PLACES OF INTEREST

MATHERAN.

Ma'thera'n, the wooded head, [According to the Matheran Dhangars the word means the Mother's Wood. They say that the first family of Dhangars who came from the Deccan to Matheran lost their father and mother soon after they came, as the couplet says, ' Mathe pite gamavila, Matheran nav pavala: When their parents died, Matheran got its name.'] is an even-topped line of hill, very notable on a clear day, about thirty miles east of Bombay, like an outstanding block of the Sahyadris, its long level back stretching in marked contrast to the sharp clear-cut scarp of its neighbour Bava Malang, or the Cathedral Rocks.

In a straight line Matheran is only thirty miles east of Bombay, but by the railway, which sweeps north-east through Kalyan, the distance to Neral station, at the north-east foot of the hill, is about fifty-four miles, and from Neral to the centre of the hill top is seven miles more.

Close behind the village of Neral, about half a mile to the south of the station, rises the steep bare side of Panorama Point, the northmost spur of Matheran. At its foot the plain swells into flat-topped knolls separated by the teak-clad slopes of monsoon torrents. From the lower spurs the hillside rises steep and bare with black crags and walls of rock, and, in sheltered nooks and hollows, patches of trees and brushwood. About half way up a wooded terrace runs parallel to the flat hill top. Above the terrace rises a second steep slope of grass and black rock; over this is a narrow belt of evergreen forest; and last of all a flat-topped cliff crowned with trees. From the foot of the topmost cliff a large spur stretches east towards the Sahyadris, steep and difficult where it leaves the hill, then gradually sloping, then a plateau, and finally turning to the north and sinking into the plain in a rugged knoll close to Neral.

The Way Up.

The road up the hill, though broad enough for two ponies, is unfit for carriages or carts. From the station it passes south through Neral, a well-to-do village of stone-walled and tiled houses, and runs for about a mile along the foot of the rocky spur skirting a belt of rice lands, which, divided by the Neral stream and shaded by a few clusters of mahura, tamarind, and mango trees, runs up the hollows to the foot of the hill. During the second mile the hill-side, in places cut into the rock, winds about 550 feet up the western face of the spur. To the left, during the hot months, the black and yellow of the rocky withered upper slopes are relieved by patches of bright green bushes, rows of reddish half-withered underwood, and a stunted coppice of leafless teak. [The green bushes are, karand Carissa carandas, and kuda Tabernoemontana crispa; the half-withered underwood is davti Grislea tomentosa.] Towards the end of the second mile and during the first quarter of the third mile, till the crest of the spur is gained, the upper slopes rise rocky and bare with a scanty sprinkling of leafless or half-clothed bushes, some stunted teak, and, in a few nooks and hollows, a deep green mango or a grey-green fig. [The leafless and half-clothed bushes are, papti Pavetta indica, davti Grislea tomentosa, kuda Tabernaemontana crispa, and ain Terminalia glabra.] The lower slopes have patches of bright green karand bushes and mangoes, and a thick growth of teak and other leafless or nearly leafless trees. [The leafless trees are the mori Casearia laevigata, pakir Ficus cordifolia, suir Salmalia malabarica, kaundal Sterculia urens, and ranbhendi Thespesia lampas.] About a quarter of a mile past the second mile-mark, the road tops the crest of the spur and runs west, past a small refreshment shed, along the plateau that stretches to the body of the hill. This plateau, rising gently to the north-west, is rocky and bare with dry underwood, bright green karand brakes, a sprinkling of leafless teak, and scattered mangoes, jambuls, and figs. In places there are wooded knolls and hollows, but the smooth bareness of most of the surface, and the hacked and stunted forms of the trees and bushes, show that till lately much of it was under tillage. In front rise the tree-capped crest of Garbat and the Governor's Hill, and to the right Panorama Point, and beyond it the flat-topped bluff of Peb Port and the rounded peak of Nakhinda. To the left Garbat stretches in a long low spur that rises in the distance into the sharp point of Sondai. From the foot of the Garbat ridge a succession of bare flat-topped spurs, divided by deep-cut ravines, fall into the plain which stretches withered and misty towards the dim-looming Sahyadri hills.

During the third mile, with a rise of about 550 feet (975.38 to 1525.07), the road leaves the plateau and climbs a rugged hill-side, strewn with boulders and with lines of coarse withered grass, dry underwood, and bare leafless trees. [The chief leafless trees, besides those already noticed, are the kunak and pangara Erythrina indica.] Close to the fourth mile, at a height of 1525.07 feet, the road enters the sheltered belt of the Neral wood with varied tints of green and a sprinkling of leafless grey. [The chief tints are, deep green mangoes and alus Vanguiera edulis, rich fresh palas Butea frondosa, bright green karand bushes and hirdas Terminalia chebula, yellow-green kumbas Careya arborea, brown-tipped ains Terminalia glabra, and leafless pahirs, suirs, and varas Heterophragma roxburghii.] In a tree-fringed glade close to the fourth mile-mark is a small shed, and a stand-pipe and trough with water that lasts for about ten months in the year. Beyond this hollow, the road winds between the upper fringe of the wood and a bare rocky scarp, till it reaches the upper wooded plateau, where, leaving the Behrli Mhar or Wild-Palm grove on the right, it skirts the upper edge of the rich Bekri Wood, overlooking a sea of waving tree tops whose bright leafage, unfrayed by wind and undimmed by dust, rises from the beach-like terrace that skirts the foot of the Garbat crag. Below this belt of green stretch the grey under-slopes, and beyond the slopes lies the misty plain, its baked and withered fields, relieved by groves and ponds and by the flashing links of the slow-flowing Ulhas. To the right, with sharp steep zigzags, the road mounts the bare face of the topmost scarp, reaching at the fifth mile-mark a height of 2138.49 feet. A little beyond the mile-mark stands the toll, on the crest of the neck between the high headlands of Governor's Hill to the north and Garbat Hill to the south.

The Hill Top.

The hill top, which has an estimated area of 5000 acres or about eight square miles, consists of a main central block and two smaller side ridges or wings. The central block, with an average breadth of about half a mile, stretches nearly north and south from the narrow ridge of Hart Point in the north to the rounded bluff of Chauk in the south. Parallel with the main hill, and joined to it by short necks, are two spurs, the larger, to the east, stretching about two and a half miles from Panorama Point in the north to Garbat in the south, and the smaller, to the west, stretching about a mile and a half from the sharp point of Porcupine to the large bluff of Louisa Point.

