dos. Ind. (Ed. 1872), p. 42.) About 40 years later (1603) Couto wrote, " In the island of Salsette was another pagoda called Manazaper, which is also cut out of solid rocks in which lived a Yogi, very famous among them called Ratemnar, who had with him fifty Yogis, whom the inhabitants of these villages maintained. The priest Fre Antonio de Porto being told of this, went to him. But the Yogis of that island had so great a fear of him that no sooner did they see him, than they left the temple and went away. " Only divine power says De Couto, " could have made these fifty men leave their temples, and their lands, and fly before two poor sackclothed friars. The priests entered the cave and turned it into a temple dedicated to N.S. de Piedade. The Franciscans afterwards established a college for the island of Salsette for the education of the children of all those converted to Christianity. King D. Joao granted this college all the revenue and property that had belonged to the pagoda." (Jour. B.B.R.A.S.I. 38. De Couto notices that on his death the chief monk of Kanheri left to Mandapeshvar all the lands with which he had been presented, when he became a Christian.)

In 1695 Gamelli Careri described it as a Monopesser, an underground church once a rock-temple, on which had been built a Franciscan college and monastery. It was 100 spans long and thirty broad. The front was built, but the side walls were of rock; close by was another rock-cut pagoda. Five religious men lived there, receiving from the king of Portugal 130,000 pounds (5000 paras) of rice a year, which except what they ate for themselves they distributed to the poor.(Gamelli Careri in Churchill, IV, p. 198.) In 1760, after the Maratha conquest, Du Perron found the Mandapeshwar churches and buildings abandoned. A church to the left of the caves had a Portuguese writing dated 1590. The Marathas had destroyed the place and carried the timber to Thana.( Zend A vesta, I. ccc xc.) In 1804 (November) Lord Valentia found the ruins of a very handsome church and monastery.( Lord Valentia says, probably Jesuits; Du Perron is right. Da Cunha's Bassein, p. 193.) The Church was originally lined with richly carved wood panelling. In the centre was the head of saint tolerably executed and surrounded with wreaths of flowers. The sculpture was in excellent taste. The whole was in ruins. Under the church was a small rock-cut temple square and flat roofed with a few deities and other figures in bas relief. The priests had covered the sculptures with plastey and turned the cave into a chapel. But the original owners were un­covered and worshipped again.( Voyages, II. p. 195. Malte Brunn (1822, Univ. Geog. III. p. 161) says, "The Portuguese utterly effaced many figures of an ugliness incorrigibly heathen. Others, not having coolness enough to allow them to stand as imple monuments of art and antiquated opinions, they converted into Christian emblems, painted them red, and with pious zeal cherished them as valuable proselytes." Du Perron (Zend Avesta I. ccc cxxii) states that when the Marathas took Mandapeshvar and Elephanta, they did much harm to the sculptures by firing cannon in the caves to loosen the mortar with which the Portuguese had hid the figures. This can hardly have been done at Elephanta; it may be true of Mandapeshvar.) In 1850 Dr. Wilson found the cave-temple used by the Roman Catholic inhabitants of the neighbourhood as a church instead of their built church which had fallen into decay.( Jour. B. B. R. A. S. III. p. 41.)

On the eighth of December, the festival of the Mandapeshwar Virgin, Sahibin Kosehsang (N.S. da Conceicao, Our Lady of Immaculate Conception) a fair is held. Among Christian festivals it comes next in popularity to the fair of Mount Mary in Bandra. Childless people of all creeds and religious beliefs, Hindus, Musalmans and Christians, come in large numbers to make vows. A large bell said to have cost Rs. 250 was donated to the church by a man whose prayer for a son was heard.

The fair and the feast of " Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception " is celebrated in honour of the Mother of Prophet, Mary who was con­ceived without the stain of Adam's sin. The fair is held at the Church of Mount Poinsur on the Sunday following the 8th of December every year and lasts for a day.

The morning and evening Masses are offered on week days, Sundays, and feast days. Masses are offered from 5-00 a.m. to 11-30 a.m. after an hour's interval in each Mass. The last Morning Mass is held at 11-30 a.m. whereas the Evening Mass is held at 5-00 p.m. The Mass at 10-00 a.m. is the Solemn High Mass while Sermon and Benediction Masses are also offered on Octave day which falls on the 8th day from the day of the feast.

On an average 25 to 30 thousand devotees mostly from Bombay and its suburbs attend the feast. The devotees belong to other religions also though Christians are in large number.

The devotees attend the Morning Mass, offer coins, wax candles etc., pray for blessings of " Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception ". It is also customary to make vows to the deity to get a child, an eye sight etc., and in fulfilment of their vows devotees offer artificial limbs made of wax, candles, etc., to the deity.


The temple dedicated to Mankeshwar is located on the Reay Road, Dock-Yard Road on the Harbour Branch line of the Central Railway being the nearest railway station at a distance of three kilometres from Bombay V.T. A number of BEST buses of different routes ply through the area at frequent intervals. For the convenience of the commuters the BEST makes special arrangement during the fairs held in honour of the deity.

The temple is said to be about 600 years old and its renovation carried out some 100 years back. It is a stone structure measuring 18.288m. X 12.192 m. (60' X 40'). A passage about 2.438 m. (8') in width and both 99.060 m. (325) in length is paved with stones and connects the temple entrance to Reay Road. The shrine is to the left of the sabhamandap, i.e. auditorium. The floors of both the sabhamandap and the shrine are paved with marble stones. The door of the shrine is plated with silver sheets both from within and without. The new gilt kalash at the top of the dome of the shrine is said to have been built by the present owner in the year 1942.

The pindi (spout) of Lord Shiva installed in the temple, it is said, was lying buried in the ground under a tree. One of the forefathers of the present owner of the temple had a dream in which, Lord Shiva said to him, " I am in the earth under a tree, take me out from here and build a temple." Accordingly the pindi was unearthed and installed at the place where it was found and the temple was built.

The ling of Lord Shiva in the shrine is said to be swayambhu (self-born). It is installed in south-northerly direction. It is covered with a silver image of a hooded-cobra. The image of Nandi made of stone is installed at the entrance to the shrine in the sabhamandap. There are also stone images of Ganapatf, Kalbhairav, Shitala Devi and Hanuman in the temple. In a small room in the south-west corner of sabhamandap, silver images of Lord Shiva, Parvati and Ganapati areins tailed.

The temple opens at 6-00 a.m. in the morning when the deity is bathed with scented water. Sandal-wood paste is applied and flowers, etc., are offered to it. The arati is performed at about 6-30 a.m. This is called pakhal puja. Another puja in the same manner is performed before 12-00 noon and the third puja called bhasma puja is performed in the evening at about 7-30 p.m., when bhasma is applied to the deity. The temple is closed between 12-00 noon to 3-30 p.m., when the devotees are not allowed to enter the temple for darshan. It is finally closed at 9-00 p.m. During the fair period the temple is kept open throughout the day.

On Ashvina Vad. 14, Ashvina Vad. 30, Kartika Sud. 1 and Chaitra Sud. 1, the deity is draped with a pagadi (turban) of jari cloth, she la, pitamber and adorned with mukhavata of silver plated with gold. On Ashvina Sud. 15 rich clothes and precious ornaments are put on the deity. On other days no ornaments or clothes are put on the deity.

Cooked food (naivedya in the form of cooked rice, cakes of wheat flour and vegetables) is offered daily. Special naivedya of'panchapakvanna' (five different varieties of sweet dishes) is offered to the deity on Chaitra Sud. 1 (Gudhi Padva), Ashvina Sud. 15 (Kojagiri Pournima), Ashvina Vad. 14, Ashvina Vad. 30 and Kartika Sud. 1.

It is customary to make vows to the deity for getting a child, prosperity in business, success in examination, etc. and it is believed that the deity is capable of fulfilling the desires of its devotees. On fulfilment of their desires, the devotees offer puja (worship) to the deity with coconut and distribute sweets, sugar or gur, as prasad. A few also offer clothes and ornaments.

Fairs in honour of God Mankeshwar (Lord Shiva) are held in the months of Shravan, Ashvina and Magha, of which the fair held in the month of Shravan is considered to be the most important. On an average 3,00,000 pilgrims attend the fair held in the month of Shravan. Ladies are, however, not allowed to enter the shrine.

The main fair is held from Shravan Vad. 5 to Shravan Vad. 9 (both days inclusive). The other fairs are held on Ashvina Sud. 15 {Kojagiri Pournima) and Magha  Vad. 14 (Mahashivratri).

Three days of the fair, from Shravan Vad. 7 to Shravan Vad. 9, are considered to be very important days. On Shravan Vad. 5 and 6, there are no special programmes in the temple except bhajan, kirtan and pravachan arranged in the sabhamandap of the temple. At midnight on Shravan Vad. 7, images of Lord Shiva, Parvati and Ganapati of about two and a half feet in height prepared out of sandal-wood paste are installed on the wooden platform specially erected over the Shiva-pindi, After installation of these images no one is allowed to enter the shrine. The image of Panchamukhi Mahadeo is kept at the door of the shrine to enable the devotees to worship. The sandalwood paste images installed in the shrine are kept for three days, i.e., upto the morning of Shravan Vad. 9. In the morning of Shravan Vad. 9, these images are taken out of the shrine and are kept in the sabhamandap on big wooden stools (chaurangd), to enable the pilgrims to have darshan. At about 1-00 p.m. a special puja is performed by the owner of the temple and the images are then taken in a chariot bedecked with flowers and leaves. It starts from the temple followed by large congregation of devotees, musicians, lezim players, bhajan groups, etc., through the main streets of Bombay and it terminates at Bhaucha Dhakka, i.e., Ferry Wharf. At this place the images are transhipped to a big country boat after worship. The boat is taken about three kilometres (two miles) into the sea accompanied by about 300-400 people, and the images are immersed ceremoniously in the sea. The whole ceremony is conducted with great pomp and show.

The second fair is held on Ashvina Sud. 15 (Kojagiri Pournima). On this day a mahapuja of the deity is performed between 9-00 a.m. and 12-00 noon and the deity is decorated with costly dress and precious ornaments. A naivedya of panchapakvanna is offered to the deity. No one is allowed to enter the shrine during the performance of the puja. At night at about 8-30 p.m. a palkhi (palanquin) procession of the image of Panchamukhi Mahadeo made of silver is taken out from the temple through the main streets of Mazagaon locality and it returns to the temple at about 11-30 p.m. The image of Panchamukhi Mahadeo is again worshipped andprasad is distributed. On an average 1,000 devotees attend this procession.

The third fair is held on Magha Vad. 14. On this day the devotees visit the temple and offer flowers and leaves of Bel-tree to the deity. On an average 4,000 to 5,000 pilgrims attend this fair. On this day Laghu Rudras (rudra avartan) are performed at night. At 6-30 a.m. next morning the puja of the deity is performed by the priest of the temple and naivedya consisting of cooked rice and curds is offered to the deity.


Manori, a sub-island of Salsette lies 14 km. south-west of Borivali railway station of the Western Railway. The Borivali-Gorai-Manori route also traverses the greeneries of Gorai. It can also be reached by the Malad-Marve road. Between Marve and Manori there is a regular ferry service  operated by the Manori Machhimar Vividh Karyakari Society Limited. Generally the boats have a carrying capacity of 25 persons each.

After crossing the creek, there is a road of about 1.6km. that leads to Manori. The route passes through the thick palm grove. The Manori village is land-marked by the ancient Portuguese Church, whose yellow outlines can be seen from across the creek. It was built by the Portuguese wayback in 1559. It also served as a rampart. On its galleries the Portuguese placed their big guns trained towards the sea in case of a naval attack. The church was repaired in 1815. It was finally remodelled in 1912. From inside it is very artistic, as all catholic churches are. There is a huge reclining image of Christ Crucified which is taken out in proces­sion through the village once a year, on Good Friday. Several ancient Portuguese officials lie burried here.

Manori has two beaches in fact. One is directly in front of the village while the other one which is the better of the two is about a kilometre north of the village. Most of the villagers of Manori are Christian Kolis. On the former beach the fisherfolks are seen busy in their trade. Their fishing boats, always a fascinating sight whether sailing or anchored have their mast decorated with the colourful saris of the fisherwomen on auspicious days like Easter, Christmas and so on. They serve as lively buntings and wave lustily in the wind of the waters. The other beach is as beautiful as lonely.


The temple dedicated to Shri Markandeshwar is located on the Annie Besant Road opposite the municipal pumping station. The deity was originally known as Gathia Mahadev. It is a self born or a swayambhu linga (natural or spontaneous linga) over which a temple was built about three quarters of a century ago. The temple has been renovated a few years ago. A flight of 75 steps leads to the temple and a further flight of six steps above the shrine is a huge dome with a pinnacle. While ascending the flight of steps, towards the right is a shrine dedicated to Mahalakshmi in a standing position. The idol which is about 85 years old could be seen on a pedestal made of marble.

On entering the inner shrine on a marble pedestal is a Shiva-linga at the centre and a silver plated Sheshanaga. The image of Yama, the god of death, less than two feet in height is made in black stone. Behind the Shivalinga on the same pedestal could be seen an idol of Markandeshwar, two and a half feet in height. Towards the left could be seen an idol of Siddhi Vinayak which has a height of afe et and a half. Behind the pedestal on which is placed the Shiva-linga is another marble pedestal on which is an idol of Parvati. To the right of Parvati in a recess is an image of Ganapati and in the recess on the left an image of Maruti.

Opposite to the temple of Markandeshwar is seen a big banyan tree said to be centuries old. On the seat round about the tree are two images of Nandi, Lord Shiva's bullock, one made of marble and the other made of black stone.

An annual fair is held at the temple in honour of Shri Markandeshwar on the great night of Shiva i.e., Mahashivratri, Magha Vadya 14. A number of devotees flock at the temple on every Monday in the month of Shravan.


(The account is taken from former edition of Bombay City Gazetteer, Vol. III.)

For many years the Masons of Bombay had no building, worthy of the craft, in which to meet. Until the year 1859 the three craft lodges in Bombay were St. George, No. 549 under England, established in 1848, Lodge Perseverance, No. 351, established under the English constitution but transferred to Scotland in 1847, and Lodge Rising Star, No. 342 established under the Scottish constitution for Parsi brethren in 1844. Lodge St. George used to meet in the houses of various brethren on Malabar hill; Lodges Perseverance and Rising Star met in rooms at Colaba. In 1859 application was made to the United Grand Lodge of England for a warrant and, on its being obtained, Lodge Concord was established in 1866. A muhammadan brother placed a bungalow on the eastern margin of the Babula tank at the disposal of the brethren and allowed the lodge to occupy it rent-free for about two years. As the Masonic brotherhood increased in numbers, the need of proper accommodation was more acutely felt; and a general meeting, at which all the lodges except Lodge Concord were represented, was held to discuss the question. As a result a house at the back of the J.J. Hospital was secured and funds were raised by the issue of debentures for furni­shing it. In 1877 (At this date the Hon.Mr.Gibbs was D.G.M of English Freemasonary and Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) Morland was G.M of all Scottish Freemasonry in India.) an attempt was made to locate the various masonic bodies under one roof, and Nawab's bungalow in Nesbit road, Mazagaon, was taken up for this purpose in joint partnership on equal terms; but the site was not wholly satisfactory, and it remained for Mr.N. N. Wadia, C.I.E., some years later to secure by purchase from Government the site, upon which the present Masonic Hall stands, giving the Masonic Committee which dealt with the matter the option of taking over the land from him at cost price within the following twelve months. The cost of the building was defrayed by subscriptions and the foundation-stone was laid by Lord Sandhurst on the 5th June 1897.

The Masonic Hall is situated to the east of the building formerly used as the Government Mews and opposite the Sterling Cinema Theatre.It is built in the Italian style, having brickwalls faced on the west and north with Kurla stone and window-dressings of Porbandar stone. The main hall on the first floor is 60 feet long by 30 feet broad, the banqueting hall below being of the same dimensions. Rooms are provided in the building for the holding of chapters.


The shrine of Our Lady of the Mount popularly known as Mount Mary or Mat Mauli, the corrupted form of Mata Mauli or Mother Mauli, is one of the most famous Christian shrines in India revered even by Hindus, Muslims and other communities also. Situated on a beautiful hill top opposite the Mahim causeway and overlooking the sea, the Church with its twin spires soaring into the sky presents a picturesque landmark to all who cross the dividing water between Bombay and its suburbs.

Bandra on the suburban section of the Western railway is the nearest railway station to the Church. A regular BEST bus service also plies from Bandra station to the foot of the hill. A taxi cab takes directly atop the hill.

The shrine, at that time a modest little hermitage, was founded by the Jesuits round about the years 1568-1570. In 1640 the hermitage was enlarged into a chapel. However another reference states, " In the year 1678 a chapel was built by the Portuguese and named Capella de N. Senhora do Monte, which was made filial to the ancient church of St. Anne."( B. L. D'silva in the Indian Antiquary XIX, pp. 443-44.) However one thing is certain that by 1679 it had become a famous place of pilgrimage frequented by Christrians and non-Christians alike.