The toll, at the top of the steep zigzag on the Neral road, stands about the middle of the east wing or outlying belt. From the toll the east wing runs north for about a mile and a quarter, rising into the tree-crowned crest of Governor's Hill, and, beyond a deeply wooded hollow, stretching into the long back of Panorama Point. South of the toll, beyond the rugged deeply-wooded Garbat Head, the spur narrows to a neck, and, again broadening to about a quarter of a mile, tapers, with a high wooded crest, nearly a mile south to Garbat Point. West from the Neral toll, through thick woods, the ground falls, for about a quarter of a mile, to the flat neck or isthmus, which between high richly-wooded banks, joins the eastern wing to the north end of the central hill.

From this neck the central hill, wooded throughout except a few glades and rocky plateaus, swells into tree-crowned knolls, and stretches south for nearly three miles to the bluff rounded cliff of Chauk. The central hill-top may be roughly divided into three parts. A north section, that, with one or two knolls, rises from the edge of the cliff to a raised plateau of rock about 2500 feet above the sea; a middle section, that, from both sides, slopes nearly 300 feet to the bed of the west-flowing Pisharnath stream; and a. south section, that, with a rocky central plateau little lower than the north plateau, and one or two outstanding knolls, stretches from the valley of the Pisharnath to the rounded bluff of Chauk. For about a mile from Hart Point to the Church Plateau, the northern section of the hill is thinly peopled, with only a broken line of houses separated by stretches of wood. On the Church Plateau the houses stand closer together, and, along the edge of the eastern cliff, groups of huts and small shops cluster round the market place. The slopes of the central hollow are the thickest peopled part of the hill, rows of close-grouped houses stretching across nearly the whole breadth of the hill-top. The southern section, except the Chauk hotel, the sanitarium and one or two private dwellings, is almost without houses.

From the central hill, about a quarter of a mile west of the Church Plateau, a low thickly wooded neck, about 200 yards long and half a mile broad, leads to the small western wing or hill-belt, which with bare narrow ends and a wooded central crest, stretches about a mile and a quarter from Porcupine Point on the north to Louisa Point on the south.

Over almost the whole hill-top there is little soil, scarcely any grass, and a thick crop of small black boulders. The topmost layer of rock is a soft porous iron-clay, through which, by the beginning of the hot season, the whole rainfall has drained, leaving in many places a leafless black underwood, glades of withered grass, and pathways deep in rusty dust. In spite of this dryness and want of soil, except some winding glades, one or two stretches of bare sheet rock, and the wind-swept shoulders of the larger spurs, the hill-top is everywhere shaded by a thick growth of brushwood, creepers, and trees. In parts, the rocky leaf-strewn ground has only a scanty undergrowth of leafless bushes, and the trees are so stunted and gnarled as to be little more than coppice. But over most of the hill top the boulders are hid by a sprinkling of seedlings and evergreen brushwood, the thicket is green with the fresh hanging boughs of well-grown trees, and, in sheltered dells and hollows, the underwood is full of leaves, long-armed climbers swathe the lower trees and bushes into masses of green, and lofty tree tops wave high overhead. Through all these woods and thickets narrow lanes wind up and down the uneven hill-top, shaded and often overarched with trees. From outlying points, where the lane winds clear of the thicket, the wooded hill-top swells from the edge of the cliff to the central ridge, a cool bank of fresh green broken by only a few of the higher house-tops. Through a screen of waving branches and tree tops, across the bay-like valleys, the hill-sides fall in steep rings of trap, each ring marked by a band of yellow grass or a belt of evergreen timber. The lower slopes are gashed with watercourses, lines of black rock dividing brown bare-topped knolls, whose sides, except some patches of evergreen brushwood, are grey with the stems and branches of teak and other leaf-shedding trees. For a mile or two further, smooth flat-topped mounds, divided by deep ravines, stretch across the brown withered plain.

Points.

The six leading Points or Headlands are, Hart at the north and Points. Chauk at the south of the central hill, Panorama at the north and Garbat at the south of the east wing, and Porcupine at the north and Louisa at the south of the west wing. Besides these, several smaller bluffs or capes break the winding lips of the bay-like valleys that separate the main arms or spurs of the hill. The seven most important of these smaller bluffs are, Alexander and Little Chauk in the south-east between Garbat and Great Chauk; One Tree Hill, Danger, Echo, and Landscape between Great Chauk and Louisa; and Monkey in the north-west between Porcupine and Hart. In addition to these smaller headlands, three spots in the central crest of the hill are known as points, Artist Point to the north of the Church Plateau, Sphinx Point above Alexander Point, and Bartle Point to the south of Chauk hotel.

There is considerable sameness in the leading features of these points. In most of the main points a wooded crest narrows into a bare boulder-strewn slope, and the slope dwindles into a smooth flat tongue or table of rock, ending in a cliff clean cut or buttressed by an outlying tower-like crag. From distant parts of the hill the points stand out, with stretches of black rock, white patches of sun-bleached grass, ragged copse, or a few stunted wind-worried trees.

Almost all of these outstanding headlands command views of the green swelling summit of the hill, of its black wall-like cliffs, evergreen plateaus, and steep under-slopes, and of the hazy smoke-dimmed plain, that, broken by isolated blocks of hill and brightened by ponds and wooded villages, stretches north beyond the Ulhas valley, east to the Sahyadris, south through a rugged land of confused spurs and peaks, and west, between the even mass of Prabal and the shivered scarps of the Cathedral Rocks, beyond the salt flats of Panvel, to the shimmering sea from which dimly rise the ships and buildings of Bombay. The distant hills of Salsette and North Thana, the bluffs and peaks of the Sahyadri range, and the flat ridges and isolated crests of Bor and Kolaba are seldom clearly seen. But to the south-west the sharp pillar of Isalgad stands out from the centre of a swelling plateau; to the west, from a belt of bright green forest, rise the steep bare sides of the flat tree-crowned crest of Prabal; and to the north, sweeping northwest from Panorama Point, their lower slopes half hid by haze, stand, in mid air, the fantastic rocks and pinnacles of Chanderi, Tavli, and Bava Malang, their scarps and crests clear cut as by the hand of man.

Beginning from the north and working east the points come in the following order: Hart, Panorama, Garbat, Alexander, Little Chauk, Great Chauk, One Tree Hill, Danger, Echo, Landscape, Louisa, Porcupine, and Monkey.

Hart.

HART POINT, at the north end of the central block of hill, takes its name from Mr. W. Hart, of the Bombay Civil Service, who was Secretary to Government about 1858. Its native name is Kaleraika Peda or the Black Forest Plateau. Near Hart Point the path runs along a wooded crest with fine views of the wild Bava Malang hills. Leaving the main body of the hill it winds down a rather steep wooded slope to the Point, which is a narrow wind-swept table of black rock with patches of yellow grass, a few stunted bushes to the west, and a row of trees fringing a sheltered crevice to the east. To the right, across the deeply wooded gathering ground of one of the branches of the Maldunga stream, rises a bare high bluff, and on the other side of the main valley runs the long high shoulder of Governor's Hill and Panorama Point richly wooded in the south and stretching north barer and more weather-worn, with straggling crannies yellow with dry grass and a few hollows and narrow ledges green with bushes and trees. North-west of Panorama Point stretch the wild fantastic peaks of the Bava Malang range. To the left, beyond the wooded hollow of Malet's spring, the bare scarps of Porcupine Point rise in a narrow flat-topped cliff. Beyond Porcupine Point are the massive isolated crag and long wooded back of Prabal, and, in the plain, the low hills of Vanja and Morpa.

Panorama.

PANORAMA POINT, the north end of the eastern wing or ridge, takes its name from its far-stretching views to the east and north. Its native name is Gadacha Sond, or the Fort Head, because it overlooks Peb Fort, the most eastern peak of the Bava Malang range. Leaving the thickly wooded neck above the Simpson Reservoir the path winds among deep woods, which every now and then open on the right and show the tree-covered slope of Governor's Hill. From these woods the path crosses opener ground with less soil and less shelter, and smaller and more stunted trees. To the right the hill-side rises bare and rocky, broken by clumps and patches of trees. [The chief trees are the dark close-growing and thorny kumba Careya arborea, and the tall bare or russet-leaved varas Heterophragma roxburghii.] To the south, looking across to the Simpson Reservoir, thick tall trees hide the site of the Elphinstone Lake, whose ruined earthen dam shows red among the trees. Further on, the wind-swept spur gradually narrows to a rocky neck only a few yards wide. Beyond the neck the point rises into a knoll crowned by a small dark grove, and again sinks into a bare table of rock. [ The trees are wild limes, makhadis Atalantia monophylla, anjanis Memecylon edule, and jambuls Syzigium jambolanum.] The point commands one of the widest views on the hill, both of Matheran itself and of the plain and hills to the east, north, and west. To the south-east at the foot of the bold wooded crest of Governor's Hill stretches the rich green belt of the Behrli Mar or Wild-Palm forest, and, beyond are the lower slopes brown and grey with teak and other leaf-shedding trees. Across the plain, beyond some isolated flat-topped blocks of hill, looms the massive wall of the Sahyadris, many of whose bluffs and fortified peaks can be recognised when the air is clear. In the foreground, north-west from the end of the point, stretches the great Bava Malang range, beginning in Peb or Pebak whose bare flat-topped head is circled with the remains of Moghal and Maratha fortifications. Behind Peb, rising with a rather gentle slope into a rounded point and then falling in a narrow ridge, is Nakhind. Beyond Nakhind bare steep spurs rise to the foot of the massive tower-like crest of Chanderi. Further off are the jagged peaks of Mhas-Mal and Navara-Navari, or the husband and wife, said to be so called because the hill-side once opened and swallowed a marriage party crossing from Badlapur to Panvel. In the extreme west the range ends in a pair of great hills, to the right the long rugged outline of Tavli and to the left the sharp clear-cut pinnacles of Bava Malang or the Cathedral Rocks. To the left, with Prabal as back ground, is a fine view of the wooded ravines and bare cliffs of Hart, Monkey, and Porcupine Points.

In [The details of the distant view are contributed by Mr. F. B. Maclaran, C.E. The more distant hills can be seen only in very clear weather.] the distance, to the west or south-west, just clear of Prabal, are Great and Little Karanja (1000). North of these lies Bombay harbour with Elephanta (568) in the centre and the long level line of Bombay in the distance. Further north, the first high land is Trombay, or the Neat's Tongue (1000). Still further north, beyond the long stretch of the Kurla marshes and rice-lands, rise the Salsette hills in three waves, each wave marking the site of one of the Bombay reservoirs, Vehar to the left, Tulsi in the centre, and the still unmade Yeur to the right. In front of the Yeur hill lies Persik Point, pierced by the Peninsula railway, and, beyond Persik, winds the Kalyan creek or estuary of the Ulhas. Over the creek, to the north, between Bava Malang and Tavli, rise the peak of Kamandurg (2160) and the tableland of Tungar (2195). Clear of Tavli, to the right, stands the high cone of Dugad, and, beyond it, Takmak (2616), overlooking the Vaitarna valley. North of Takmak, the Surya range, visible only on very clear days, ends in the far north in the jagged top of the great fort of Asheri (1689). Eastward there is little to attract the eye in the Vada hills, but, on the north horizon, over the point of Peb, may be seen the sacred peak of Mahalakshmi. [Details of Mahalakshmi are given above, p. 218.] Still further east, from the middle distance, rises the deeply-cleft ridge of Mahuli (2815), guarded on the west by a tower-like column of basalt. Close behind the chief hill, and apparently adjoining it, is Chhota or Little Mahuli. The bold distant headland, east of Mahuli, is Vatvad, the furthest visible point of the Sahyadri range. Behind Vatvad, to the east, is the famous hill of Trimbak (4254), the sacred source of the Godavari. Still further east, and a little to the south, is Anjaneri (4384) the hot-weather hill of Nasik, which lies fourteen miles to the east. Southward, as far as the range that separates Nasik from Ahmadnagar, the line of the Sahyadris has no striking hills. On the range that separates Nasik from Ahmadnagar are the forts of Alang and Kulang, and, among the broken tops of the neighbouring hills, can be made out the conical peak of Kalsubai (5427), the highest point of the Sahyadris. Further south Ghatghar and other peaks form a rugged and broken range, whose most interesting feature, Harishchandragad (4562), is hid behind the crest of the Sahyadris which here turn west to Sidgad, whose sugar-loaf peak (3236) stands out from the main line. The twin detached hills to the north of Sidgad are Gorakhgad and Machhindragad. Further south, on the line of the Sahyadri crest, is Bhimashankar (3434), and, in front of Bhimashankar, the detached hill-fort of Tungi (2019), and still further south on another detached hill the fort of Peth.