At the time when Antonio Luiz Gonsalves da Camera Coutinho was the Viceroy (1698-1701) Bandra was invaded by a pirate army of the Muscat Arabs. According to a story they attempted to ransack the shrine hoping to find treasure, and on being disappointed they intended to set fire to the church when a huge army of angry bees attacked them so cruelly that they were forced to abandon their evil intentions and leave in such a hurry that they even left the arms they carried behind them.( Behold All Generations by Prof. F. H. Gracias, p. 40.) However this account does not appeal to reason in view of the fact that when Marathas overran Salsette i.e., the present Suburbs of Bombay, the chapel was destroyed by the Portuguese authorities at the instance of the English in order to prevent this strategic position from falling into the hands of the victorious Marathas. On this occasion the popularly venerated image of the Blessed Virgin was ferried across the creek for safe custody to St. Michael's at Mahim whence it was brought back to be reinstalled in the nearby built chapel in 1761.

The present church which is a fine example of Gothic architecture with its noble facade and its soaring spires was built in 1904. In the spacious auditorium are the murals depicting the life of Our Lady of the Mount executed in Indian style. The status of the shrine of Mount Mary was raised to a Minor Basilica by Pope Pius XII, at the time of the centenary celebrations of the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception.

In front of the shrine of the Blessed Virgin stands the oratory of Our Lady of Fatima built to commemorate the National Marian Congress held in Bombay in December 1954. It is also a fine specimen of archi­tecture with a round staircase on both sides with arches below and over a central arch a structure with four minarets and a central spire.

A huge fair is held in honour of Mary, Mother of Jesus Christ and is celebrated during the Octave (Sunday to Sunday) following the feast on 8th September. During the period thousands of devotees from all walks of life with no discrimination of caste and creed throng the road leading to the chapel of Our Lady of the Mount that goes to show the secular nature and cosmopolitan character of Bombay city.

Many ardent Christians from all parts of India come on pilgrimage to Bandra to pay their homage to Mata Mauli regarded by many Christians as the holiest in India and is believed to possess miraculous powers. Nume­rous Hindus, Muslims and others pray to the deity for getting a child or a child's recovery from a dangerous disease and after the vow has been fulfilled they proceed to the chapel to offer their heartful thanks, their gratitude in many cases taking the shape of a wax model of a child or a limb or a cradle according to their respective vows to Our Lady.

From the top of the hill down the hundreds of steps leading to the road that goes to the station, the crowds surge backwards and forwards, jostling, pushing, edging their way from the shops that sell religious articles and the stalls put up by the different parishes to the toy shops, which today rarely sell as good toys as they sold some twenty years ago, from the toy shops to the sweetmeat shops, from the sweetmeat shops to the restaurants that sell eatables and some soft drinks and from there to the hastily built photographer's studios that can give you your photo­graph in three different poses for a rupee or so within half an hour.( Behold AH Generations by Prof. F. H. Graeias, p. 60.)


The original temple of Mumbadevi or Mumbai from whose name the name of the metropolis, Mumbai or Bombay, has been derived is supposed to have been constructed and attended by the Koli fishermen of Bombay. " The influence of the old goddess, though subjected on occasion to disastrous eclipse, has survived the changes of centuries, and has finally given one common and immortal name to the scattered islets of Hindu period."( The Rise of Bombay by S. M. Edwardes, 1902, p. 43.) The temple has along tradition and the shrine of the ancient goddess Mumbadevi was in existence during the reign of Bhimdev who died in Shaka year 1225 (A.D. 1303).(Ibid. p. 27.) It was then situated near the old Phansi Talao, i.e., Gibbet tank near Bazar Gate on a spot now included within the limits of the Victoria Terminus or Boribunder of the Central Railway. The destruction of the temple of Mumbadevi, guardian goddess of the island, was undertaken during the reign of Mubarak Shah I of Gujarat. The Goddess Mombai or Mumbai was unquestionably an aboriginal personification of the earth-Mother who is still worshipped under various appellations especially by the Dravidian population of Western and Southern India. The Goddess is said to have been originally consecrated about 500 years ago and must have been built by Koli commu­nity of Bombay who were the aborigins of the place. After the temple was built they might have given the goddess their name ' Muja ' as such names as Munj Shimga, Modna, Manja, etc., are found amongst them. It appears that the Brahmins who became predominant later on turned the name Muja to Mumbadevi. An interesting anecdote regarding the origin of the deity is given in Mumba Devi Mahatmya or Puran, the Rise of Bombay, by S. M. Edwardes.

About 1737, when the then Bombay Government set to enlarging the fortifications of the old town and the land on which the temple stood then was acquired by the East India Company, the original temple was demolished and the site on which the present temple stands was then granted to one Pandu Seth and other Hindu devotees of the deity. A new temple was erected by Pandu Sonar who was at that date a merchant of considerable influence in Bombay. It is said that Pandu Seth Savji collected funds from the Hindu devotees for the purpose.

The modern shrine of Mumbadevi contains an image of the goddess without mouth and is dressed in a robe and bodice with a silver crown, a nose-stud and golden necklaces, and seated under a domed makhar of wood, covered with silver plates. On the left is a stone figure of Annapurna, who is worshipped with Mumbadevi and on special days is seated on a stone peacock. In front of the shrine is a brass tiger, the vahan or carrier of the goddess, which was presented by a pearl merchant in 1890, and is washed and worshipped daily along with the goddess. Tuesday is the chief day of worship in ordinary season, when the devotees of the goddess break cocoanuts in front of the shrine, pour the contents over the tiger, and then hand the halves to the Pujari, who gives one-half to the worshipper, together with a flower or sweetmeat that has touched the goddess as prasad. One proof of the local importance of Mumbadevi is that among Marathi-speaking castes, the bride and bridegroom are taken on or after the marriage-day to the shrine, and present the goddess with a coconut, a bodice or a jewel, according to their means, in the hope that she will render their future free from ilMuck. The two great annual festivals occur during the nine days of the month of Ashvina which precede the Dasara festival and the five days of the month of Margashirsha. On the former occasion mixed millet and rice are sown on the first day in front of the shrine; on the seventh day a square sacrificial pit is dug and consecrated by a Brahman, in which on the following day a fire (homa) is kindled and fed with grain, ghi and coconuts, while on the tenth day or Dasara the seedlings, which have been carefully nurtured since they were first sown, are plucked up, washed and presented to the goddess, and are also distributed among the worshippers, who adorn their hair with them or put them in front of their turbans. On the occasion of the shorter festival in Margashirsha no seed is sown; but a sacrificial fire is prepared, into the ashes of which the devotees dip the third finger of the right-hand and then mark the forehead between the eyebrows. Other shrines within the Mumbadevi temple enclosure are dedicated to Ganesh, Maruti, Mahadev, Indrayani, Murlidhar, Jagannath, Narsoba and Balaji. A big tank was built in front of the Mumbadevi temple by a Kapol Bania named Nagardas Navlakhya. The tank however has been filled in and is no more: in existence.

The temple originally was a private property of Pandu Seth Savji. Due to the litigation between the heirs of Pandu Seth the matter was referred to the Governor of Bombay regarding the management of the temple. New trustees were appointed by the decree dated the 4th October 1898 and a scheme was framed for the management of the Mumbadevi temple by the Bombay High Court. Of the shrines in the temple com­pound only two shrines namely those of Mumbadevi and Hanuman come under the Shree Mumbadevi Mandir Charities Fund while the remaining shrines are private properties. During 1973-74 the total income of the trust amounted to Rs. 7,17,328.13. It rose to Rs. 7,85,325.72 in 1974-75. The money collected is utilised towards social service by the trust. The trust conducts a Pathology department in the Samaldas Kothari Hospital at C. P. Tank and the Intensive Paediatric Care Unit at Sir Harkisandas Hospital. An ayurvedic dispensary is conducted within the temple premises while a Pathological Laboratory is opened at Dr. Subodh Mehta's Medical Relief Centre at Khar. The trust also gives monetary assistance to various hospitals and educational institutions and provides assistance for running the Sanskrit Pathshala at the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay.


In 1866, the Municipality was housed in an unpretentious building at the end of Girgaum road, whence it was removed in 1870 to a building on the Esplanade. On the 19th December 1884 Lord Ripon, the Viceroy of India, laid the foundation stone of the present Municipal buildings opposite the Victoria Terminus of the Central Railway, which were completed in 1893. In the main entrance hall is a tablet containing the subjoined inscription:—

" These buildings were designed and their execution superintended by F. W. Stevens, C.I.E., F.R.I., B.A., A.M.I.C.E., RaoSaheb Sitaram Khanderao, M.S.E., being the Resident Engineer in charge. The work was commenced on the 25th July 1889, Grattan Geary being the President of the Corporation and E.C.K. Ollivant, I.C.S., being the Municipal Commissioner, and was completed on the 31st July 1893, Thomas Blaney being the President of the Corporation and H. A. Acworth, I.C.S., being the Municipal Commissioner. "

The domed and minaretted building belongs to the early Gothic style of architecture, while the many domes which rise above the gabled roofs impart an oriental flavour to the design. The imposing facade with its magnificent tower is flanked by two wings which abut on Hornby (Dada-bhai Naoroji) and Cruickshank (Mahapalika) roads. The tower rises to a height of 235 feet from the ground and is surmounted by a masonry dome. Over the facade is placed a colossal allegorical figure 13 feet in height representing Urbs Prima in Indis. The grand staircase is also crowned by an imposing dome, while on the Cruickshank road side are the offices of the Health Department, the Municipal Laboratory and a staircase for the use of the Commissioner and the members of the Corporation. On the first floor are the offices of the Mayor, the Commissioner, Municipal Secretary and the Corporation Hall. The hall is 65 feet long by 32 feel broad and is 38 feet in height. Its northern end is ornamented with a large bay window, filled with stained glass bearing the arms of the Corporation and flanked by canopied recesses of stone. The southern end opens into a lounge for the use of Councillors, which leads through glass doors on to a broad terrace above the southern entrance of the building. The hall contains two galleries for the public. The cost of the whole building amounted to about Rs. 13 lakhs in 1893.

Another building, an annexe to the original building, in modern style has subsequently been constructed towards the north of the earlier building facing the Cruickshank road and has been connected with the old building.

Immediately in front of the original building stands a statue of late Sir Pherozeshah Mehta who took prominent part in the civic life of Bombay.


The then Government of Bombay chose Kanheri with about five and a half acres of land studded with hills and green fields and nullahs as the site of the first National Park of the country and named it as Krishnagiri Upavan. Located near the Borivli railway station on the suburban section of the Western Railway on the east, the place could be reached by a number of BEST buses on holidays. About fifteen minutes walk from the Borivli railway station leads to the park.

A number of picnic cottages have been built in the park for the convenience of the visitors. A pavilion after the modernised Buddhist fashion has been built atop a hill and is known as Smriti Mandir. It has become a landmark visible from the vast area around. It commands an excellent view of the park itself as also of the surrounding country-side stretching upto the Kanheri caves. Recently a Lion Safari park has been added to the National Park.(See " Borivli Lion Safari Park " in this Chapter.)


Nehru Centre is a national memorial devoted to the perpetuation of the ideals that the Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, cherished throughout his life time; and is dedicated to the fulfilment of his aspirations for the people of India whom he loved most. The centre is being developed on a five and a half hectare plot in the heart of the city at Worli. The centre envisages several projects such as the Planetarium, the Discovery of India Hall, the Museum, the Library, the Dance and Drama Academy, the Art Galleries and Art Studio, the Research Centre, the Publications Division, academic activities and children's facility centre.

One of the great attractions of the Nehru centre is the Planetarium. The imposing Nehru Planetarium building has already become a land­mark in Bombay. It has three floors with a total area of 5,000 square metres and is fully centrally air conditioned.

There is provision in the basement for lecture halls and a library of books on astronomy, astrophysics and space sciences. A hobby workshop will cater to children and enthusiastic amateurs who wish to build their own telescopes and models and innovate their own patterns of study.

PLANETARIUM : The Planetarium has been made possible by a generous donation of over Rs. 1 crore from the house of Birlas.

"In the sky theatre of the Nehru Planetarium you lean back in your seat in air-conditioned comfort and watch starry heavens glide above you. You see the Sun moving in the midst of stars, comets zooming past, meteors flashing by, Jupiter's four moons going around their planet and many more celestial phenomena. These celestial spectacles are produced by a composite optical projector mounted at the centre of the circular sky theatre. On the hemispherical roof (dome) are projected images of some 9,000 stars, the Milky Way, Planets, Sun, Moon, etc. At the touch of a switch the sky appears to turn slowly to display the changing stellar panorama. "

" The Zeiss projector at Nehru Planetarium can recreate the sky as seen from anywhere on the earth and at any time past, present or future. In a matter of minutes the night sky of Bombay can be changed to that of the North or South Pole where the stars neither rise nor set. Several fundamental principles of astronomy which are difficult to understand can be easily explained in the Planetarium. A number of celestical phenomena which take place over several years can be seen in a few minutes. The Planetarium is a powerful medium for introducing the young and old persons to the basic principles of astronomy. "

" While we are waiting for the Planetarium programme, we can see on the ground floor the rotating planetary motion model (Orrery), the panorama of the Moon, a large collection of astronomical photographs and we can know our weight on Sun, Moon, Mars and Jupiter. On the first floor level we can see a working model of the solar and lunar eclipses, a solar telescope to show us the image of the Sun and the Fraunhofer spectrum (during the daytime when the sky is clear) and an exhibition of our space efforts. The Planetarium programmes last for about 40 minutes with commentary in Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati and English. "

FACILITIES FOR CHILDREN : Nehru loved children. The major part of the Centre's activities will be devoted to the welfare and happiness of children, a mini-Disneyland to explore the wonders of the world; a work centre and laboratory to develop their creative talent; galleries to display their creative work; educational exhibits; an amusement park. Also 2 dormitories to accommodate 100 boys and 100 girls, at a time who may come from all parts of the country to stay and tour the centre.

Discovery of India Hall : The Discovery of India Hall is pageant of the immemorial past of India that echoes the tragedies and triumphs from the dawn of our history. Momentous moments frozen into sculp­tures, paintings, models recreate the glory and the grandeur of our inheritance.

Museum : Glimpses of the changing panorama of science and techno­logy are delineated through actual working models and visual aids.

Library : Scholars from all over the world can draw on valuable material on Nehru and his ideals, world history and physical sciences in this library.

Dance and Drama Academy : This comprises a workshop for experimental theatre and innovations in our classical and folk dance forms housed in a 300 seat auditorium. In another auditorium, seating 1,200 persons, will be held cultural and educational programmes.

Art Galleries and Art Studio: Promising and professional painters, sculptors, and creative artists will be able to hold exhibitions in two art galleries. There is a studio with tools and facilities for artists to practise or execute their work as also an auditorium to seat 150 persons for discussions and discourses on various art forms and a permanent exhibition of artist Husain's tribute to Nehru.

Research Centre : Academicians, scholars and scientists will be provided facilities to conduct research in selected fields having a bearing on national priorities.

Publications Division : Collection and dissemination of literature on subjects relevant to Nehru's ideals; Nehru's writings; books and periodicals by and on Nehru will be printed and published in several languages to meet the needs of different age groups and a wide range of intellectual interests. Nehru Centre is also publishing a new Science Magazine known as Science Age from August 1983.

Mini Planetarium : In 1984 a Mini Planetarium was acquired from the USA. This is a portable Planetarium with an umbrella-like collapsible projection dome, which can accommodate about 30 spectators. The mini planetarium was inaugurated on November 30, 1984. Over 80 shows have already been conducted in various schools, colleges and other institutions. About 3,000 spectators have witnessed these shows.

After the completion of the entire project, the Nehru Centre would be a fitting and a gorgeous monument to the spirit of the man, whom all his countrymen loved most and who also thought of the betterment of his people.


The remains of the Bombay Castle or the Old Fort could be seen behind the Town Hall. It is now used as an Arsenal. What remains of the Old Fort now are the walls facing the harbour and a portion of the wall to the north. Signals are made to ships from the Flagstaff located here. A clock tower, where a time signal-ball connected by an electric wire with the Observatory at Colaba falls at 1-00 p.m., is also located in the tower. It is from this fort that the area in Southern Bombay has come to be known as Fort Area.


Very few people, even the people living in the locality, are aware of the formerly beautiful spot known as the Padan Hill which was hallowed by religious and historical associations. On the outskirts of the village of Akurli in the suburb of Kandivali above 457.20 metres (500 yards) east of the temple of Karsanglidevi rises a great dome of black trap known as the Padan.