The Panorama Point view of the Sahyadris ends with Peth. But the top of Panorama hill, or better still Garbat Point, commands a magnificent view of the southern Sahyadris and the Kolaba hills. Following the line south from Peth are the detached tableland of Dak (2808), then the famous hill-fort of Rajmachi (2710) with its wall and gateways, and still further south the Nagphani or Cobra's Hood known to Europeans as the Duke's Nose. East of the Nagphani are the hill-forts of Lohgad (3415) and Visapur, and, to the south, are Tel Baili, Dhondsa, Bhorap, and Pali all in the Bhor state. Of the South Thana hills the most striking is Manikgad (1878), like a smaller Vatvad, a few miles south of Chauk village. West of Manikgad is the well-known funnel of Karnala (1540), a land-mark for ships entering Bombay harbour. Between Manikgad and Karnala, beyond the silver line of the Dharamtar creek, the Alibag hills complete the circle with the fortified head of Sagargad (1164), and the sacred top of Kankeshvar (1000).

Garbat.

GARBAT POINT, tie south end of the eastern wing, takes its name from the quartz crystals or gars found on the spur that runs east to Karjat. Crossing the shoulder of Garbat hill the path sinks and runs along the eastern face of the point, forty or fifty feet below the crest of Garbat hill. The bank on the right is well-wooded and below lie the varied tints of the evergreen Bekri forest. [The deep greens are anjanis Memecylon edule, phansie Carallia integerrima, kumblas Sapota tomentosa, and mangoes; the blue greens are pisas Actinodaphne lanceolata, and jambuls; the yellow greens are chandaras Macaranga roxburghii, and kumbas Careya arborea; the greys are asans Briedelia retusa, and umbars, or bare pahirs and nanas Lagerstraemia parviflora; and the browns are ruddy-tipped hirdas and helas Garcinia cambogea.] Beyond the belt of bright-green forest, the hill sides, grey with leafless trees, fall to bare flat-topped spurs with Dhangar huts and patches of tillage. From the east side of Garbat hill, with many ups and downs, the path crosses a bare rocky hill-side under a tree-crowned hill-top. A little further the point shrinks into a narrow open neck with clusters of bushes and trees. Beyond the neck it again broadens, and, for about a mile, runs round a rising slope thick strewn with small black boulders, with patches of underwood and well grown jambuls and russet varas trees. From a bank crowned with bushes and large weather-beaten trees, the point slopes to the south, bare and boulder-strewn, narrowing to a smooth ledge of bare gravel. To the east the point falls in a steep cliff, below which the hill-side, scarred with ravines and treeless except in a few hollows, stretches in long flat-topped spurs far across the plain. To the south, some hundred feet below the level of the point, a narrow flat tongue of rock runs south rising into the peak of Sondai. On the west of Garbat point this ledge or plateau runs for some distance slightly wooded and with patches of tillage. Beyond the plateau the hill-side falls into the Khatvan ravine, and again rises in the bare steep slopes and cliffs of Alexander Point and Little Chauk, to the hill-top whose thick woods are broken by a few house roofs and lines of thatched huts. The exposed western crest of Garbat Point is at first rocky and bare. Then the path passes, across wind-swept glades and through sheltered dells, to the narrow neck that leads to the inner point, where it turns sharply down a steep slope, between beautifully wooded banks, that rise, to the right in Garbat hill, and, to the left in the swelling crest of the main hill-top.

Alexander.

ALEXANDER POINT, a small cape or headland standing out from the eastern face of the main hill about half way between the top of the Khatvan ravine and Little Chauk Point, takes its name from Captain Alexander who married a niece of Mr. Malet's, the founder of Matheran as a hill station. Leaving the main road about the seventh mile from Neral, the path sweeps south through a deep wooded dell to a bare flat bluff which commands a fine easterly view of Garbat point and Sondai peak, and a westerly view of the cliffs that run south to Little Chauk, and at their feet the deep green of Ram Bagh or Ram's Garden.

Little Chauk.

LITTLE CHAUK, the bluff or bastion at the south-east end of the main hill, takes its name from the country town of Chauk, about five miles to the south. The road south to Little Chauk, sheltered from south-west gales, is richly wooded with a deep dell on the left and a tree-covered crest on the right. The broad level path winds through smooth open glades fringed by clusters of well grown trees and by large black boulders. Near the point the hill top flattens, the trees dwindle into bushes, and the ground is bare and covered with black rock. Like Great Chauk it commands a wide view of the rugged south.

Great Chauk.

GREAT CHAUK, the central of the three great bluffs that form the southern face of Matheran, takes its name from overlooking the country town of Chauk. From Little Chauk the path crosses a wooded hollow, and from this the broad rounded point of Great Chauk stretches south, at first wooded though flat, then bare, thick-strewn with small black boulders with one or two stunted mango trees and many dry leafless bushes. The point commands a wide view across the plain. Under the cliff stretches the deep green of the eastern Varosha forest. Beyond the forest, on a bare flat spur, cluster the thatched roofs of Varosha, and about five miles across the plain, close to the deep green line of the Panvel high road, lies the country town of Chauk. Beyond Chauk the plain is broken by many ranges and spurs. To the right, beside the pinnacle of Isalgad and the more distant funnel rock of Karnala, are many ranges of flat wooded hills, among them Mera Dongar above Pen, and, further to the west, the Sagargad range in Alibag.

One Tree Hill.

ONE TREE HILL, the most westerly of the three bluffs that form the south face of Matheran, takes its name from a large battered jambul tree that grows on its hollow top. West from Great Chauk the road runs close to the edge of the hill side, and the hill top to the right has much stunted brushwood and trees. The western crest of the hill, open to the south-west gales, is bare except a few weather-beaten bushes. From the crest a footpath leads down a steep slope to two large rounded masses of rock, the upper rock joined to the hill by a narrow neck, the lower separated by a deep-cut cleft. It is this lower rock which, from a large but lop-sided and wind-battered jambul, takes its English name of the One Tree Hill and its Maratha name of Jambul Point. [The people also call it the Stream-bed Rock, Nalichi Tekri.] The top of the rock, rising in a steep slope to its south-west edge, yields during the rains a crop of grass rich enough to tempt grass-cutters to climb its steep sides. From the upper rock are seen, close at hand, two of the western bastions of Chauk Point, and beyond them the flat massive rock of Louisa Point. Some hundred feet below stretches a wooded plateau, part of the Varosha forest, and, to the left, rises the great flat range of Prabal. Between Prabal and Louisa Point, close at hand, are the Vanja and Morpa hills, and in the distance the rugged crags of Tavli and Bava Malang.