From the west it rises with a gentle bush covered slope to a bare flat top, and ends, eastward in a sheer cliff about 60.96 metres (200 feet) high. The hill lies eight or nine and a half kilometres (five or six miles) west of Kanheri, and the black cleft in which the Kanheri caves are cut, and above, the patch of brushwood, that marks the site of one of the old burial mounds, can be clearly seen. The country between, rises in long slopes, the upper slopes formerly covered with teak and other timber, the lower thick with a forest of barb palms. The name Padan in modern Marathi means a resting place for cattle, which in the rainy months, are said to leave the wet lowlands and come to rest on the smooth dry hill top.

Two local stories explain the sanctity of the hill. According to one account, a supernatural cow, which lived on the hill top and hated the sight of man, was once pursued and disappeared into the rock, through a small hole, under a gnarled old tamarind tree, at the north-west side of the hill top. The hole looks artificial as if the mouth of a ruined shrine or cell. It is said that Kathkaris sometimes used to enter in search of porcupine quills and are said to have been able to crawl for some distance. According to the other story, the hill is called Homacha Dongar from a holy woman who lived on the top and offered herself as a fire sacrifice. That it was a holy place and a dwelling of sages appears from some of the inscriptions which mention the names of sages and speak of pleasure grounds, aramas. There was a pond to the west of the hill, which is said to have been lined with dressed stones and might have been connected with the hill by a flight of steps. Of the steps no trace remains.(The hill and the remains could not be traced at the time of study (1979-80).)

Going up from the north, there were, on the top, near the north end and along the west crest, remains of dressed stones and of foundations of retaining walls. In different parts of the bare smooth top were carved tracings of feet: Two pairs of cow's feet (50-800 mm—3") two pairs of calf's feet (50-330mm—2")close by, four toelessfeet (one pair 254-000' mm X 127-000 mm—10" x 5" the other 203-200 mm x 101-600 mm—8' x4') said to be the feet of a man and a woman, two large sized feet with marked toes 330-200 mm x 127-000 mm (1' 1 " x 5") and some distance off the prints of a child's feet. There were also the Buddhist wheel 228-600 mm (9") in diameter, a Buddhist trident 152-400 mm (1' 6") across, two conch shells (one 508-000 mm x 228-600 mm—1 '8" x 9", the other 203-200 mm x 127-000 mm—8" X 5"), a round looking glass with a handle 457-200mm x 228-600 mm (1'6" x 9"), twojugs(one203-200mmx 101-660 mm—8" X 4", the other 254-000 mm x 203-200 mm—10" x 8") and a water pot (50-800 mm x 228-600 mm—1' 2" x 9"). Near several of these carvings short writings have been cut. There were twelve writings all undated, but from the form of the letters estimated to vary between the first and sixth centuries A.D. Near the two large human footprints was a group of seven short writings. One of these, in letters of about the first century, runs: ' The sage Musala ' a second of about the same age, ' The footstep (seat) of Nandi; a third and fourth, in letters of about the second or third century, reads ' Musaladatta ' the same name as the first; a fifth of about the same age, was the ' step of Rama' and a sixth, also of the second or third century, Ja (Ji?) rasandhadatta, probably the name of a sage.(These inscriptions are contributed by Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji. The first inscription reads,: 4 Sadhamusala' probably for ' Sidhamusala' (SK) ' Siddhamusala '; the second Nandi 'paam', (SK) 'Nandipadam'; and the fifth ' Rama ikamo'; (SK) ' Ramavikramah'. The rest are as in the text.) The seventh inscription was the formula of the northern Buddhists, '' the object of those (the Adi-Buddhas) who for the sake of religion came into the world (before him, that is before Gautama), the Tathagata (that is he who came as they came, namely Gautama), has explained; what they forbad the great Shramana (that is Gautama) tells as follows ". The letters were of about the sixth century and were written in the southern style of that century.(The letters run, ' Yedharmmahetu prabhava hetusteshan Tathagato hyavadatteshancha yo nirodha evamvadi Mahashravana'. This is a little incorrect in its spelling, dharmma should be dharmma, hetusteshan should be hetunteshan, and Mahashravana should be Mahashramana. This formula is written at the end of many Buddhist books and is repeated as a spell or mantra by the Nepalese Buddhists when they offer fried rice to Buddha after worship. It is often found below images of Buddha later than the fifth century.) Besides this group, there were four scattered inscrip­tions in letters whose forms seemed to be of about the first century. One of these was " The western pleasure-grounds of the Vasaka mountain "; the second, opposite to the first, was " And the eastern pleasure-grounds of Kosikaya (Sk. Kausikeya)"; the third was " Bamhachari (Sk. Brahmachari) Vi (Ma?) kara did. .the farmers "; and the fourth was " the mountain, the residence of monks all around ".(The formula is differently interpreted. Some take it as an independent verse; others as in the text, take it to be the first of two verses, the other verse giving what is forbidden)

The top of the rock was about 106.68 metres long by 39.624 mm (350 feet long by 130) broad. At the south edge of the crest were the remains of a retaining wall and broken pieces of dressed stone, which seemed to mark the site of small Buddhist shrines or temples. There are said to be no caves in the east face of the hill, but this was not examined.

The top of the hill commands a magnificent view of the vales, the National Park and the Kanheri Caves on one side and the distant Versova Creek and Salsette Island on the other.


The dargah of Pir Sayed Ahmad Ali Shah Kadri is located at Dongri. Sandhurst Road on the suburban section of the Central Railway is the nearest station to the dargah. The place can also be reached by a number of BEST buses. An urus is held annually in honour of the great saint Pir Sayed Ahmad Ali Shah Kadri on 6th, 7th and 8th of Rajjab.

The present dargah, it is said, was constructed about 125 years back and stands on a stone platform, 1.828 m. (6') high and measures about 7.62 m x 7-62 m. (25' x 25') with a circular shape at the back, i.e., the eastern side of the platform. The main entrance to the dargah faces the west, and the door on the eastern side is meant for exit. The dargah has 2 rooms, of which one is the shrine. The tombs of the Saint Pir Sayed Ahmad Ali Shah Kadri and of the mujawar of the Saint Pir Sayed Husain Ali Shah Kadri, are in the shrine. Both the tombs are made of bricks and lime and measure 1 '905 m. (6' 3") each. They are always covered with a cloth called Galaf.

The dargah is opened at 4-00 a.m. The tombs are worshipped in the morning by offering flowers and burning incense sticks, etc. The evening worship of the tombs is carried out by the mujawar of the dargah. The galafs are changed on every Thursday morning and sweets are offered and distributed by the mujawar and devotees. The tombs are given a bath on every Thursday morning with rose water and other scented waters. The big drum is beaten in the evening daily before the namaj.

It is believed that the saint and the mujawar, in whose honour the urus is held, are capable of fulfilling one's desires and therefore, many devotees offer vows in order to get a child, success in business, relief from bodily or mental afflictions, etc. On fulfilment of their desires, they offer the things promised. The offerings usually consist of galafs, sweetmeats, etc.

The urus is held for three days, i.e. 6th, 7th and 8th of the Muslim month of Rajjab. On the 6th of Rajjab, the procession of sandalwood paste, called sandal, is carried out at about 2-00 p.m. This procession attended by a large number of persons moves through Dongri, Pydhoni, Nagpada areas and returns to the dargah in the evening. The sandalwood paste is then applied to the tombs and the two galafs that are brought in the procession are spread over the tomb. This ceremony is called Sandal Chadhana. On the second day of the urus, the programmes of kawalis and gazals are held.

On the last day there is yet another procession of the sandal (i.e., sandalwood paste and galaf) from the dargah at about 1-00 p.m. which moves through the important parts of the area round the dargah and returns to the dargah at about 8-00 p.m. The sandalwood paste is then applied to the tombs and the galafs and flower nets are spread over them. Prayers are offered and Fatihah, Milad and Kurankhani (reading of the holy Koran) also take place.


The Powai Hills and Lake are located in Noith Bombay (former Salsette), on the Saki-Vihar road, just about half a kilometre from Saki Naka. It is about 6 km east of Andheri railway station of Western Railway. There are three ways of reaching Powai, first via King's Circle, Sion and Kurla, second via Santacruz and Andheri and third via Vikhroli-Powai. About 2/3 of the Lake's boundary is surrounded by the Powai road. The Powai Park is located on the west bank of the lake, while the Indian Institute of Technology stands on the north bank of the lake.

Powai got its name from Framji Kavasji Powai estate, which, besides Powai, included the villages of Tirandaj, Koprikhurd, Saki, Paspoli and Tungave. The estate except Tungave, was originally given in perpetual farm to Dr. Scott in 1799, on payment of a yearly quit-rent of Rs. 3,200. After Dr. Scott's death in 1816, the quit-rent was not paid and the property was at tached by the Government in 1826. In 1829 it was again leased in perpetual farm to the late Framji Kavasji a Parsi merchant in Bombay. About the time he bought the estate, Mr. Framji Kavasji was the vice-president of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of Western India. He took great interest in agriculture, and introduced many exotics and made many experiments on his estate.

At present Powai Lake presents a sight wonderfully refreshing to the people in the city. It has also hills and woods and fair fields of green and tall palm trees scattered around. Indeed, if man has provided no amenities, nature has donated ample gifts to this scene. The Powai Park is a cheerful sight and besides the lake, a number of boats and fishing rafts are seen. They are maintained by an angling association to which the use of the lake for purposes of boating and fishing have been rented out by the Municipality.

Powai was originally harnessed for augmenting Bombay's water supply when the cry for more water began to be heard louder in the city. It was the third lake to be pressed into this vital public service. The scheme was taken in hand in 1889, but before that year, both the Vihar and Tulsi water works had started functioning. The Powai scheme was, however, ill—fated. Though it was completed within a year at an initial cost of more than Rs. 61/2 lakhs and started providing two million gallons of water per day, it had to be abandoned due to the hue and cry against the quality of the water. Five lakhs of rupees more were spent on the scheme in 1919 in a vain attempt to restore the supply at least for the use of the suburbs, but this, too, was given up with the development of the Tansa works. So from the civic point of view, Powai lake had been completely scored off, but it remained, ever more so now than before because it is untramelled by hydraulic appendages, one of the wonder spots of Nature around Bombay. The area of the lake covers some 151.4 hectares (365 acres). A full view of the lake is obtained a little further down from where two roads start off. The road on the left plunges steeply into the bosom of the lake itself as it were. It is more meant for walking and enjoying the cool presence of the waters on both sides of road. There are woods too within a few yards of the park, affording a shade for the picnickers here, and giving the view of the lake to visitor's delight.

One of the most pleasing features of Powai surroundings is the unending concert which the music of the birds provide. At one time the vicinity of Vihar and Powai used to house man-eating tigers. Many had been killed here in the past and one of them had killed 16 persons before he was shot. There is still scope for some game in the woods and on the hills.


The Prince of Wales Museum is considered to be one of the finest in India. It occupies an island site at the southern end of the Mahatma Gandhi Road. This fine building commemorating the visit of King George V, the then Prince of Wales ir 1905 is Indo-Saracenic in style of architecture and has a huge moorish dome. The style is typically Western Indian of the 15th and 16th centuries and the materials used are blue and yellow basalt. The construction of the building was completed in 1914. Though the construction of the building was completed in 1914, it was used as a Military Hospital during the First World War and was handed over to the trustees only in 1920. The opening ceremony was performed on 10th January 1922 by Lady Lloyd.(The wife of George Lloyd, Governor of Bombay.) The building consists of three units arranged round three sides of a quadrangle. A new wing has been added of late and in it is housed the natural history section. Though the question of providing Bombay with a museum had been discussed in earlier years, the history of the Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, may be said to begin with the appointment by Government in 1904 of a Committee to investigate the subject. In 1905, at a public meeting held in connection with the visit in that year of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales (later King George V), it was decided that a permanent memorial of the visit should take the form of a public museum.

When the museum was projected Government gave the present site free of charge and the project was financed from the Royal Visit (1905) Memorial Funds, the Government grant of Rs. 3 lakhs and the Municipal grant of Rs. 2 1/2 lakhs. Sir Currimbhoy Ibrahim (first Baronet) donated Rs. 3 lakhs and the late Sir Cowasji Jehangir, gave half a lakh. The Museum was established under Bombay Act No. Ill of 1909. It is now maintained from annual grants made by Government and the Bombay Municipal Corporation and from interest accruing on the funds at the disposal of the Board of Trustees of the Museum.

Its contents comprise Art, Archaeology and Natural History. A section devoted to Forestry has been added, and a small local Geological collection of Rocks, Minerals and Fossils is also exhibited.

Art Section consists principally of the Sir Ratan Tata bequest of pictures, a splendid collection of Oriental arms, a varied and unique exhibit of jade, beautiful examples of China, Indian brass, silver, Indian and Persian draperies and objects d'art. Other pictures were presented by the late Sir Dorab Tata. Among Sir Ratan Tata's pictures are many most interesting examples of the Dutch, British, French and Italian Schools, and works by such masters as Cuyp, Lawrence, Romney, Gainsborough, Troyon, Poussin and Titian. Sir Dorab Tata's gift includes representative works of the late Italian Schools and a few good modern French and British pictures. There is also a collection of Indian paintings (Moghul and Rajput) and an extremely interesting collection of relics of the Satara Rajas, both purchased from Mr. P. V. Mavji in 1914.

Archaeological section, contains three main divisions, the Brahmanical section; Jain, Prehistoric and Foreign antiquities; and Buddhist section. In the first category are some large bas-reliefs discovered at Dharwar and attributed to the fifth or sixth century A.D.; a bust of Shiva from the Elephanta Caves, numerous other interesting sculptures of Shiva, some images and bas-reliefs of Brahma, a magnificent image of Vishnu (from Elephanta), and a miscellaneous collection of articles used in Brahmanical worship. The prehistoric antiquities are mostly from Madras, and comprise palaeolithic and neolithic implements; also pottery, including examples of necropolitan pottery utilised for coffins. A number of interesting bas-reliefs come from Mesopotamia and some good Jain sculptures are on permanent loan from the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. In the Buddhist section are portions of the Stupa of Amaravati in Andhra, some terra-cotta figures of Buddhas and Bodhi-sattvas, fragments and images of Buddhas (Gandhara School) and very interesting bas-reliefs (of the same school) representing subjects from Buddhistic legend.

Natural History Section : The exhibits (in the new wing) are specimens from the collections of the Bombay Natural History Society (started in 1883 and still existing). These include examples of all the Indian rumi­nants and carnivora; other sections deal with reptiles, birds, fishes and insects. The Birds section contains, besides many beautiful specimens, a collection of drawings by Gronvold.

Forest Section : This includes specimens of timbers grown in the Bombay Presidency. (A Handbook to India, Pakistan, Burma, Ceylon, Edited by L. F. Rushbrook Williams, C.B.E.)


An interesting description of the public fountains as they existed then is given in the old Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island, published in 1910. Even if many of the fountains are no longer there, it still makes an interesting reading and hence is reproduced below:—

" Bombay contains several ornamental memorial fountains. The Wellington Fountain, which stands opposite the Sailors' Home at the junction of the Esplanade and Apollo Bandar roads, was erected in its present form about the year 1865 by public subscription in memory of the Duke of Wellington, who was once resident in the island.(Survey Cottage, which is no longer in existence, was the residence of Sir Arthur Wellesley (afterwards Duke of Wellington) in March and April, 1801. The house stood about half-way up the now-non-existent brow of Malabar hill, on the right and as one ascended the Siri road, and was described by one writter in 1856 as " situated between the road and the sea at the curve of the bay towards Malabar Hill, close to where the road from Byculla turns into the Breach Road from the Fort. " At the time this was written, a woodyard had grown up around the house, which was almost concealed from view by wood-stacks. In 1865 the brow of the hill was cut away to provide filling for the Chaupati reclamation and the sea-face road which now runs direct to Malabar hill, and the house disappeared with the ground upon which it stood. At the time that Sir Arthur Wellesley occupied it the house was a neat single-storeyed bungalow, comprising a fairly spacious hall, with wings and long verandahs at the sides and back. In front was a porch to which led two carriage drives from different points of a large compound. The hall commanded a view of Back Bay, a portion of Girgaum, the Esplanade and the Fort. When General Wellesley again arrived in Bombay in 1804, he appears to have occupied tents on the Esplanade.) The Floral Fountain, which stands in the centre of the Esplanade opposite Church Gate street, was erected some little time later in honour of Sir Bartle Frere, to whose progressive policy Bombay owes many of her great public buildings. It was originally intended to erect this fountain in the Victoria Gardens at Byculla. During 1908, the grass plot and the palm trees, which originally surrounded the fountain, were removed in order to provide more room for pedestrains and horse-traffic between the tram lines and the kerb of the fountain. Another landmark is the Ratansi Mulji Memorial Fountain at the junction of the Mint and Frere roads, which was erected in 1894 by a well-known Bhattia freight broker in memory of his deceased son; while the Kesavji Naik Foun­tain, situated at the junction of Dongri-Koli street and Chinchbandar road, was erected by the gentleman whose name it bears in 1876. The Henry Memorial Fountain in Mazagacn was erected by the officials of the Peninsular and Oriental S. N. Company, in memory of former Superintendent of the Company, Captain Henry, and was handed over to the civic authorities in June 1878. Other notable fountains are one in Crawford Market designed by J. L. Kipling; the Bomanji Hormasji Wadia Fountain at the end of Bazaar Gate street, erected by public subscription in 1880; the Fitzgerald Fountain and lamp, facing the end of Cruickshank road, which was erected in honour of Sir S. Fitzgerald in 1867; fountains in Bhatia Bagh (1865), at Mumbadevi (1898), Cowasji Patel Tank road (1903) and at the junction of Grant and Duncan roads, the latter having been erected in 1901 by the Municipal Corporation to mark the site of an old tank. Finally there is the fountain in Jacob Circle, erected to the memory of General G. Legrand Jacob (1805-1881) by his niece and adopted daughter. "

Flora Fountain has witnessed a number of demonstrations. Many persons have lost their lives in the police firing near the Fountain during the Samyukta Maharashtra struggle. (1956-57). In memory of these martyrs a memorial has been erected with statues of a peasant and a worker with a torch in their hands representing the unity of the working class with peasantry. It has therefore been christened Hutatma Chowk.

Recently many new fountains have been erected at different places in the City and Suburbs and they attract a large number of people.


Rodat Tahera is a marble mausoleum immortalizing into eternity the life, the teachings and the ideals of Dr. Syedna Taher Saifuddin Saheb, the 51st Fatemi Dai-el-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohra commu­nity. The credit for the foundation of the system for the progress, well being and development of the community and its institutions goes to his stewardship. He was held in high esteem both in India and abroad for his dedicated service to the cause of literacy and education. He was an eminent scholar of Fatemi humanities and philosophy. He also distin­guished himself in the field of letters and had profound knowledge of Arabic language and arts. His mausoleum is located on Mohammed Ali Road which was constructed through generous contributions from his followers all over the world in response to the fervent call of Dr. Syedna Mohomed Burhanuddin Saheb, the son of the late Dr. Syedna Taher Saifuddin Saheb and next in line of succession, to erect a Mauso­leum as a mark of reverential love to the departed soul.

The Mausoleum has been built in marble quarried from exactly where the marble for the Taj Mahal was obtained, viz., theChosira and Ulodi quarries at Makrana in Rajasthan.

The Roza rises to a height of 32.918 metres (108 feet) in all the splen­dour of chaste marble, with a 15.849 metres (52 feet) high dome as its crowning feature. A 3.657 metres (12 feet) high gold finial stands sentinel over the dome. The 28.041 metres (92 feet) high Mausoleum rests on 92 piles, the number 92 being significant in that it represents the numerical calculation of the holy name, Mohammed. Four smaller domes, one at each corner of the central dome, each with a gold finial to match its prototype, perfect the setting against the azure of the sky. The dome and the cornice are inspirations from Jame-Juyushi, a Masjid in Cairo built by Badrul Jamali during the reign of Fatemi Imam, Mustansir Billa, H. 386-411 corresponding to A.D. 996-1020. The four outer walls are embellished, just below the cornice, with the names of Fatemi Imams and Doat Mutlaqeen inscribed in Kufi script, the same script as employed centuries earlier by Amirul Momineen Ali to commit to posterity his treasures of learning and erudition.

The four entrances to the Mausoleum have been specially designed to match the entrance gate of Al Aqmar, a Masjid built in Cairo in the time of Fatemi Imam, Al-Amir, H. 495-524 corresponding to A.D. 1101 to 1130. The entrances are adorned with four silver doors of Fatemi design and lead into the inner sanctuary of the Mausoleum. Right in the centre lies the tomb of the late Syedna, at which his followers perform Ziarat in an endless stream. The inner height of the Mausoleum rises to 24.384 metres (80 feet) above the plinth, the age of Maulanal Muqaddas at life's end. The inner dimensions of 15.544 metres X 15.544 metres (51 feet x 51 feet) are equally symbolic, as they signify his position as the 51st Representative and Vice Regent of the Fatemi Imam. What gives the monument a unique place of honour is the inscription of the entire Holy Koran in gold-filled letters, on 772 marble slabs each 0.914 x 0.609 metres (3 feet x 2 feet) in size, constituting the inner wall upto a height of 9.753 metres (32 feet). One hundred and thirteen ' Bismillas' (in the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful) constantly on the lips of every Muslim, are inlaid in precious stones to adorn the Holy Koran inscriptions. A glittering crystal chandelier, suspended from the centre of the dome, sheds its brilliance upon the tomb and seems to cast a divine light upon the hallowed precincts, while the four circular corner fittings and twenty-four wall brackets all lend their light to the radiance within the Mausoleum. The rosette at the apex of the dome proclaims " Innallahaa Yumsekus Samaa Vaate Val Ardaan Tazoola Vala-in Zaalataa in Amsakahuma Min Ahad in Min Baadehi ", meaning "Allah holds the sky and the earth together which no one else can" along its periphery, and the holy names of Mohammed and Ali in the centre, while the inscription on each pendentive reads " Laa Yamassohoo Illal Motahharoon " meaning " None but the pure shall hold the Holy Koran ".To the North of the Mausoleum is a Masjid, also in marble, designed along the Fatemi style of architecture, with its elevation emula­ting Al-Ahwar Masjid, built in Cairo during the time of Imam Al-Hakim, H. 386-411 corresponding to A.D. 996-1020, while its Qibla is a replica from Al-Jame-Al-Juyushi, also built in Cairo during the time of Imam Mustansir. The three feet high marble letters inscribing the Kalma of the Muslim  faith;   "La Illaha Illallah Mohammed Ur-Rasoolullah" " Aliyun Valiullah " decorate the western wall of the Masjid. A 13.411 metres X 3.657 metres (44 feet x 12 feet) area of the Masjid is covered and air conditioned, while the rest of the Masjid is open to the infinite heights of space. The style of ceiling of the Masjid, which has been worked in delicate gold relief, can be traced back in time to a wooden panel of the eleventh century, while the cornice of the wall and the two tall minarets gracing the two corners of the Masjid go back to the Fatemi period. A high wall with two decorative gates surrounds the complex of the Mausoleum and the Masjid constructed over a marble platform.

The construction of the Mausoleum was started on the 10th December 1968. The structural shell consists of a segmental R.C.C. dome 12.192 metres (40 feet) in diameter, springing from an R.C.C. cylindrical drum. The drum rests on an octagonal R.C.C. base block. The whole assembly bears on a load bearing masonry octagon, which in its turn, is supported by a system of reinforced concrete beams at the turret level. The full load of the roofing dome and central octagonal mass is transferred to pile foundations through eight main columns. There are eight secondary R.C.C. columns, two in each corner, supporting the four corner turrets. The external walls consist of 1.371 metres (4 feet 6 inches) brick masonry. The complete structure weighs 5080M.T. (5000 tonnes), and is supported by ninety-two piles tied at the tops by a raft cap.


The Sanyasashram complex is located to the west of the Vile Parle railway station on the Churchgate-Virar section of the Western Railway and contains a group of temples dedicated to various deities, a Sanskrit Pathashala, a goshala, lodging and boarding facilities for its inmates, an ayurvedic dispensary and a printing press known as Brahmavidya Press. It was founded at Vile Parle in 1942 by the late Swami Maheshwara-nandaji Maharaj Mahamandaleshwar over a specious area of about 7,525 square metres (9,000 yards).

At the entrance of the group of temples is an audience hall (sabha-mandap) supported by rows of pillars on both the sides. By the sides of the pillars from the left to the right in a row are the shrines dedicated to Shri Virat Bhagwan, Gajendra Moksha that depict puranic story of Bhagwan Vishnu rescuing the Gajendra from the jaws of a crocodile; Shri Nath Bhagwan, Ram, Lakshman and Sita; Shri Parvati Parameshwar; Shri Lakshmi Narayan; Shri Shankar Parvati in whose front are the Shiva Linga and small idols of Nandi and a tortoise; Shri Jagadguru Shankara-charya; Shri Swami Maheshwaranandji Maharaj, the founder of the Ashram; Amba Bhavani, Hanuman; Tirupati Balaji; Vitthal-Rakhumai; Khodiar Maa; Ganapati and Nrisimha (under construction) and a shrine containing the replica of the twelve Jyotirlingas.

In the court-yard are the shrines dedicated to Nateshwar; Gayatrimata; Santoshi Mata; Kshema Kalyani Mata, etc. In the shrine dedicated to Aamreshwar Mahadev are the idols of Parvati, Surya Narayan and Ganapati.

The shrine dedicated to Ekamreshvar was constructed in 1945 while the shrines dedicated to Shankar, Lakshmi-Narayan and Shri Jagadguru Shankaracharya were constructed in 1952.

The deities are worshipped daily by the Sanyasis. The main festival celebrated at the Ashram is that of Gokulashtami when about 50,000 people assemble. Ram Navami, Guru Paurnima, Mahashivratri and Diwali are also celebrated in the temple. The trust owns three buildings which have been rented out. The total expenditure of the Ashram exceeds Rs. 90,000 per year.


Early History : So far as can be gathered the Secretaries to Government occupied certain rooms in Bombay Castle during the seventeenth century and up to the year 1758, when the demolition of the Fort House forced them to vacate their old quarters and find temporary accommodation in certain warehouses adjoining the Marine Yard. In 1760, as there was no immediate chance of securing permanent quarters, the Collector and the Fortification Paymaster were allowed to hire houses for their offices; but for some reason this permission was either not obtained or not acted upon in the case of the Secretary's and Accountant's offices. For in the joint letter to Government of the 22nd May 1754, they both animad­verted upon the excessive inconvenience they were experiencing owing to the lack of proper office accommodation. Consequently, before the end of May 1764, in the absence of the Admiral, they were both permitted to remove their offices temporarily to Mr. Whitehill's house, which formed part of large block of buildings to the north of the Cathedral, the site of whieh was in 1909 occupied by the premises of Messrs. Kemp and Co. and the adjoining building. At the close of October 1764, Mr. Whitehill's house was purchased outright by Government for the use of the Secretary's office at a cost of Rs. 45,000 and the neighbouring house, belonging to Mr. John Munter, was bought for Rs. 60,000 for the use of the other public offices, excluding the Marine. In 1798 the Accountant's and other offices were ousted from Mr. Hunter's house to make room for the Sadr Adalat; but the Secretary's office continued undisturbed until 1829, when it was removed to the Old Secretariat buildings--a large house on the west side of Apollo street, which was then chiefly occupied by the offices of the Government Solicitor. Here the Government offices were housed until 1874 and the list o such offices in 1873 included not only the Secretariat offices proper, but those oi the Sanitary Commissioner, the Collector of Salt Revenue, the Collector of Bombay and the Superintendent of Stamps and Stationery.(General Administration Report, 1873-74.)

In 1874 the Secretariat was transferred to the newly built Secretariat (It is called Old Secretariat, although the still older Secretariat Building still exists in the Fort) building at the southern end of the great line of public offices facing Back Bay. The building, planned by Colonel Wilkins, R.E., in 1865, was com­menced in April 1867 and completed in March 1874. It is in the Venetian-Gothic style; is 443 feet in length, and has two wings, each 81 feet in breadth. The Council Hall, Library and Committee Rooms occupied a portion of the first floor. The cost of the building was Rs. 12,60,844. Owing to pressure of space the Stamp Office was removed from the Secre­tariat to the Town Hall in 1907. A portion of the top-floor was reserved as a residence for the Senior Under-Secretary to Government. Electric lights and fa'ns were installed throughout the building around 1908-09. The staircase is lighted by the great window 90 feet in height, over which rises the tower to 170 feet. The building is now occupied by City Civil Courts. Annexes have been constructed to the building subsequently.

The new Secretariat inaugurated in 1955 was known as Sachivalaya upto 1975. It is now known as Mantralaya. It is a magnificent new struc­ture in modern style well adapted to the climate, and stands on the Madame Cama Road. It is a six storeyed structure with cabins for the ministers and their staff and sufficient space for other departments and employees. Facilities for canteens etc. have been provided for the staff. The main building costed Rs. 63,80,219, while the Annexe was opened in 1960 at a cost of Rs. 1,23,79,234.

In front of the Mantralaya stands the New Administrative building with 20 floors that houses other offices of the Government. The building provides all modern amenities.


The dargah of Sheikh Misry is located at Antop Hill in Wadala. It is said that the saint was an inhabitant of Egypt and had been to India on a mission to spread Islam. It was while performing his mission that he died on sixteenth Rajjab, some more than seven hundred years before. The saint, it is believed, is capable of fulfilling one's desires such as getting a child, prosperity in business, etc. As such a number of devotees flock to the dargah during the urus held at the dargah in honour of the saint. They promise many things to the saint and on fulfilment of their desires, they offer galaf, sweets, non-vegetarian cooked food, etc., to the saint.

The dargah is supposed to have been constructed more than two centuries before and a reference to it is found in Mr. Murphy's map of Bombay in 1843. The dargah measures 30.480 m2 (100' X 100'). However the main shrine measures 18.288 m2 (60'" X 600) and is constructed of marble stone.

The urus of Sheikh Misry is held every year at Antop Hill in Wadala (east). The urus lasts for four days i.e., from a day prior to the full-moon day in November and upto 2 days after the full-moon day. The most important day of the urus, however, is the full-moon day.

The urus is held to commemorate the death anniversary of the great Muslim Saint Sheikh Misry, who died on 16th of Rajjab more than seven centuries before. About 50,000 people assemble at the urus. The nearest railway station to reach the place of the urus is Wadala on the Harbour Branch of the Suburban section of the Central Railway. The place can also be reached by B.E.S.T. buses.

The dargah is opened after the morning prayers are held at the nearby mosque and the tomb of the saint which is inside the dargah and just below the central dome, worshipped by burning incense sticks and lubhan. The prayers {Fatihah) are offered. The holy passages from the Koran are read. The same procedure is followed for the evening worship also. The drums are beaten twice a day, in the morning and evening after the prayers are over.

On the second day of the fair, i.e., full-moon day the sandal is taken out in procession and after it reaches the dargah, the sandalwood paste is applied to the tomb and the new galaf brought in procession is spread over the tomb and the old galaf is removed. Flowers are offered and incense sticks are burnt. On 16th of Rajjab the tomb is washed with rose water and prayers are offered.

The functions on the remaining days of the urus are those of prayers, reading the holy passages from Koran, etc. The persons attending the urus are mostly from Greater Bombay and belong to various religions, though Muslims are in majority.


The temple dedicated to God Narayan and Goddess Lakshmi is located at Gowalia tank and it lies at a distance of 0. 8 kilometres to the west of Grant Road Railway station on the Churchgate-Virar suburban section of the Western Railway. The temple can be reached by a number of BEST buses.

The temple is reported to have been built in the year 1885. The present structure is in cement concrete and is quite specious. The main entrance, mahadwar faces the north. After crossing the main entrance one reaches the Sabhamandap audience hall at the left, measuring about 21.336 m. x 12.192 m. (70' X 40'). It is used for performing bhajans, kirtans, religious discourses, religious ceremonies, etc. To the west of the temple is a yajnya kunda with a shed over it. A small temple dedicated to God Maruti stands behind the main temple. The shrine of the main temple measures ap­proximately 3.048m. x 3.048m. (10' x 10') and is paved with marble slabs. In the front there is a platform admeasuring 4.876 m. x 3.657 m. (16' X 12') paved with marble slabs. A fencing made of wooden and iron bars is provided in front of the entrance of the shrine from which the devotees are allowed to have darshan. The pinnacle of the spire of the temple is about 18.288m (60') high from the ground and is plated with gold.

The images of Lakshmi and Narayan made of marble stone are installed in the temple on a simhasan also of marble stone which is 0.762m. (2 1/2) high from the ground. The image of Goddess Lakshmi stands to the left of God Narayan. The images of God Narayan and Goddess Lakshmi have heights of 1.219 m. and 1.067 m. (4' and 3 1/2) respectively. The image of God Narayan holds shankh (conch), chakra (disc), gada (mace) and padma (lotus) in his four hands. Small images of a lion, peacock, horse, etc., made of silver are some times kept on the sinhasan.

The deities are draped in rich clothes which are changed according to various seasons and festivals.

The daily worship of the deities is performed according to Pushti Marga Sampradaya as laid down by Vallabhacharya, the founder of the Sampradaya.

The fair in honour of God Narayan and Goddess Lakshmi to commemorate the inception day (Sthapanadivas) of the deities at Gowalia Tank is held from AshvinaSud. 12 to Ashvina Vad. 6. On an average 1,00,000 to 1,20,000 pilgrims from Bombay and its suburbs attend the fair during these ten days. The peak period of attendance in the fair is from 17-30 to 23-30 hours.

Though the fair lasts for ten days, the first day of the fair, i.e., Ashvina Sud. 12 is the most important day and patotsava is celebrated on this day. On other days no special programmes are arranged except bhajans, kirtans, pravachans, etc.