Danger.

DANGER POINT. Along the crest of the western Chauk cliff, gradually passing into deeper wood, a footpath strikes off the main road, and, keeping to the left, winds down a steep slope, across a rocky and bare hillside, with a few thickly-wooded dells. The open parts along the crest of the Chauk cliff command a view of the pillar of Isalgad to the south-west, and, to the west, of the steep bare sides of Prabal, with its flat tree-crowned top, ending in the north in a massive crag. In front is the small flat head of Danger Point, and, rising behind it, are the wooded crest and clean-cut cliffs of Louisa Point and the deep-wooded hollow of the hill-top above. From this the path winds through a sheltered wooded hollow and out along the edge of the cliff, with a backward view of the high scarp that runs south to One Tree Hill overhanging the green belt of the west Varosha forest. After some sharp descents the path reaches Danger Point, a small bare terrace shaded by a few well grown trees. To the north Danger Point commands a fine view of the rocky scarp of Echo Point and of the green hill-top behind. Further to the west stand the wooded crest, high cliff, and buttresslike rock of Louisa Point, and, between the point and Prabal, the valley of the Panvel river stretches to Bombay harbour. Beyond Danger Point the path sinks into the Pisharnath valley, passing on the right a deeply wooded bank in whose shade lies the shrine of Pisharnath, the guardian of Matheran.

Echo.

Crossing the Pisharnath valley, which the new dam will turn into a lake, the path winds, through a thickly wooded hollow, to ECHO POINT, a bare flat terrace with one or two stunted trees and dry leafless bushes. [The trees are anjanis, pisas and black-leaved makadis or wild limes; the bushes are paptis.] On the right a black cliff rises to the richly wooded hill-top.

Landscape.

Beyond Echo Point the path winds through sheltered copse, and again strikes the lip of the scarp at LANDSCAPE POINT a flat terrace, furnished with a seat, and commanding a fine view of Louisa Point and Prabhal.

Louisa.

From Landscape Point the path winds through a richly wooded hollow up to the tree-crowned crest of LOUISA POINT. This, the southern end of the smaller or western wing, takes its English name from the wife of Mr. Fawcett, of the Bombay Civil Service, who was Revenue Commissioner between 1855 and 1859. Its native name is Tapurichi Sond or the Pillar Head from the short isolated buttress-like crag at its point. From the crest of Louisa Point the path stretches south-west, at first under a well-wooded knoll, and then along a plateau with fewer and more stunted trees to a bare smooth table of rock. To the left is the scarp of Echo Point, and, in front, Chauk cliff stretches as far as One Tree Hill. To the south-west stands the solitary peak of Isalgad, and on the west, lies the straight flat mass of Prabal with its broken northern crag. Joined to Louisa Point by a short neck is a large rock or crag with a fine northerly view over the part-tilled plateau of Hasha and the lower peaks of Vanga and Morpa across the plain to the Bava Malang range, the slopes of Nakhinda to the right, the comb-like crest of Chanderi and the rocky pinnacles of Mhas-Mala and Navara-Navari in the centre, and to the left the wild outlines of Tavli and the Cathedral Rocks.

Porcupine.

PORCUPINE POINT, the north end of the western wing or hill ridge, probably takes its name because it was formerly a resort of porcupines; though, according to one account, its long thick snout and ragged bushes, like the quills of the fretful porcupine, suggested the name. The people call it Palki Point, mistaking its English name, or Maldungacha Sond that is Maldunga Point. After leaving the richly wooded hollow at the top of Louisa Point, the path skirts the western face of the hill, across glades and through belts of evergreen trees and brushwood. [Chiefly jambuls, karands, bombas, kumblas,pisas, and mangoes.] To the left a bare hill-side, with an undergrowth of leafless bushes, falls some hundred feet to an evergreen terrace, part of the Maldunga forest. From a group of large anjani and varas trees the point slopes north in a long narrow ledge. To the west, over the cliff, is a fine view of the Maldunga forest deep-green or opening into withered glades. To the right is the richly wooded ravine of Maldunga, in which is hidden Malet's Spring or Tipachi Pani. Above the ravine the hill-top is nearly flat and deeply wooded, the chimneys and red roof of Elphinstone Lodge showing among the trees. To the east stretches the Governor's Hill, the long crest of Panorama Point, and the tops of the Bava Malang range, the flat rock of Peb, the gentle slopes of Nakhinda, the sharp crest of Chanderi, the small pinnacles of Mhas-Mala and Navara-Navari, and the rugged forms of Tavli and Bava Malang. Beyond the point, after crossing some bare ground, the path leads along a hollow hill-side through deep evergreen groves thick with fresh underwood and climbing trees, [The chief trees are kumbas, chandaleshvars, hirdas, bombas, phansis, and kumblas; the underwood chiefly vaitis; the climbers vatolis.] to the wooded neck that joins the western spur to the main hill, through a damp dell known as the Randacha Tal or Buffalo's Hollow, adorned by some large straight-stemmed jambuls and mangoes. Further on, to the left, paths lead to Malet's and Ponsonby's Springs, while the main road passes the Gymkhana and behind Elphinstone Lodge to Monkey Point, a small ledge of rock above Hart Point, with a fine view of the long cliff of Porcupine, Prabal, the Bava Malang range, the Panorama spur, and the wooded slopes about Hart Point.

Geology.

Matheran is a mass of even trap-flows capped by a layer of laterite or iron clay. Most geologists hold that it was once an island in the sea that cleared the wall of the Sahyadris and washed away the Konkan lowlands. The crabs and shells that are still found on the hill-top support this view, and, in the beginning of the rains, when the valleys are full of mist, the white wool-like clouds, passing into the roots of the hill, leave the points standing like wave-worn capes, and the valleys rounded in the sickle sweep of a sea beach. But in cloudless weather the stream-worn ravines, the torrent-seamed hill-sides, the points washed into narrow necks and pillar-like crags, the plateaus crowded with masses of fallen rock, and, after heavy rain, the thundering roar of landslips, seem to show that the worn and ragged form of the hill is chiefly due to the fierce buffeting of the blasts and torrents of the south-west monsoon.