On the first day of the fail, a special worship (panchamrita abhisheka) is performed, lasting for half an hour. Aftei the performance of abhisheka, a sacrificial offering is made. After completion of the special worship, Raj Bhog is offered to the deities. The patotsava ceremony is performed under the supervision of one of the trustees. On this day, the temple is kept open from morning to 11 p.m. except during the bhog period.

The fair is held on the Gowalia Tank Maidan which is just near the temple. Pilgrims from all castes and creeds visit the temple to worship the deities and attend the fair every day.

In addition to the fair, the festivals such as Makar Sankrant, Ram Navami, Rang Panchami, Vasant Panchami, Gokul Ashtami, etc., are also celebrated in the temple. On Kartika Sud. 1, an annakot is offered to the deities andprasad is distributed amongst those present. The expenses incurred on daily worship, naivedya, nandadeep and on all other items are met from the Trust funds.

An adequate police force is deputed to the temple as well as to the site of the fair to maintain law and order.

The affairs of the temple are managed by " Seth Gokuldas Tejpal Charities Trust", which has been registered under the Bombay Public Trusts Registration Act, 1950. The managing committee of the Trust consists of eleven members including the president and the vice-president. A temple committee consisting of three members is appointed by the Trust to look after the daily management of the temple.


By the end of 1976 Shri Subramania Samaj Temple Complex with an exquisite architectural design, have become a reality in Chedda Nagar, Chembur. In 1969 a decision was taken to avail of an area of 2300 sq. yaids in Chedda Nagar at a cost of Rs. 1,30,000 by Shri Subramania Samaj and has undertaken a stupendous task of constructing a temple complex and a community development centre. It is claimed to be the first of its kind in Bombay. The Complex consists of separate temples for Lord Vinayaka, Subramania (Karthikeya), Dharma Sastha (Hariharaputra), Guruvayoorappan (Krishna) and Goddess Durga. The other facilities in the project of this complex include a Veda Pathashala, a Yoga School, a religious library, community and lecture hall, an Ayurvedic Medical Centre, two community and congregation halls. It is also proposed to have the Utsava Mandapa and Navagraha Peetha.

The main temple structure rises to a height of ovei 50 ft. from the front giound level with the main Raja Gopuram soaring to a further height of 27 ft. above. Theie are 108 steps to reach the sanctum sanctorum of the temple, conforming to the traditional pattern of Muruga Temples in the South. The building also has a basement of 9 ft. depth. The main entrance of the temple is flanked by two magnificent giant size intricately carved pillars of 50 ft. height.

The unique construction was conceived as a result of two considera­tions, firstly, a structure of vast proportion had to be built to be able to accommodate community welfare activities as well as religious functions, secondly the main deity of the temple, Lord Muruga (also referred to as Lord Karthikeya) is traditionally supposed to be placed at a height, as of hillock. The twin needs have been beautifully fulfilled by a building-cwm-temple concept. In particular, the sanctum sanctorum rests on a great R.C.C. pillar rising from ground level and reaching the height of the terrace. The hollow of the pillar is filled with earth so that the deities would rest on the earth as prescribed by religious sanctions.

The central sanctum in the Temple Complex is for Lord Subramania also called Karthikeya, Skanda, Muruga flanked by his Divine Consorts, Valli and Devayani. The other sanctums, with separate Prathishtas and Pooja, are for Lord Ganapathi (Vinayaka), Dharma Sastha, Guruvayporappan and Goddess Durga, apart from Navagraha Prathishtas.

The work on the temple complex has been executed by traditional shilpis well versed in ' Shilpa Shastra' from the South, and over 55 artisans had been working on this project for seven years.

The Vimana and Gopuram are finished in the finest style of Chola, Pallava and Pandya. It gives a feeling as though the temples have been physically lifted from the South and established at its present site. To make the entire building blend with the stone architecture of the temple, the cladding is of red stone work, supplemented by delicate jali work friezes, stone balusters, figures of gods and goddesses, Gandharvas and Apsaras.

This is the first time in the history of a temple building that R.C.C. structure has been combined with stone work in magnificent unity, the rare combination of ancient and modern architecture. The total cost of the project is about Rs. 75 lakhs.

The five temples in this complex occupy a unique place in Bombay city as regards the architecture as well as conception. These have been sanctified with the strictest possible adherence to the dictates and canons of Agamashastras and tantric rites. These temples have the special charac­teristic of having been built in blue granite stone from specially selected quarries in Wallajabad near Mahabalipuram, which was authentically shaped and transported by railway and trucks to Bombay. They have been assembled at the appropriate places in temples fifty feet above the ground level and to provide also for the necessary Bhoosparsham (touching the holy mother earth).

The idols, the carvings and the sculptured gopurams are executed by one of India's most outstanding authorities on temple sculpture Kumaresha Sthapathi, a winner of Presidential award.

The major work of the temple is completed however the finishing work is in the process of completion under the direct supervision of Sthapathi at Mahabalipuram. The major civil concrete work is also over. The complex when fully completed will stand as a permanent monument of our ancient art and culture and become a pilgrim centre.

Maha Kumbhabhishekam : The Maha Kumbhabhishekam celebrations of the temple complex were conducted on the 24th January 1980 in the benign presence of His Holiness Shri Kanchi Kamakoti Peethadhipathi Jagadguru Shankaracharya Shri Jayendra Saraswati Swamiji. The visit of Kanchi Acharya to this city, for the first time in the history of the Peetham, principally to guide and participate in the Maha Kumbhabhishekam was a memorable event in the spiritual history of Bombay. Lakhs of people from all classes joyfully participated in this memorable festival lasting for a week. The temple complex was declared open to the public after this ceremony.


The magnificent Vyankatesh Mandir, also known as Divyadesh Mandir as per the Ramanuja Shrivaishnava Sampradaya, is dedicated to Lord Vyankatesh. It is believed to be one of the best temples in Bombay. There are 108 divyadesh temples in the South, and the mode of worship and meditation as practised therein is followed in the Vyankatesh temple. A great sanctity is assigned to this temple.

The foundation stone of the temple was laid in 1922 and was consecrated with all the customary religious rituals on June 4, 1927. The idol of Lord Vyankatesh was installed in the divyadesh on June 10, 1927.

The temple stands on Fanaswadi road in Girgaum, and has a magnificent gate constructed in 1936. The gate was built out of donation by one Raja Pannalalji Gowardhanlalji Hyderabadwale in memory of his father.

At the very entrance of the temple there is a magnificent Gopur built in the South Indian style of Architecture. It exhibits the typical munifi­cence of the Gopurs in the south. The construction of the Gopur was commenced in 1963 with liberal donations from the Somani family of industrialists and other donors. The Gopur is decorated and beautified by a series of carved images and idols. There are few rivals to this piece of art in the environment of Bombay, and is one of the best objects of interest in the city. In front of the Gopur there is a Swarna Garuda starnbha, which is another speciality of the object.

Beyond the Stambha there is a spacious audience hall where the Nagaswaram, a south Indian instrument of music, is played at the time of worship. The audience hall is supported by 16 magnificent pillars in the style of the South.

Adjacent to the audience hall (Sabhamandap) is the main temple of Vyankatesh. The outer of the temple is decorated with images, among which the images of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu (Dashavtar) are the most prominent. Inside the temple there are massive pillars of marble. In the temple proper are the images of Varadaraj, Laxmiji, Nrisimha Bhagawan, Chakraraj Sudarshan, which are followed by Rukmini, Satyabhama, Rajgopal Bhagawan, Janakiji, Laxman, Shri Ramchandra, and Hanuman. In front is the large gate to the inner shrine of Vyankatesh.On either side of the gate are Jaya and Vijaya as dwarpalas. Lord Vyankatesh is accompanied by Shridevi Bhudevi and Shri Yathoktakari Bhagwan. Garuda is also nearby.

Near the temple there is a mirror house (Sheeshaghar), built in 1956 at a cost of Rs. 20,000. It is worth a visit. The Rangnath temple is nearby which is occoupied by the temples devoted to Mahalaxmi, Padmavati, Godamba, etc. These lead us to the spacious circumambulation around the temple. There are a number of chambers known as vahanghar, vastraghar, bhandarghar, Vaikuntha utsava mandap, chandan griha, dugdha griha and Shukrawar mandap. The entire text of the Bhagwadgeeta is inscribed in marble stone in the course of the circumambulation.

Beyond this there is the temple of Ramanujaswami wherein are installed the paduka of the Jagadguru Ramanujaswami. The Yajnashala is just adjacent wherein homa are performed on certain occasions.

The temple premises are equipped with a dharmashala and residential accommodation for pilgrims, ministrents, pujaris, distinguished devotees from outstations and others. There is what is called the Bhayankar Math where the Acharya used to reside. The library is well equipped with books on religion, particularly on the Vaishnava tradition of religion.


The temple dedicated to Shri Siddhi Vinayak is located near the Sane Guruji Udyan and the Ravindra Natya Mandir at Prabhadevi. It has come to fame of late and the serpentile queues of the devotees could be seen on Sankashti or Angariki chaturthi, i.e., Sankashti Chaturthi falling on Tuesday and even during other days. The reference to the temple is noticed in the book entitled Mumbaitil Devalaye in Marathi by one K. Raghunathji which states that the construction of the said temple was completed on 19th November 1801 and was constructed by one Laxman Vithu Patil. At that time the temple was located amidst dense growth of trees

The temple though small is revered by thousands of devotees. The temple faces the east and the inner chamber admeasures 15' x 15' with a sabhamandap, i.e., an audience hall admeasuring 12' x 30'. The temple has a spacious courtyard. In the courtyard facing the sabhamandap towards the right is a shrine dedicated to Maruti. In front of the temple are three lamp posts (deepmals). The temple has a spire over the dome.

The idol of the deity with trunk turning towards the right is two feet and a half in height and is made of black stone. However, it has recently been painted which has added glamour to it. The deity is seated under the silver plated canopy (makhar) with statues of lions on both sides. Close to an idol of Ganapati is an idol of Maruti in standing posture. On the wall above the makhar could be seen hanging the silver replica of Ganapati. The temple remains open from 5 a.m. to 1 p.m. and from 2 p.m. to 9-30 p.m.

The site gets an appearance of a fair on every Tuesday and Thursday and also on Sankashti Chaturthi, i.e., Vadya 4 of every month. The congre­gation is larger on Angariki Chaturthi. Other festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi in Bhadrapada and Ganesh Jayanti in Magha are celebrated at the temple with great pomp. Many devotees flock to the temple to make their offerings to the deity on fulfilment of their vows, such as getting a child, prosperity in business, etc. The management of the temple vests in the Government Trust. Accommodation for the pujari of the deity is provided in the courtyard, where the office of the trust is also located.


St. Andrew's Church stands on the sea-shore at Bandra on the site of a church of the same name, which was built in 1575 (According to the old Gazetteer of Thana District this church was built in 1575 while the Jesuit Report of 1669, refers to St. Andrew's church being built later than that of St. Anne. This report also mentions that the parish of St. Andrew was formed in 1616 since the parish of St. Anne had grown unwieldy and, therefore, an independent parish had to be formed at St. Andrew's to serve the needs of the neighbouring villages.) by the Rev. F. Manuel Gomes, the apostle of Salsette, the superior of the college of the Holy name at Vasai (Bassein). By 1588 Gomes had made 4,000 converts and by 1591 the number had risen to 6,000. Upto 1620 St. Andrew's was the only church at Bandra. Then the Jesuit college of the invocation of St. Anne was built close to the landing place. At first this was small with only two friars, but by 1675 it had been enlarged till it was not inferior to or much unlike an English University. The college was destroyed by the Marathas in 1737.

Formerly the Church's door was at the west end and opened on the sea-shore. The entrance to the present church which was rebuilt in 1864, is at the east which presents the usually, quaintly ornamented face. The bare walls are surmounted by a steep tiled roof with bell towers at each side, and a figure of St. Andrew stands over the central door. The roof was replaced in 1618 which was damaged by a hurricane. During 1764 a new roof was built and again renovated during 1823 and 1831. The cross to the left of the door on which the emblems of the passion are carved in coloured relief, was brought in 1864 from the ruins of St. Anne's college. A compound was built in 1862. However it was rebuilt in 1934. The interior portion of this church was paved with marble in 1890. During the same year a wooden porch was erected.

Till the turn of this century the church edifice dominated the entire landscape. Silhouetted 58 feet in height against the twilight sky people saw in it their aspirations to God. The massive four footwalls in the 42 feet width of the church gave a sense of security that the Catholic church is a bulwark against the evils of the world. In May 1965 the extension of the church structure was commenced with the demolition of the wooden porch attached to the facade of the church. The original architectural features are retained in the extension. The facade is retained and the extension frontage is a replica of the original. In the centre niche of the present facade once stood a granite statue of St. Andrew; this was placed at the apex of the facade, when the porch was built. For half a century it withstood the vagaries of the weather till the cyclone of 1940 dislodged it and broke it to pieces.

The bell in the window of the tower facing east bearing inscription " Santo Andre De Bandora 1793 " is used to announce deaths, arrival of funerals at the church and on all souls day. The one in the window facing north has inscribed on it: " Santo De Andre 1869, Recast 1900 ". It is used for the Angelus, summoning the faithful to services and on festive occasions. The largest bell in the centre of the Belfry cast by Gogossen Von Humprt, Brilon, was presented in 1934 by Sir Dominic Joseph Ferreira K.C.S.S. in memory of his wife, Josephine. It is used daily at 8-30 p.m. to remind the faithful to pray for the departed souls, for the Angelus and on festive occasions.

There is a majestic altar, which is of wood built on a brick base paved with marble. Three niches bear the statues of St. Andrew, the Sacred Heart and Our Lady. Above these, there are smaller niches with statues of St. John the Baptist and St. Sebastian and a little higher stands the statue of the Bom Jesus.

One letter of Jesuit describes the side altars thus : " The church has two side altars ; on one side of them is a very devout crucifix; on other is Our Lady called of the Navigantes (Navigators) and the origin of this name is mysterious for the Kholis going a fishing in the sea of Bandora, got much better catch than that of St. Peter in the sea of Tiberius. There St. Peter caught fish, here the Kholis caught, not fish, but the image of the true Mother of Pearl Jesus." On the other altar, the scene of Mount Calvary is depicted with statues of Our Lady and St. John at the foot of the Cross, upon which Christ hangs. In the crypt of this altar lies an ancient and treasured status of the dead Christ, which issued during the Lenten services. Both these altars are the original ones. They are made of wood dexterously carved and painted. A beautiful statue of St. Francis of Assisi is placed in the Sodality Hall. In the base of the existing southern tower stands an altar dedicated to St. Anthony, which was erected in 1914.

Two ancient wood panels with exquisite carvings hang above the side-doors in the middle of the Church.

A cross of unknown origin bearing the inscription ' 1720' stands in the cemetery at the southern extremity of the compound.

An interesting cross stands near the southern wall between the oratory and the Grotto mounted on a pedestal twelve feet in height. Towering above all others in Bandra in size and antiquity it was brought from the ruins of St. Anne's college. The peculiarity of this cross is that it is sculptured from one block of stone seventeen feet in height. There are thirty-nine symbols each of the old and New Testament carved on the western and eastern sides of this cross. It was erected in 1870 and base appearing like a dome was constructed during 1917-19.


Prior to 1675 the English in Bombay possessed no church of any kind and for more than forty years after that date the only place of divine worship was a room situated in the castle and called the Fort Chapel. In 1672 and again in 1674 Gerald Aungier took the initiative and wrote to the Court of Directors desiring " by Gods assistance to erect a small church for public worship in the centre of the town" and in 1674 a regular scheme for building a garrison-church was projected. After approval and encouragement from the Council at Surat the plan of the building was submitted by the President at Surat for the Court's approval in 1676 it being designed to seat a thousand people and " to be of a form proportion­able to our usual churches in England but plain and free from superfluous ornament ". The expenses were to be defrayed by voluntary contributions largely borne by the Company's servants. After the receipt of formal sanction from the court of Directors the present site at the corner of the Elphinstone Circle, the then Bombay Green, was chosen, the building was commenced; and at the date of Sir John Child's governorship (1681-1690) the walls had been raised to fifteen feet. Then for some reason the work suddenly languished and the bare walls remained till a generation later a gathering place for animals an object of derision to the Indian and a reproach to the English in Bombay. But the scandal was removed on the arrival in Bombay on the 21st September 1714 of the Reverend Richard Cobbe, Chaplain to the East India Company who exhorted the English community " to wipe away the reproach of being godless in the sight of the heathens ".

The appeal fell not upon deaf ears. Money and benefactions were readily offered; the foundation stone of a new edifice was laid by the Deputy-Governor, Mr. Stephen Strutt, on the 18th November, 1715, and on Christmas Day, 1718 the Church was formally opened by order of the Governor, Charles Boone. When first completed, it was described as " suitable in some measure to the dignity of our Royal Settlement, and big enough for a Cathedral," and as an illustration of the manners of that age, it may be mentioned that in order to keep that fabric in repair a duty of one-half per cent was levied on all goods imported into Bombay.

In 1814 Bombay became an Archdeaconry of the See of Calcutta, the first Archdeacon being the Rev. G. Barnes, and on the 7th June 1816 the Church, which had previously been occasionally called St. James' was consecrated by Dr. Middleton, the first Anglican Bishop in India, in the name of St. Thomas the Apostle. A generation later (1835), Bombay was raised to the dignity of a Bishopric, and on the arrival of the first Bishop, Dr. Carr, who was installed on the 21st February 1838, St. Thomas Church was notified by Government to be the Cathedral Church of the See. To commemorate this event, the old belfry, which Cobbe had raised " in order for a sea-mark, as high as funds could tower it ", was replaced by the present tower at a cost of Rs. 16,000; and a clock was purchased by public subscription at a cost of 500 guineas. In 1863 Archdeacon W. K. Fletcher formulated a scheme for rebuilding the Cathedral, and a committee was formed to carry out the work. The stone of the reno­vated cathedral was laid by the Governor, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Bartle Frere. Three-years later Bombay passed through the ordeal of bank­ruptcy which followed upon the share mania, and the work of renovation was perforce brought to a close. The only portions of the scheme com­pleted were the chancel, which was fitted up in its present condition during the episcopacy of Bishop Douglas, the fountain at the west entrance for the erection of which Sir Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney subscribed Rs. 7,000, and the organ-chamber in which stands the magni­ficent instrument built expressely for the Cathedral by Messrs. Bishop and Starr of England at a cost of Rs. 15,000. On the 14th March 1906, public meeting was held and committee was appointed to carry out further improvements, estimated at Rs. 52,400, and consisting chiefly in the resto­ration of the organ, the installation of electric light and fans, and the erection of new choir-stall and a Bishop's throne and pulpit.

The most interesting portions of the building are the tesselated pave­ment in the chancel, which was laid down in memory of Archdeacon Fletcher; the three upper clerestory windows erected to the memory of Michael Scott, a merchant, and five lancet windows erected by the Royal Engineers to the officers of that corps. The finest memorials are those erected to the Honourable Jonathan Duncan, Governor of Bombay (1795-1811); to Captain Hardinge, R.N., a younger brother of Lord Hardinge, who fell in the victorious naval engagement off the coast of Ceylon between the British ship San Florenzo and French frigate La Pied Montaise; to Stephen Babington, reviser of the judicial code, whose statue now stands in the Town Hall; and to Bishop Carr, whose effigy in marble, in full episcopal robes, reposes in the southern transept. Other monuments of historical interest are those to Brigadier-General Carnac, who defeated the Shahzada in 1761; to John Watson, Superintendent of Marine, who was killed at the siege of Thane in 1774; to Admiral Maitland, to whom, when in command of H.M.S. Bellerophon, Napoleon surrendered; to Colonel Burton Barr, who won the battle of Khadaki; and to Major Eldred Pottinger, the heroic defender of Herat. An attractive specimen of Bacon's sculpture is the medallion in memory of Mrs. Kirkpatrick on the wall.

In the muniment chest are preserved two silver chalices of considerable age. The first, which Mr. Douglas has styled " the oldest tangible memo­rial of our existence as an English settlement, " was presented by Gerald Aungier to the Christian community of Bombay in 1675. It bears the following inscription : " Hunc calicem charistae eucharistae sacrum esse voluit Honorabilis Geraldus Aungierus, insulac Bombaiac Gubernater, ac pro rebus Honorabilis Anglorum Societatis Indies Orientalil us merca-torum agentium praeses." Of the other chalice no record whatever remains, nor can one hazard a conjecture as to how it came into the possession of the Cathedral. The following words are inscribed upon it : " The gift of the Greenland merchants of the City of York, 1632." The fountain in front of the cathedral was erected by Sir Cowasjee Jehangir.


Although the sun is one of the principal Vedic deities, very few temples are dedicated to the worship of the Sun God in India. One of the chief reasons assigned for this is that the consecration rites of a Surya Narayan temple are very elaborate and for their proper performance learned Brahmins of the Saura or Naga division also known as Sevak Brahmins are required. As such Brahmins are not available and as any flaw or defect in the due performance of the rites is believed to bring misfortune, few people venture to build temples dedicated to this deity, preferring to worship the great luminary in the morning and at noon at home. However, this worship is also on the wane and very few people worship the sun god. Through the magnificence of a merchant of Bombay, Harjiwan Vasanji Maniyar, the city has obtained a beautiful temple dedicated to the worship of the Sun God. This temple of Shri Surya Narayana is situated in Suraj-wadi, Panjrapol lane, Bhuleshwar. The foundation stone of the shrine was laid by Harjiwan in 1895. Unfortunately a few months later Harjiwan Vasanji died. The work of building the temple was, however, continued by his wife Radhabai and it was completed in 1899. Great care was taken to obtain Brahmins well versed in the Hindu scriptures to perform the consecration ceremony and these difficult rites were performed jointly by the Audich Brahmins of Gujarat and the Yajurvedi Brahmins of Bombay. Prominent among those who assisted at the Pratishthan cere­mony were Narottam Shastri Shukla, Nilkanth Shastri Padhye and Baba Pathak, author of the Sanskrit work on rituals called Sanskar Bhaskar. The temple was renovated in 1958.

The temple is built of white stone, and at the main entrance there are carved figures of the celestial gate-keepers (dwarapals) called Jay and Vijay. There is a spacious hall for the reading of purans and galleries for the use of sadhus and visitors. In the quadrangle on stone pillars are sculptured the Sapta Rishis or the seven sages, viz., 1. Marichi, 2. Angiras, 3. Atri, 4. Pulastya, 5. Pulaha, 6. Kratu, and 7. Vashishtha. At the entrance of the inner sanctuary, which is paved with marble, stand the figures of Maruti and Ganesh, and of the apsaras or celestial damsels. In the inner sanctuary seated in a one wheeled chariot is the Sun God wearing a crown; on his right and left stand his two wives, Prabha or Sandhya and Chhaya. The chariot is drawn by a horse with seven faces and the drivei is the Sun God's alme charioteer Aruna. The temple was built at a cost of about Rs. 10,000. At the back of the temple were an oart and dharmashala which were used for the performance of religious ceremonies. The dharmashala has been dismantled and an open space is now used for religious ceremonies such as marriage, thread girding, etc.
An annual fair is held at the temple in honour of the deity on Ratha Saptami, i.e., Magha Vadya 7 when about ten to fifteen thousand devotees assemble. Other celebrations that take place in the temple are Gokul Ashtami and Kartik Shuddha 1 which mark the beginning of the Vikram Samvat.
The temple owns some land at Chinchani near Thane and gets some annual income from the same. It gets annually an income of about Rs. 35 to 40 thousand by way of temple collections from devotees. The management of the temple is vested in trustees from which scholarships are given to deserving students.


The Taraporevala Aquarium and the Marine Biological Station is located at the Kennedy Seaface, i.e., Chaupati near the Charni Road Railway Station on the Western Railway. The building housing the same has been constructed at a total cost of Rs. 8,90,904. The Aquarium has been named as the Taraporevala Aquarium as a handsome donation of Rs. two lakhs was given towards the construction of the building by the late Shri and Shrimati Vicaji D. B. Taraporevala. The aquarium was opened in 1952.

"The building occupies an area of 5,326 square yards, is two-storeyed and lies about 200 feet from the sea-wall. It is rectangular in form, with a long axis running from west to east. To the right of the entrance is a chemical laboratory and a air conditioning room. All material, either for display in the tanks or for study, is kept in this room for observation before introduction into the main aquaria. Opposite the room is a small hall where fish are artistically displayed in tanks that look like pictures framed in masonite partitions. The bulk of the fish displayed are exotic and have been specially imported from the Phillipines, Java, Sumatra, Siam, Malaya and other places. They have all been acclimatized to Indian waters.

Marine specimens are displayed in 18 tanks ranged along the walls, while nine tanks in the centre contain fresh water life. The capacity of the tanks ranges from 1,000 gallons to 1,500 gallons. In addition research workers are provided with special tanks where animals may be studied under controlled conditions. Illumination of the tanks is effected by concealed daylight electric bulbs, so that lighting conditions are as near as possible to those prevailing in the natural environment of the fishes.

Behind the main aquarium hall are the pumps and compressors which operate respectively the circulatory and related systems of the aquaria. Below them are the reservoirs for sea and fresh water. The former has a capacity of 42,000 gallons, and the latter 17,000 gallons. A purification plant for both sea and fresh water is located on the north side of the building. Both sea-water and fresh water have separate underground concrete settling tanks and filtering units, with filtering media of pebbles and sand of varying grades, arranged in layers. The total amount of water in circulation is 1,25,000 gallons of sea water and 70,000 gallons of fresh water. Attached to the aquarium is a barge to secure undiluted and unpolluted sea water and a research vessel for collection of biological material and observations at sea."( Bombay the Beautiful, by J. V. Furtado, pp. 141-42.)


(The details of the Tata National Theatre are based upon the article " A National Theatre for India" by Jamshed Bhabha in a souvenir published at the inauguration of the Theatre in October 1980.)

The construction of a theatre designed specifically to fulfil the exacting acoustic and visual requirements of India's classical and folk music, dance and drama was integral to the concept, aims and ideals of the National Centre for the Performing Arts. This public foundation was originally promoted by the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust as a pioneering insti­tution to play a major role in preserving for posterity and developing those great national arts which have survived for centuries through oral traditions a,nd master-pupil links, the gurukula system, the gurushishya parampara. The disappearance of the old sources of patronage from the princely, feudal classes, and the accelerating pace of the country's indus­trialisation, since India won her Independence, have on the one hand, made the survival of masters and teachers more difficult and, on the other hand, provided new and attractive job opportunities in business and industry which have tended to draw the brighter children of performing artistes away from traditional family vocations. Though sponsored by Tatas, the name Tata was not attached to this institution because of the magnitude of the funds required for it. The amount of financial support extended to the National Centre from other sources than the Tatas was also quite considerable.

Indian music and Indian dance forms of all schools, Hindustani and Carnatic, northern, southern, eastern and western, have been performed; for centuries in courtyards, temples, palaces and relatively small halls and places. It is because Indian instruments and voices are generally soft and delicate in character and suitable for small audiences that the use of electronic amplification has been accepted as a necessity for performances in modern theatres and auditoriums almost everywhere in the country. Even a great sitar maestro like Pandit Ravi Shankar generally refuses to perform in a theatre anywhere without a microphone in front of him. One consequence of this dependence on electronic amplification is that, excepting for occasional performances organised in private homes or at music classes, it is not possible for present day audiences to enjoy the sound of Indian music in its purity.

To overcome this handicap, it was decided from the outset that the National Centie would build an auditorium of such acoustic properties as to do away with the customary reliance on artificial amplification, and to enlist for this purpose the help of the best available experts in theatre design and acoustics. It was fortunately possible to convince the Ford Foundation of the U.S.A., whose policy has been not to give grants for buildings, that a contribution to the National Centre for the expertise of this kind not available in India, would benefit the country as a whole. The generous grant of $200,000 from the Ford Foundation enabled the National Centre to secure the consultancy services of Mr. Philip Johnson, Architect of the State Theatre of the Lincoln Centre for the Performing Arts in New York, and Prof. Cyril N. Harris, Professor of Architecture and Electrical Engineering of Columbia University, who was the Acoustic Consultant for the Kennedy Centre for the Performing Arts at Washington. These eminent men worked freely on this project on the basis of bate costs and without charging their usual professional fees because of their admiration of the great cultural heritage of India and their respect for the aims and ideals of the National Centre. They explained that, in general, the acoustic properties of the theatres and opera houses of the eithteenth and nineteenth centuries were superior to those of modern times because the older auditoriums had a lot of surface decoration on their walls and balconies with chandeliers and other embellishmeiits, which, though intended for visual beauty served the important acoustic purpose of breaking up the sound and distributing it evenly over the whole audito­rium whereas the undecorated flat or curved surfaces of modern archi­tecture resulted in present-day auditoriums having pockets of good sound and pockets of inadequate or bad sound.

While maintaining the essential beauty of modern architecture, the architects achieved their acoustic purpose by means of specially designed elongated three sided forms, which from their starting point at the centre of the stage extend in concentric circles over the entire ceiling and also along the walls of the auditorium. These forms of high density compressed plaster had to be prefabricated on the ground of increasing sizes deter­mined by the auditorium's shape which is almost semicircular and like a fan.
The importance of excluding all extraneous noise or sound from the auditorium was always emphasised. For this basic reason several design and construction features unknown to any auditorium in India or in fact, in Asia or Australia, wherever air-conditioning is required for cooling were insisted upon.
Firstly, the air conditioning ducts for the Tata National Theatre had to be made many times larger in size than would normally have been installed for a 120 tonne cooling plant system, because Prof. Harris did not want to hear a whisper from the system even when he sat alone in an empty auditorium with no sound from the stage: in other words, he did not want the cool air to be ' blown ' into the auditorium but just to drop down noiselessly.
Secondly, the architects insisted on the following structural precau­tions :—
  1. The plant room block located in the basement has been struc­turally isolated from the Theatre Building to prevent structure-borne vibration of equipment being transmitted to the auditorium block.
  2. All conduits and other piped services crossing such isolation joints have been provided with specially detailed flexible connections.
  3. All toilet fittings have been ' cushioned' from the building structure through special lubber based mountings.
  4. Similarly, all waterpipes and drains supported from walls or slabs have been provided with flexible connections to prevent direct sound transmission.
  5. In the same way, all rainwater pipes in the auditorium area have been isolated from the structure.

Thirdly, an extraordinary feature, perhaps unique in the world, of India's National Theatre, is that the two terminal points of the building at each end of the 100 yards long Main Foyer are built on independent pile foundations right down to Bombay's rock-base, totally separated from the pile foundations which carry the heart of the auditorium. A visitor entering the Main Foyer from eithei end will observe a two inch wide cut in the floor extending upwards on both walls and cutting right across the ceiling, looking like a slice made by a knife in a cake. This cut is filled with a soft mastic compound of a kind that will exclude water without transmitting vibrations or sound. Thus, if a military tank or a road roller were to move along Marine Drive, or if the Municipal Corporation were to use road drills during the maintenance of the road or the foot-path, no vibration or sound would ever be transmitted to the inside of the auditorium. Not even the auditoriums of the multi-million dollar Lincoln Centre for the Performing Arts in New York have this unique feature which India's National Theatre possesses.

In regard to the design of the auditorium, Philip Johnson, who won an International Award for Architecture, made several visits to India and saw and listened to classical performances in small venues like private houses before intimate audiences of less than a hundred people. He was struck by the way the members of the audience sat on three sides of the performers and participated visually by their head and hand movements in the performance. He also appreciated the key importance of the subtle movements of the eyes and the facial muscles in classical Indian dancing and realized the consequent need for members of the audience, even sitting at the back of a theatre, not to be too far from the stage. These considerations weighed against the traditional rectangular shape (as, for instance, that of the Philharmonic Hall of the Lincoln Centre) or the equally traditional horse-shoe shape (such as that of the Metropolitan Opera House or of Johnson's own Theatre in New York) and to design India's National Theatre in an almost semi-circular fan-like shape. The auditorium is divided into five equal blocks, A to E, each of 208 seats, making a total of 1040 seats, with six entry doors and six aisles, which make it possible for members of the audience to find their seats without difficulty. A significant feature of the auditorium is that being fan shaped, the audience is as it were, wrapped around the stage so that the last row of this theatre is much closer to the stage than the last row of auditoriums of a similar size.

One consequence of this shape is the impracticability of having a tradi­tional proscenium curtain. It was, therefore, decided to have a rotatable stage to provide for change of sets in a drama performance. The stage is light weight and is in the form of an aluminium platform with a wooden parquet top. It has a six inch thick concrete slab with a wooden covering topped by parquet to avoid any drumming effect in dance performance such as would have occurred with a thin aluminium platform which would react like the skin on a drum. Not only the stage platform is rotating, but also on acoustic considerations, the two rear walls and hooded ceiling over the stage are also rotating with the stage platform. For this reason, the two-halves of the rotatable stage are constructed like mirror-images of each other, and the whole weighs about 175 tonnes. Moreover, to exclude any leakage of sound from the back-stage, a metal turn-table has been provided which bears the stage platform and its walls are constructed to a tolerance of only plus or minus two millimetres. Since no factory in Bombay could build a turn-table of this size to this extreme accuracy, it had to be constructed in the maintenance workshop of the Tata Iron and Steel Company and hauled by road in two giant trailers and four trucks over the thousand miles from Jamshedpur to Bombay.