The capping of highly porous and absorbent laterite or iron clay lies like a huge sponge on the top of the trap. The laterite rock occurs in many forms. Fresh cut, as in sinking a well, it is soft and yielding, with layers of bright magnetic iron ore still unmixed with clay. When the iron is being oxydized, the structure is tubular, [Mr. Foote gives the following detailed description of a bed of tabular iron-clay found on the top of Valabgad fort in west Belgaum. Instead of showing the ordinary-horizontal or nearly horizontal vesicular cavities the summit bed is permeated by vertical tubuli running nearly through it. The upper ends of these tubuli are empty for a little distance, giving the surface a pitted appearance, but the tubes are generally filled with litho-margic clay, and have their walls lined with a glaze very like that so frequently met with in the vermicular hollows of ordinary laterites. The tubuli vary in diameter from ¼th to ¾th of an inch, but are generally less than half an inch across. Their height depends upon the thickness of the bed and the glazed sides show much statactitoid waviness of surface. In the lower parts of the bed the tubuli are less distinct. There can be little doubt that the formation of these tubes is due to the action of percolating water. This structure is not so commonly met with as the rudely-bedded quasi-stratified forms in which the vesicular and vermicular cavities are rather horizontally disposed. Mem. Geol. Survey, XII. pt. 1, 207.] and, when chemical action has ceased, the boulders have a hard polished surface and flinty texture. [The laterite or iron-clay that is found overlying the traps in Ratnagiri, Thana and the Deccan, is of two kinds, a sedimentary rock formed either in lakes or under the sea, and a rock that appears as the summit bed of trap hills, itself a trap, changed and decomposed by the action of the air. To distinguish between these two classes of rock, Mr. Foote has proposed that the sedimentary rock should be called laterite and the upper decomposed trap iron-clay. The laterite, or pluviatile rock, is much less common and less widespread. It is found only in some lowlying tracts in Ratnagiri and in places in the Deccan, which probably were once the bottoms of lakes. The rock that caps the Ratnagiri hills, and forms the summit bed of Matheran and of the Sahyadri and other Deccan hills, is iron-clay formed from trap by the action of the air. Mr. Foote gives the following details of sections in the military roads through the Amboli and Phonda passes in Ratnagiri. The basaltic rocks graduate into a moderately hard yellowish brown or brown earthy mass which encloses many nuclei of the original rocks in various stages of decomposition. The upper parts of the decomposed mass, from which the nuclei have disappeared, have undergone a process of concretional solidification from the infiltration of surface waters holding iron in solution and are assuming the ordinary lateritoid appearance and reddish colour. Mem. Geol. Survey, XII, pt. 1, 202.] The terraces below the scarp are strewn with red laterite boulders, some with sharp clear cut corners, others weathered and rounded. The debris is in places over sixty feet deep, and, among it, are blocks of columnar basalt with corners as sharp and faces as smooth as when they took form. The laterite seems formerly to have been worked for iron, and so strongly is the rock charged with iron that a few chips of jambul wood turn the water of some of the springs black as ink. Under the capping of iron clay the hill is a mass of flows of trap, laid layer upon layer, some layers only a few feet thick, others forming high cliffs, all of them flat and even, not only in the different parts of Matheran, but with the sides of Prabal and other more distant hills. The trap though in places columnar is usually plain. Its structure is more or less amygdaloidal and in the hollows are minerals of the Zoolite family. Of these apophyllite, which is perhaps the most common, when exposed by blasting, shows crystals of great beauty. Heulandite, mesotype, stillite, and natrolite, as well as the crystals of quartz from which Garbat takes its name, are common. The trap weathers into soil that gathers at the foot of the different layers, sometimes in narrow ledges fit only for the growth of grass, in other places in rich plateaus bearing the largest trees.

The Terrace.

Besides the beauty of the hill-top and of its views, a great charm in Matheran is the plateau or terrace that almost encircles the hill from two to three hundred feet below its crest. This belt has a rich soil yearly freshened by mould swept from the hill-top. In parts it lies broad and open, dotted with mango and jambul trees, and with some fields of rice or nagli round a hamlet of Thakur or Dhangar huts. Again it shrinks to a rocky path, or, at open wind-swept corners, yields only thickets of rough brambles or ragged buffeted fig bushes. But in many coves of the baylike valleys, sheltered by cliffs from the blasts of the north-east and south-west gales, are groves of ancient evergreen trees whose stems rise straight and high, and whose small-leaved distant shade, letting in air and light, fosters the growth of evergreen brushwood, and, near springs and in damp dingles, nourishes patches of grass and tufts of fern.

Forests.

The chief forests in the main terrace are, in the north-east below Panorama point and the Governor's hill, the Wild-Palm Grove or Mar Rai; further south below Garbat hill the Bekri Forest; to the east of Little Chauk, Ram Bagh or Ram's Garden, also known as the Primeval Forest; to the south of Great Chauk, the east Varosha Forest, and to the west of One Tree Hill the west Varosha Forest; to the west of Porcupine point the Maldunga Forest; and between Porcupine and Hart point the Black or Kala Forest. All these woods are evergreen. The varied tints of dark, bluish, bright, and yellow green are softened, during the dry months, by a grey mist of leafless or russet tree-tops, and brightened, towards the close of the hot-weather, by brown, pink, and golden tips that are ready to burst into leaf at the first fall of rain. [The dark greens are chiefly mangoes, kumbals, anjanis, and some jambuls ; the bluish greens chiefly pisas, aptas, and some jambuls ; the light greens chiefly suirs ; the green-greys, asars and umbars ; the leafless greys, nanas, pahirs, and some varas ; the russet or withered brawns chiefly varas ; the brown, pink and yellow tips chiefly helas, koshims, and pahirs.]