In regard to the aesthetics of the architecture and the design of the Main Foyer it was felt desirable to provide one access to the Theatre from Marine Drive and another access from the private road in its compound leading to the car parking area. Accordingly instead of the traditional rectangular Foyer, a Foyer over 100 yards long running diagonally across one corner of the National Centre's 8 acre plot was accepted. The result of this design is to give a magnificent sense of spaciousness to the Foyer without making it too large for a 1000-member audience. The simple Kota stone flooring in the entrance at the end of the Foyer carries the vision to the spacious staircase with its rich magenta carpets speckled almost invisibly with blue and leading the eyes to the Upper Foyer with the auditorium's six entrance doors. The ceiling level over the Upper Foyer is not unduly high for a theatre foyer being only 19 feet high and would be considered quite normal. However the ceiling of the entire Foyer is maintained at one level with the result that at the level of the lower Foyer, the ceiling has a height of 31 feet. Apart from the negligible economy that could have been effected by lowering ceiling at each end of the Foyer, the result would not have been aesthetically satisfactory whereas the Foyer as it is, has a grand sense of spaciousness.

In the pre-inauguration trial performances members of the audience sitting in the rear-most rows were able to hear with enjoyment the music of delicate instruments like sitar, the sarod and the sarangi to listen with clarity to dialogues in dramas and to see with pleasure and appreciation the subtle movements of the face, eyes and hands in classical Indian dance recitals. Thus, the auditorium has fulfilled the requirements of a national theatre.


No Town Hall existed in Bombay during the early years of British rule. In 1675 the hired house, in which the judicial courts were located, served as a Town Hall, and in 1677 the chief room in Aungier's Court of Judicature (Mapla Por) was styled the Town Hall. Similarly in 1720 Rama Kamati's house contained a room used for this purpose, which by 1771 had fallen into very great disrepair. It continued however to be utilized until 1786 when accommodation was provided in Hornby House (subse­quently the Great Western Hotel) and the main room of this building served for the next few years as a Town Hall. The idea of erecting a sepa­rate building was first mooted by a Government servant named Henshaw in 1793; was again brought forward by Sir James Mackintosh, the then Recorder of Bombay in a letter to the Bombay Government of the 10th October 1811; and was finally adopted in 1812 by Government, who on the representation of Messrs. Forbes and Co. and Messrs. Bruce Fawcett and Co. sanctioned the holding of a lottery for raising the necessary funds. The lottery proved so successful, the amount realized being 1.10 lakhs that in October 1812 Government sanctioned the raising of a second lottery, on condition that the total sum to be raised for the erection of the building should not exceed 2 lakhs. This lottery however met with poor success, and no further step was taken until 1820 when a third lottery was instituted. The amount so raised sufficed to commence but not to complete the building; and after considerable delay and correspondence Govern­ment were asked to undertake the completion of the work. The building, as it now stands, was designed by Colonel Cowter, R. E. and was finally completed in 1833 at a cost of a little more than 6 lakhs.

The building consists of a basement formerly occupied by the Govern­ment stamp, stationery and income-tax offices, and an upper storey which is about 260 feet long by 100 feet wide. The large hall 100 ft. square contains a fine organ given by Sir Albert Sassoon to commemorate the visit of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh in 1872. The hall which is frequently used for public meetings, concerts and balls also contains a statue of Mountstuart Elphinstone (Governor of Bombay, 1819-1827) executed by Chantery. A statue of Sir Charles Forbes is placed in the south vesti­bule; and in the north vestibule are statues of Mr. Stephen Babington, Sir John Malcolm, Mr. William Erskine, Mr. Carnac, Mr. William Frere, Mr. Nonis, Lord Elphinstone, Sir Jamshetji Jeejeebhoy, Sir Bartle Frere and the Hon. Mr. Jagannath Shankarseth. The library founded in 1804 by Sir James Mackintosh and museum of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society occupy the north end of the central hall, the Darbar room, so called on account of its being used for State purposes prior to the completion of the Secretariat, being situated at the south-east corner of the hall. The Darbar room was once used as the personal office of the Collector of Bombay. Rooms were also allowed for the personal offices of the Income Tax Collector and his deputy, and the Presidency Surgeon, first district. On the west side of the hall is a handsome portico approached by a massive flight of stone steps from the Elphinstone Circle. The pillars in front and the external character of the edifice are Doric; the interior is corinthian. The former Levee Rooms of the Governor and the C. in C. and the Council Room are no longer used. In the library of the present Asiatic Society of Bombay (formerly Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society) containing more than 1,00,000 volumes are busts of Sir James Rivett-Carnac by Sir F. Chantery and Sir J. Mackintosh. The Geographical Room contains portraits of Sir Alexander Burnes, and Sir John Malcolm and Captain Daniel Ross' the two first Presidents of the Bombay Geographical Society.


The University Buildings, which lie between the Old Secretariat and High Court, were designed by Sir Gilbert Scott in the French decorted style and completed in 1874 at a cost of about Rs. 9 1/2 lakhs. They are of a florid and decorative French-Gothic type, and consist of two detached buildings, namely the Senate-house or the Sir Cowasji Jehangir Hall and the University Library and Clock Tower. The Sir Cowasji Jehangir Hall, the earlier structure of the two, measures 45.720 metres (150 feet) long by 19.812 m. (65 feet) wide and has a high pitched globle roof about 27.432 m. (90 feet) in height, with four square turrets at the angles. The chief apart­ment is 31.699 m.(104feet) long by 13.411m(44 feet) broad and 19.202 m. (63 feet) high, furnished at one end with a semi-circuit apse containing raised seats and surrounded by a gallery supported by ornamental iron brackets and approached by staircases in the angle-turrets. The globule is embellished with a circular window, 6.096 m.(20 feet) in diameter, having its outer ring of twelve lights filled with stained glass representations of the twelves signs of the Zodiac. Over the windows in the western wall are stained glass reproductions of Sir Cowasji Jehangir's escutcheon and of the arms of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and Bombay. The eastern windows bear the arms of former Chancellors of the University, viz., Lord Elphinstone, Sir George Clarke, Sir Bartle Frere, Sir Seymour Fitzgerald and Sir Philip Wodehouse.

The Library building comprises two floors, the upper of which is devoted to one large room 44.500 m. (146 feet) long by 9.144 m. (30 feet) in breadth with a panelled teak-wood ceiling, and is in the style of 14th century Gothic and is adorned with carving. Abovethe porch of the building rises the Rajabai Clock Tower to a height of 85.344 m. (280 feet) with five richly decorated storeys afrd is the most conspicuous building in Bombay. The Tower was built at the expenses of Mr. Premchand Raichand in memory of his mother Rajabai and is divided into an octagonal lantern spire with figures in niches at the angles. The top of the cupola is ornamented with 16 statues and about 9. 144 m. (thirty feet) from the ground are eight other statues representing various Indian castes. The fifth storey contains the clock-dials. The carillon machinery used to play sixteen tunes which change automatically four times a day (The mechanism is not operative now.). The bells number sixteen and are tuned to the key of C, the largest of them weighing 3.04 m. tons (3 tonnes) and the whole peel about 12.192 m. tons (12 tonnes). The Library and Clock Tower were formally opened in February 1880, the clock and bells being received and fixed in the tower two years later. The peal of bells and the clock together cost Rs. 30,000. There is an opening in the centre of each floor so that one can look up 35.052 m. (115 feet) to the  ceiling of the Dial Room. From the top of the Tower one gets a fine view of Bombay to the east harbour fringed with islands, Mody Bay and the Fort, and on the west the Malabar Hill and the Backbay and on the south Colaba Point. The Library contains a bust of Sir George Birdwood which was unveiled by Lord Harris in 1894, and busts of the Revd. Dr. John Wilson, James Gibbs, Sir Bartle Frere and Henry Fawcett. Around the buildings is a garden graced by the statues of Sir Cowasji Jehangir and Thomas Ormiston. Now the tower is closed to the public so that a visitor to Bombay misses the magnificent aerial view of the prime dona of India.

The University of Bombay have recently constructed a huge complex at Vidyanagari at Kalina with a number of buildings for library, different departments of the University, the University guest house and the residential blocks.


The Victoria Terminus or the Bori Bunder is the terminus of the Central Railway formerly known as the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The through train section of the station was opened on 27th March 1929 and the former adjoining the station is now reserved for suburban traffic.

The Victoria Terminus has taken place of ' a miserable wooden struc­ture ' which prior to 1878 served as the terminal station. The area in front of this building was occupied by a Dhobi's ghat where the town's washing was performed until the new ghat at Mahalakshmi was provided while a portion of the site of the present booking office and the open space leading to Frere road were occupied by the famous Phansi talao or Gibbet pond. The pond derived its name from the fact that murderers used to be hanged there and the gallows stood there in full view of the public until roughly a century ago when the tank was filled in and the melancholy structure was removed. Close by in olden times stood also the public pillory, where offenders were subjected to the raillery of the populace and had to submit to being pelted with rotten eggs, old shoes, mud and brick­bats. The abolition of this mode of punishment was one of the first acts of Queen Victoria after her assumption of the Crown.

The terminal station of the Central Railway is one of the handsomest and most prominent buildings in Bombay and is generally supposed to be from the architectural point of view, one of the finest stations in the world. It was designed by the late Mr. F. W. Stevens, who subsequently joined the company's staff to superintend its erection. Work was com­menced in May, 1878 and completed in May 1888, at a cost for the offices alone of Rs. 16,35,562. The station proper was erected under the super­vision of Mr. T. W. Pearson, District Engineer, and was opened for traffic on the 1st January 1882. Its cost, excluding the permanent way amounted to Rs. 10,40,2.48. On Jubilee Day, 1887, the buildings were named in honour of H. M. the Queen Empress Victoria as ' VictoriaTerminus' the announcement being made by means of huge letters of light incorpo­rated in the illuminations which adorned the building that night. The building is in the Italian-Gothic style with a frontage on Hornby road (now Mahatma Gandhi Road) of more than 450 metres (1,500 feet). The administrative offices form three sides of a rectangle enclosing an orna­mental garden, the entrance gates to which are guarded by a massive lion and tiger carved in stone. They comprise a ground and two upper floors, the most prominent feature in the elevation being the high dome rising over the centre portion, adorned with a large figure representing ' Progress '. A statue of the late Queen Empress occupies a niche below the clock in the centre of the building. Marble columns support the lofty roof and entrance facade of the booking-office, the walls of which are decorated in the blue and gold.

This building has a series of well-proportioned and delicately ornamented arches, giving it the look of a grand cathedral. This eifect is further heightened by a central dome set off by a number of smaller domes and conical towers reminiscent of West Minster Abbey. The lancet windows in the dome and towers are of ornate stained glass, and like the rest of the building, are made out of solid cut-stone masonry, superimposed by delicate artistic work. Italian granite has been freely used for interior decoration. The apex of the dome is crowned by a colossal figure of a Lady in stone symbolising progress. This figure is 5.029 metres (16' 6") in height.

The building is the administrative headquarters of the Central Railway. Two multi-storeyed buildings were constructed later at Bombay VT to accommodate all the offices of the Railway on account of expansion in the activities of Central Railway.

The Divisional Headquarters of Bombay Division is also located near the old administrative building. Bombay VT is one of the biggest passen­ger terminals in India. There are a total of 13 platforms at Bombay VT, out of which 5 platforms are exclusively utilised for dealing with long distance passenger carrying trains. At present 30 Down and 30 Up Mail/ Express/Passenger Trains are being handled on these platforms. Eight platforms are exclusively available for dealing with suburban trains which arrive and leave VT on the Harbour Branch, Main Line and Through Line. At present 908 suburban trains (454 Down and 454 Up) are being handled at Bombay VT. Both the suburban and main line stations at Bombay VT have waiting halls, station masters' offices, booking offices, book-stalls, canteens etc. The main line station building contains a post and telegraph office, reservation and enquiry offices, retiring rooms, res­taurants, cloak room etc. Facilities for local telephones are provided near the booking windows on the surburban section.

The divisional control office is also situated at the divisional head­quarters office at Bombay VT. The passenger, goods and surburban trains operation of the entire Bombay Division is controlled from this Office.


A Sailors' Home constructed in 1876 was enlarged by the then Bombay Government in 1928 and was converted to house the Bombay Legislative Council and its offices till 1981. Since Independence, the Old Council Hall could just any how accommodate the two houses of the Legislature. The building had also become very old. With a view to meeting the ever increasing requirements and providing more amenities to the legislature it was decided to construct a new Council Hall Building, on the three vacant plots available in front of Mantralaya. The work commenced on May 27, 1974 and the new Council Hall building was inaugurated by the revered Prime Minister of India Smt., Indira Gandhi on April 19, 1981. The new Council Hall building is located in the midst of imposing skyscrapers at Nariman Point.

The new Council Hall called Vidhan Bhavan, has been provided with special acoustical treatment to control noise in all the halls. Entrance to all the halls, waiting foyer, ministers rooms have superb interior decoration. The National Emblem 5.5 metres in height and weighing about four tonnes made of bronze has been erected atop the dome of the Central circular portion. The building has a parking space for 162 cars; 66 in the basement, 56 in the compound of the building and 40 outside the compound. The well laid-out lawns, roads, are all the complementary features, that help beautify the entire complex and 16.764 metres high flag mast located in an oval shape water pond complete the entire setting in a most dignified manner. A statue of Mahatma Phule, an arch social revolutionary, has been erected in the premises. Besides, all around the plot 2.45 metres high mild steel fencing with decorative treatment is provided, which not only beautifies the premises but also provides the necessary security.

The monument reflects all the glories of the architect ural, social and cultural heritage of Maharashtra, through the medium of concrete, glass, wood, steel, etc.

This Vidhan Bhavan Building Complex is a prestigious project and its uniqueness lies in its elegant architectural features, special structural design and the provision of modern amenities such as air-conditioning, interior decoration, fire-fighting and fire-alarm system, reinforced sound and simul­taneous translation system in six languages and automatic vote recording system, requiring the use of modern sophisticated electronic equipment.

The building provides much larger space for the legislators and the staff of Legislature Secretariat than the old Council Hall did. The Assembly Hall has a seating arrangement for 304 MLAs against the present strength of 289, and the Council Chamber can accommodate 130 members against the strength of 78. The Central Hall has a capacity to seat 400 members.

The premises are also being beautified with murals and large-size photographs depicting various features of Maharashtra's life and culture.

The entire concept of design comprises two units, one unit consisting of three Halls for Assembly, Council and Central Hall for the Joint Session of both the Houses and the other unit comprising the Legislature Secre­tariat. The three Halls have been coupled in one single mass one over the other, having a folded dome roof on top against the backdrop of the twenty-one storeyed .' Tower Block'. One more architectural mass, giving a podium-like effect balances the main two masses.

Three auditoriums have been provided in the Central Circular Portion with spectator galleries. Assembly Hall is on the ground floor. It is circular in shape with a diameter of 30 metres. There is a 3 metre wide circular corridor all round it, from which members can enter the Assembly Hall through six entrances.

The Speaker's and the Deputy Speaker's chambers are also located on this floor. The spectator gallery can accommodate 398 people. In addition, the Governor, the Chairman of the Council and the honourable invitees, diplomats, and journalists have reserved balconies.

Council Chamber is on the first floor. It is also circular in shape with a diameter of 21 metres. It can accommodate 130 members, with 240 seats in the gallery. The Chairman's and the Deputy Chairman's chambers are located adjacent to the hall. In addition, reserved balconies for the Governor, the Speaker, invitees, journalists and dignitaries have been provided for.

Central Hall is on the fifth floor and has a diameter of 30 metres with arrangement of 400 seats. The balcony can house 420 seats. A combined meeting of both Houses or international symposia or conferences can be staged here. Special equipment for simultaneous translation facility in six languages is installed here. In the other two halls, a speech can be heard in three different languages by simultaneous translation equipment.

Ministers' Offices: The ground and first floors house 40 chambers for the Chief Minister, other Ministers and Ministers of State. A hall for the Cabinet meeting and another for the Business Advisory Committee have been provided. In addition, a separate chamber and office have been kept for the Leader of the Opposition.

Committee Rooms and Offices : In all nine General Committee Rooms and two Business Advisory Committee Rooms have been provided. In four of the Committee Rooms, 20 members each, in two of the Committee Rooms, 25 members each and in the remaining three Committee Rooms, 35 members each can be seated. The seating capacity for each of the Business Advisory Committee Rooms is for 12 members. The entire area from 11th to 17th floor of the ' Tower Block ' has been reserved for the offices of the Legislature Secretariat.

Salient Amenities : Two canteens, a library and a reading room for the MLAs, lounges for ladies and gents, MLAs and MLCs, post office, State Bank Office, railway and air booking facilities have been provided in the ' Tower Block'. Bombay Telephones, fire brigade and police force have been allotted space. Waiting room for the visitors, telephone booths etc., are on the ground and first floors.

The Assembly Hall, the Council Chamber, the Central Hall, the Minis­ters' rooms and other important rooms have been centrally airconditioned.
Sound System and Simultaneous Translation System : A speaker and microphone is provided for two members each in the Assembly Hall and the Council Chamber. The proceedings of the Houses can be heard simul­taneously in three different languages. The Central Hall is fitted with simultaneous translation system in six languages.