The general features of most of these groves resemble those of the Mar Rai, or Wild-Palm Grove, which covers the plateau that stretches from one of the zigzags on the main road about four and a half miles from Neral, northwards under the steep wooded crest of Governor's hill and Panorama point. From the road the path enters the forest near its eastern limit, and passing north for some hundred yards, climbs a steep thick-wooded bank to an upper terrace which stretches to the end of Panorama point. The ground is rocky, bare of grass, and thickly strewn with leaves. There is much underwood, some fresh and green but most either leafless or withered into yellow or brown. In the outskirts, the trees though close together, are small and stunted. Deeper in rise some straight unbroken jambul and mango stems, and one huge fig tree fifty-two feet in girth. In another dell, where the ground is thick with green underwood, is a grove of large jambul and fig trees, interlaced by festoons of the great climbing kandvel, whose trunks, twisted like the coils of a huge serpent, are drawn to the tree tops and fall in straight heavy sprays with scattered deep-green leaves. Beyond this dell the wood is again thinner, with open plots and glades fringed by thickets of bright-green brushwood, overtopped by dark-green, blue-green, and grey-green trees, and a sprinkling of bare leafless branches. [The bright green-bushes are bokhadas, gelas, and karands. The dark-green trees are alus, mangoes, and jambuls ; the bluish-green are pisas, aptas, and climbing vatolis; the greyish-green are umbars and asans ; and the leafless branches belong to varas, pahirs, and nanas.] To the right the deep fringe of the wood hides the hill slopes, and, on the left, a steep wooded bank rises to the overhanging tree-crowned crest of Governor's hill. The path, climbing the steep wooded bank, leads to an upper plateau, where, in rocky deep-soiled ground with thick green underwood, among large mangoes, jambuls, and umbars, rise the slender ringed stems of the wild palm with its long hanging seed tassels, and its leaves standing in long spikes or falling in large black ribbon-like tatters. Beyond this the grove narrows and dwindles till it ends under Panorama point.

Streams.

The hillsides of Matheran are scarred by small streams which,  though dry during most of the year, bear in their clean-swept rocky channels traces of the strength of their monsoon floods. The west-flowing Pisharnath drains the central section of the hill along a well-marked cup-shaped valley, which slopes about 400 feet from the church plateau on the north and the Chauk plateau on the south. To a less extent the hill-top is hollowed by the gathering ground of the Dhodambacha pani, or Waterfall Stream, between Panorama point and the main hill; by the drainage that centres in the Malet Springs east of Porcupine point; and by the Varosha Streams that run between Louisa and Landscape points. With these exceptions none of the streams drain any considerable section of the hill-top The course of all is much alike. Gathering the drainage of a small section of the hill-top they either fall with one or two clear leaps, or by a long rapid rush force their way through boulders and shingle from the edge of the cliff to the lower slopes, and, winding among the spurs at the hill-foot, find their way into one of the main lines of drainage east to the Ulhas, south to the Patalganga, or west to the Panvel river.

Starting from the north and working eastwards, the chief of these streams are the Neral Water, Neralachi Pani, which rises below the Governor's hill and passing east and then north along the ravine between Panorama point and the Neral spur, falls into the Ulhas a little to the west of Neral. The Bekri Stream, Bekricha Vada, from below Garbat hill, passes east through the Bekri forest, and, entering the plain to the south of the Neral spur, flows east to the Ulhas. The Sondai or Katvan Stream, Sondai Vada or Katvan Vada, between Garbat and Alexander point, fed by a large share of the hill drainage, flows south along the chief of the Matheran valleys, past the town of Chauk into the Patalganga. The Little Katvan between Alexander point and Little Chauk, after a steep southeasterly oourse, joins the main Katvan under Garbat point. The Bargaon Stream, Bargaoncha Vada, between Little and Big Chauk, meeting the Katvan water, flows by Chauk town south into the Patalganga. A little to the west, between Great Chauk and the One Tree Hill, the Varosha Stream, up whose narrow rocky bed the Chauk path struggles, runs south and joining the Borgaon and Katvan waters, passes Chauk and falls into the Patalganga. Between Danger and Echo points, draining the thickly wooded central hollow of the hill-top between the church plateau on the north and Chauk plateau on the south, the Pisharnath or Bund Stream, flows west over the cliff into the Varosha river which runs south to Chauk and the Patalganga. In the hollow on the top of the hill, the bed of the stream is crossed by three masonry walls, and lower down, just above the edge of the cliff, by a much higher dam, which is expected to flood the valley back above the first wall and swamp the garden terraces on the north bank. In 1850 the Pisharnath flowed throughout the year with a considerable stream; but, for some years past, apparently from the increase of trees and brushwood on its gathering ground, it has almost ceased to flow before the beginning of the hot weather. In the corner between Echo and Louisa point, two nameless streams drain the sloping hill-top and fall over the cliff, passing west to the main stream that, draining the valley between Matheran and Prabal, flows south by Chauk to the Patalganga. Between Porcupine and Hart point, a large area of the western hill-top and of the low neck between the central and western hill belts, drains into the stream known either as Pipachi Pani Vada, the Tub Water Stream, or as Maldungacha Nadi the Maldunga River. This flows to the north-west and then turns west to the Panvel river. Further to the east the stream that drains the hollow between the Governor's hill and Hart point, one of the Maldunga streams which is known as the Dhodambacha Pani or the Waterfall Stream, passes west into the Panvel river, through the deep-wooded valley in which are the Simpson reservoir and the remains of the ruined Elphinstone lake.

Water Supply.

In spite of the rainfall of about 200 inches even the largest streams cease to flow soon after Christmas. This is due partly to. the porous iron clay and partly to the dense growth of timber and brushwood that covers almost the whole hill-top. In 1850, as has been noticed above, before the trees and brushwood were preserved, the Bund or Pisharnath stream, which now barely trickles during the hot months, flowed freely even in May, discharging from the cliff a stream of water over a foot wide and three or four inches deep. [Smith's Matheran, 2, 11. Dr. Smith's quotations seem to prove that the free growth of trees in the gathering ground of springs exhausts their supply of water.] Of eleven springs only two, Harrison's on the east and Malet's on the west of the main hill-top, last throughout the year. Beginning from the north and working east, in the hollow above Simpson's reservoir, near the old Dhangar settlement, is a spring known as the Phansi or Jack-Tree Water.

Springs.

On the outskirts of the Wild. Palm grove under Governor's hill, a few hundred yards from the road, is a spring which, by a grant from a Mr. Bamanji, has been turned into a rock cut cistern with a flat boarded covering. It is known as the Black Water or Kali Pani, and, till the middle of the hot weather, supplies the stand-pipe on the roadside close to the fourth mile from Neral. On the south of the neck that joins the eastern and the central belt of hills, close to the beginning of Garbat point, are two springs. About half a mile further, near the sixth mile to the left of the Market road, is Harrison's Spring which yields water throughout the year or at least till the middle of May. It has a cistern which was built in 1864-65 at a cost of £287 (Rs. 2876). Not far off, another spring, in the market to the left of the police lines, has a cistern which was built in 1865-66 at a cost of £132 (Rs.1322). The south of the hill has three springs, one to the south and one to the north of the Sanitarium, and a third on the south slope of the Pisharnath valley. At the spring to the south of the Sanitarium a cistern was built in 1865-66 at a cost of £122 (Rs. 1225). Further north there are three springs in the ravine between Porcupine and Hart points, Malet Spring or Tipachi pani at the head of the main ravine, Ponsonby Spring or Ghaterichi pani, that is the Buffaloes' Drinking Trough, about a quarter of a mile to the north, and Ropert's Spring close to Hart point. Of these the chief are the Malet Springs, in the bed of the Maldunga, about 300 feet down a steep winding path. The water of the main spring is held in a rock-cut cistern roofed by iron sheeting, and there are two smaller springs close by. The Malet spring has never been known to fail and is the only drinking water used by European visitors.