Automatic Vote Recording System : This is the most modern equipment and by using this system, the votes can be immediately tabulated. Such facility is provided only in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

Fire-Fighting and Fire-Alarm System : Considering the rules laid down for high rise buildings, multi-stage multi-outlet high pressure pumps, wet risers, sprinklers, concealed boards and such other sensitive and efficient equipments are installed.

Hydropneumatic Water Supply System : This modern system with small balancing tanks at the top supplies water at the constant rate throughout and eliminates the bulky overhead tanks.

Miscellaneous : All the 145 clocks in the building are tuned to and controlled by a single master clock. All these show one and the correct time only.


Vihar a sister lake of Powai, an artificial lake in Greater Bombay,4.8 km (three miles) west of the Bhandup railway station on the Bombay V.T.-Thane section of the Central Railway and 9.60 km (6 miles) east of Goregaon railway station on the Churchgate-Virar section of the Western Railway, was the main source of water-supply to the town and island of Bombay before laying the Tansa Pipelines. The lake is a large and beautiful sheet of water dotted with green woody islands with a background of picturesque hills. It covers the sites of the villages of Vihar, Sai and Gundgaon, which formed the Vihar estate granted on lease to Morarji Rastamji, on the 22nd of September 1829. At the time of making the lake the right and title of the leases were purchased for Rs. 1,50,000, and the rights of the tenants in possession of the lands and premises were bought for Rs.56,585. There is a good made road from Goregaon railway station. It is well connected by a number of BEST buses.

In the middle of the sixteenth century, Vihar had a great Portuguese church and a college of 150 boys. There was also, on a site still marked by ruins, a great orphanage of 300 boys, built from the stones of a temple to the Hindu trinity and named the orphanage of the Blessed Trinity.(Da Cunha's Bassein. p. 188.)

Vihar lake covers an area of 566.5 hectares (1400 acres), and has a gathering ground of about 1011.7 hectares (2500 acres). When full the level of the lake is 73.85 metres (262.0 feet) above the Town Hall datum, that is 55.47 metres (182.36 feet) above mean sea level. The water of the lake can be drawn off, till the surface falls 18 metres (fifty-nine feet) below this level. This fall of fifty-nine feet represents about 1,51,800 lakh litres (10,650 million gallons). At the close of the dry season the surface of the lake is on an average about 3.45 metres (11 1/2 feet) below the top of the waste weir.

Vihar lake was the first lake to supply water to Bombay. It was one Captain Crawford who in 1845 first visualised using the Vihar stream for storing water and subsequently pumping it into the city.

Government finally gave its approval to the scheme in 1854 and the work was taken in hand in 1856. It is interesting to note that the dam at Vihar was then the highest earthen dam in the world. After the works were completed, the lake, thus formed, had a total capacity of 9120 million gallons.

It was in March 1860 that Vihar first started functioning. It supplied seven million gallons per day or 10 gallons per head of the population which was then only seven lakhs. Complaints about the quality of water from Vihar Lake were soon heard and they lasted till quite recently inspite of repeated endeavours made to keep the lake and the waters clean. Efforts to improve the supply continued till 1943 when the lake was thoroughly cleaned at a cost of Rs. 50,000. The Vihar water works actually came under the control of the Municipal Corporation in 1863.

On the other side of the lake, reached by walking over the bridge is a one-storeyed inspection bungalow, available now to the public by prior reservation with the Hydraulic Engineer in whose charge are all the lakes in Greater Bombay area. There is a considerable jungle country to explore around there. Besides, there is a beautiful garden and a picnic centre maintained by the Bombay Municipal Corporation where many visitors throng daily. During holidays and summer days the picnic centre gets a appearance of a fair.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century a land-grant stone (5' X 18" X 5') was found near Vihar,  covered with an inscription of fifty to sixty lines. It belonged to the. thirteenth century and mentioned the names of the giver, the receiver, and the grant made. At the top were a sun and moon, and below was the usual sculpture course. The stone was taken by Mr. Moor to England (.(Moor's Hindu Pantheon, 383.) (The obverse is a Y crowned, with four points on either side. The reverse is a cross of Saint George, with a point in each corner. The coin weighs 168 grains, Portuguese. It is figured and described in the third volume of Teixerhde Aragao's Moandes Cunhadas. The coin is very rare)). In 1881 another land-grant stone was found near Vihar which was kept in the collector's garden at Thane. It was a sandstone slab (4' X1" X 5") with a rounded top, on either side of which were the sun and the moon. There were four lines of some what defaced writing. It recorded a gift in the year A.D. 1081 (S. 1003), during the reign of the Shilahara chief Mahamandaleshwar Anantdev.

In making a path round the upper part of the reservoir in January 1855, upwards of a thousand copper coins were found in an earthen pot. They were much corroded. Three of them were Muhammedan of not very early days and most of the rest bore a cross on one side, with a point between each of the arms. On the obverse was a small figure like a Maltese cross with a point on each side of it, over which was a line bent down at each and the remainder of the field was occupied by a symbol between two sets of four points. A sixth had a rude outline of a cross on one side, the other side being plain. There were other smooth pieces of copper of similar size, Two of these coins which are shown in Dr. Burges's Archaeological Survey Report No. 10, p. 66, have been identified by Dr. Gerson-Da Cunha as Portuguese coins Struck by the viceroy Dom Joao de Castro in 1538..(Moor's Hindu Pantheon, 383.) (The obverse is a Y crowned, with four points on either side. The reverse is a cross of Saint George, with a point in each corner. The coin weighs 168 grains, Portuguese. It is figured and described in the third volume of Teixerhde Aragao's Moandes Cunhadas. The coin is very rare)


The temple dedicated to God Vithoba is located on the Katrak Road near the Wadala market. Wadala Road on the Harbour branch of the suburban section of the Central Railway is the nearest railway station to the temple. The temple can also be reached by a number of BEST buses. The temple lies at a distance of 0.8 kilometres from the Wadala Road railway station. The temple is famous for a very big fair held in honour of God Vithoba from Ashadh Shuddha 10 to Ashadh Shuddha 12, the impor­tant day of the fair being Ashadh Shuddha 11 when over a lakh of devotees visit the fair.

It is said that a guru of the Varkari sect and a great devotee of God Vithoba was living about 160 years ago at the place where the present temple is situated. He used to pay visits regularly to Pandharpur in the month of Ashadh on foot. In one of his visits to Pandharpur he expressed his inability to visit Pandharpur with his fellowmen in the following year due to his old age.  One of his followers said to the Guru, " You are a devotee of God Vithoba; so you may pray Him to come to Bombay." The Guru said, " Let us hope so, after all it depends upon the mercy of God Vithoba. " The same year the Guru and his followers took the palanquin procession to Pandharpur as usual. While bathing in the river Chandrabhaga, they were surprised to find that one of the followers of the Guru had found an image of God Vithoba. The Guru and his followers were happy and brought the said image to Bombay and installed it in the Guru's hut on Chaitra Shud 13. The followers of the Varkari sect then discontinued the practice of carrying a palanquin to Pandharpur from the next year and started worshipping the God at Wadala.

The present temple it is said, stands at the place where there was a hut of the Guru. The old temple was built about 150 years ago but a renovation of it commenced some 20 years back for which donations were received from many devotees. The temple is situated in a compound with an area of about 2,675.62 square metres (3,200 square yards) with a wall on the three sides excepting on the south. The main entrance faces the east. Outside the compound wall, at the entrance about 4.572 m. (15') to the right, is a small temple of Shani and Kal Bhairav. The auditorium (sabhagraha) of the temple was constructed in cement concrete in the year 1953. The shrine measures 3.048 m. x 2.438 m. (10' x 8') and faces the east. The pinnacle at the top (kalas) is about 15.240 m (50') high and is plated with gold.

Just adjacent to the shrine to the south and the north are the temples dedicated to Ganapati and Mahadeo, both facing the east. The temple dedicated to Ganapati admeasures 3.6576 m. X 3.6576 m. (12' X 12'), and contains an image of Ganapati with its trunk turned to the left installed on a raised platform, paved with marble stones, measuring 3.048 m. x 1.0668 m. (10,x3 1/2') and 0.6096 m. (2') high from the ground level. The shrine of God Mahadeo also measures 3.6576 m. x 3.6576 m. (12'x 12') and a Shiva Linga is installed in it. Just in front of the temple of Mahadeo at some distance is installed a sacred bull (Nandi) of black stone on a marble platform which measures 1.8288 m. x 3.6576 m. (6'x12'). An image of Shitala Devi is also installed just near the sacred bull on the east. The image of Ganapati having its trunk to the right called Siddhi Vinayak is installed in a recess in the wall to the left of the entrance of the temple dedicated to Mahadeo. At a distance of about 1.219 m. just in front of the auditorium hall of the main temple, an image of Garuda with folded hands is installed on a platform of marble stone which is about 1.2192 m. (4') high from the ground. To the north of this image a deep-mala is erected on a stone platform measuring 1.5240 mux 1.5240 m (5'x5') and 0.4572 m. (1 1/2) high from the ground. There is a temple of God Maruti at the back of the image of Garuda at a distance of about 2.4384 m. (8'). This temple measures 3.6576 m. X 3.6576 m. (12'x 12') and faces the west. The inscription written on the plinth stone shows that the renovation of this temple was completed in the year 1919.

Images of God Vithoba and Goddess Rakhumai in their traditional posture with hands on their waist are installed in the shrine of the main temple on a raised platform of marble stones. The image of Rakhumai is to the left of Vithoba, at a distance of about 0.4572 m.(1 1/2)- The height of the image of Vithoba is 1.0668 m. (3 1/2) and that of Rakhumai is 0.9144 m. (3 1/2). The images are made of black stone. Small images of Vithoba and Rakhumai made of silver, are kept behind the main images in a devhara.

A silk turban pagadi, a dhoti, an upper garment and a shoulder cloth (uparne) of cotton, are put on the image of God Vithoba while the image of Rakhumai is draped in a saree and a blouse of cotton. During the fair and on special occasions, rich clothes of silk, etc., are put on the deities.
A nose-ring, a necklace (mangal sutra) of black beads and silver bangles are the ornaments for daily wear of Goddess Rakhumai.

During the period of the fair and on special occasions precious orna­ments such as lockets and chain, both of gold, and ear-rings (kundale) and crown, both of silver, are put on the image of God Vithoba and bangles, necklace, a chain, a nose-ring, all of gold and ear-rings (kundale), a waist belt and a painjan all of silver are put on the image of Goddess Rakhumai.

The shrine of the deity is opened at 4-30 a.m. every day, kakad arati is performed at 5-00 a.m. which is followed by an abhisheka. Thereafter the deities are bathed with cold water. Scented oil is then applied to the deities and clothes and ornaments are put on them. After application of sandal-wood paste and kumkum on the forehead and other parts of the body, garlands of flowers are put on them. The images of Ganapati and other deities and Shiva Linga are also worshipped in similar manner amidst the chanting of mantras. The arati is performed in the main temple from 6-30 a.m. to 7-00 a.m. and the same is afterwards waved before other images. Tirtha (holy water) and prasad are distributed amongst devotees present at the time of the arati.

It is customary to offer a naivedya of cooked food to the deities daily except on the days of fasts, on which days naivedya offered contains fruits, groundnut seeds, etc., which are afterwards distributed by the priests. The temple is closed for darshan from 12-00 noon to 3-30 p.m. when it is again opened and garlands of flowers and leaves of sacred Tulasi plant are offered to the deities. The evening arati is performed at 7-00 p.m. and prasad is distributed amongst the devotees present. The temple is closed for the night at 1-00 p.m. after performing night arati.

There is a general practice of making vows to the deity for getting a child, prosperity in business, success in examinations and relief from bodily or mental ailments. On fulfilment of the vows, clothes, ornaments, etc., are oifered. Some also distribute gur, sugar, etc., according to their means.

The annual fair starts on Ashadh Shud. 10 and lasts for three days i.e., upto Ashadh Shud. 12. On As had Shud. 10, a. special worship called Maha Abhisheka is performed by a prominent person at about 3-00 p.m. followed by an arati. The pilgrims attend the fair from this day and worship the deities with kumkum, flowers and leaves of sacred Tulasi plant and leave after taking darshan.

On Ashadh Shud. 11 which is the most important day of the fair, pilgrims from all walks of life attend the fair in large number. They worship the deities by offerinng flowers and coins before them and praying for mercy. The pilgrims come in groups called Dindis reciting bhajans and visit the temple throughout the day.

The programmes of bhajans, kirtans and pravachans are also arranged. To enable the pilgrims to have darshan of Vithoba and Rakhumai the temple is kept open throughout the day and upto 3-00 a.m. on the following day.

There is no special programme on Ashadh Shud. 12. Those persons who could not take darshan during the earlier two days, visit the temple to pay homage to the deities.

Besides the annual fair, there is a programme of the palanquin procession of a portrait of God Vithoba and Goddess Rakhumai at about 10-00 a.m. on Chaitra Shud. 12, the day of inception of the deities, taken round the nearby locality and attended by 2,000 to 3,000 persons.

Maha Abhisheka is also performed in the temple on certain festival days, viz., Ashvina Shud. 10 (Dasara), Ramanavami and Gokul Ashtami which are celebrated in the traditional way.


Little is known about Haji Ali, the Muslim saint. However, popular belief has it that a rich resident of Bombay, made a Haj to Mecca. On his return to Bombay from the pilgrimage he was called ' Haji Ali'. Haji Ali was searching spiritual attainment, he renounced the world, gave away his wealth and lived on these rocks in the bay.

Soon, his sister, Ma Hajiani, joined him having also renounced the world. They were now revered as holy people, and had a large number of devotees. When they died these devotees built two mausoleums—Haji Ali for the brother, on the rock where he meditated, and Ma Hajiani for his sister at a little distance away on Worli bay.

The Haji Ali Dargah is a Jewel-like mausoleum built on the rocks off the Mahalaxmi temple. It commands a beautiful view of the Malabar and Cumballa Hills as well as the Vellard. Thousands of devotees pay their respects to the holy Haji Ali on occasions of the Bakri-i-Id, Ramzan Id, the Prophet's birth anniversary and Muharrum. The saint is revered by Hindus as well.

There is no evidence about when exactly Haji Ali and his sister lived, but it is believed to have been sometime around the end of the eighteenth century. Muslims and non-Muslims flock to the mausoleum believing that Pir Haji Ali has the power of granting favours and they go to invoke his blessings. The only time to visit the mausoleum is during low tide since one has to walk about 500 metres into the sea along a narrow causeway when it is above water.


The Swaminarayan temple at Bhuleshwar has an elaborately carved frontage which is really a visual treat in an otherwise shaby surrounding. It was constructed in 1868 at a cost of about Rs.1 lakh. It is also known as Shikharband, i.e. a spired temple since all the three shrines in the temple have spires with exquisite carvings.

After climbing a flight of twenty five steps one enters the audience hall (Sabhamandap). There are three shrines. In the shrine on the east there are idols of Shri Swami Narayan, Shri Krishna and Radhika; the shrine at the centre has the idols of Ghanashyam Maharaj, Narayan and Laxmi; while the shrine on the west houses the resting place for deities. Over the Sabhamandap is a dome upon which are painted the scenes from the Krishnalila (Sports of Lord Krishna). The dome is supported by fifty four pillars. There are also the shrines dedicated to Lord Ganapati and Maruti. There is a big audience hall on the first floor where religious discourses are held regularly.

The festivities celebrated at the temple are Ram Navmi (birth anniver­sary of Lord Ram), Janmashtami (birth anniversary of Lord Krishna), Vaman Jayanti, Nrisinha Jayanti, Mahashivratri, Ganesh Chaturthi, etc. A large number of people assemble on these days.

There are some other smaller temples of the sect at Ghatkopar, Mulund and Malad in the suburbs and at Thane and Kalyan near Bombay. The headquarters of the sect is located at Wadtal in Gujarat from where all the temples in Bombay are managed.


Chaitya Bhoomi, a place of pilgrimage to the Buddhists, is located on the Dadar Chowpati. It is square in shape with a small dome divided into ground and mezzanine floors. In the square shaped structure is a circular wall about 1.5 metres in height. In the circular area are placed the bust of Dr. B. R. alias Babasaheb Ambedkar and a statue of Gautam Buddha. The circular wall has two entrances and is furnished with marble flooring. On the mezzanine floor there is a Stupa, besides the resting place for Bauddha Bhikus. The Chaitya Bhoomi was inaugurated by the learned Smt. Meerabai Yashvantrao Ambedkar, the daughter-in-law of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, on December 5, 1971.

Although this memorial has no claim to any architectural beauty as such it is revered by one and all. It is a memorial to Dr. B. R Ambedkar, the architect of Indian Constitution and the leader of the downtrodden classes. Lakhs of persons visit the Chaitya Bhoomi to pay their respects to Dr. Ambedkar on his death anniversary on the 6th of December, as well as on the Buddha Paurnima day.