Ponds.

For [Contributed by Mr. F. B. Maclaran, C.E.] the storage of water seven reservoirs have been made, two of which have proved failures. The chief site is in the Pisharnath valley, where, in April and May 1857, Mr. West, C. E., built dams Nos. 1 and 2 at a cost of £397 (Rs. 3975). No. 3 dam in the same valley was built in 1857-58 by Captain, now General Fuller, R. E., at a total cost of £533 (Rs. 5330); it was subsequently in 1866-67 raised three feet at a further cost of £115 (Rs. 1156). These dams are all of masonry and are provided with sluice gates, which are removed at the beginning of the rains and are re-fixed in the month of November, so that every monsoon the reservoirs are thoroughly flushed, and a fresh supply of pure water gathered. The capacity of the three reservoirs is 415,533 cubic feet, equal to a daily supply of five gallons a head to the usual number of residents and visitors.

In 1858, to provide water for the residents at the north-east or Garbat end of the hill, Lord Elphinstone, then Governor of Bombay, conceived the idea of constructing an earthen dam in the valley between Hart point and Panorama hill. The work was designed and carried out by a sergeant overseer of the Public Works department under His Excellency's supervision, without further professional advice. The result was that, during the first monsoon, owing probably to an insufficient width of waste weir, the dam was washed over the precipice, and nothing remains but the faulty waste weir. The cost of the work is not recorded. A further unsuccessful attempt to impound water in this valley, at a site much higher up, near the Neral road, was made in 1868-69. This site was suggested by Colonel Fife, E. E., Chief Engineer for Irrigation in 1867, without having had trial pits dug or any examination made beyond a rough survey. The scheme was sanctioned by Government on the 10th July 1868, at an estimated cost of £663 (Rs. 6628). The work was begun in November 1868 and was completed in March 1869. By the 26th July, after a very heavy fall of rain, there were twenty one feet of water in the reservoir and two feet running over the waste weir. Five days later, the 31st, the lake was empty. The cause of failure was leakage under the puddle wall of the dam, which had not been taken down to the trap rock or other impervious stratum. As it was found that to rectify the mistake would involve a large expenditure, the dam was allowed to remain as originally completed. It is commonly known as Fife's Filter.

In 1873-74, as the Garbat end of the hill still suffered from want of water, it was decided to build a masonry dam on a rock foundation at a point a little below Colonel Fife's dam. The reservoir so formed, which was suggested by and  bears the name of Dr. Simpson the Superintendent, was begun in 1875 and completed in 1876 at a cost of £1626 (Rs. 16,260). In spite of its distance from the more thickly peopled part of the hill, this reservoir has proved of great service. The bed of the stream below the dam has been set apart for washing clothes, the quantity of water impounded being more than enough for this and other purposes. This is a great convenience to residents and visitors, as formerly during April and May, washermen had to take clothes to the Ulhas river near Neral. The capacity of this reservoir, which was designed and built by Colonel Maunsell, R. E., Executive Engineer, North Kon'kan, is 416,400 cubic feet.

To remove all risk of water scarcity a fresh masonry dam is being built in the Pisharnath valley below dam No. 3. The new dam, which is to be thirty-eight feet high, will raise the water eight feet above dam No. 3, and will impound enough water to give a daily supply of thirty-five gallons to every person on the hill during its most crowded time. The site on which this dam is being built was suggested, by General Fuller, R. E., in 1857, and again in 1880. The work, which, after General Fuller's wife, is to be named Charlotte Lake, has been designed by Mr. F. B. Maclaran, Executive Engineer, North Konkan, under whose supervision it is now being carried out. Its estimated cost is £2661 (Rs. 26,615).

Climate.

The porous capping of iron clay, which has made the water-supply of the hill so scanty and so hard to improve, has, at all times of the year, in spite of the heavy rainfall, ensured for Matheran freedom from malaria. There is no marsh on any part of the hill and every stream bed is a bare rock. All material for malaria is yearly swept away, and, in almost all seasons, the thickest of the hill-top forests can be entered without risk. The grass-cutters and wood-cutters do not suffer from fever, and, where fever has occurred, it has been due to dirt not to damp. A fit of ague may be caught among the clefts of the rocks, but there is no danger in open places where the air moves. It is this freedom from malaria that makes Matheran so healthy a change to most visitors. Children, especially, soon lose the pasty flabbiness they have brought with them from the plains. For the weakness caused by the rainy season in Bombay and for all mental or bodily complaints that healthy exercise and a pleasant life can relieve, Matheran has a healing power. In severe and complex ailments its influence fails.

For some time after the rains are over (October-November) the climate is pleasant. But, as the cold weather advances and the dry north-east winds grow stronger, the climate is much like the Deccan climate, and is neither pleasant nor healthy for those who have suffered from fever or from congested liver. In March and April, though the mornings and evenings continue cool and a hot night is unusual, the midday heat is oppressive. This lasts till, early in May, specks of fleecy mist in the Pisharnath valley show that a moist air has set in from the sea. From this time, as the sea breeze freshens and the air grows moister and cooler, the climate becomes more and more pleasant, till, in the end of May, thunderstorms gathering from the Deccan, drench the hill, and the season is over. Though the first heavy rain drives away most visitors, those who can stay and are well housed, may, in spite of the wetness of the paths and the want of amusement, enjoy a fortnight or even three weeks of fresh hearty weather even when it rains, and, between the bursts of rain, bright cool days of great beauty. After two or three showers the views gain greatly in softness and colour. The hill tops are clear and purple, the grey leafless woods of the lower slopes become tipped with pink, gold, and light green, and the bushes throw out tufts of pink and purple and sprays of scarlet and gold. [The pahir, Ficus cordifolia, is tipped with pink and gold, and the suir and mogri with light green, the ranbhendi bursts into tufts of bright purple, the mhaura into patches of pink, and the koshim in sprays of scarlet and gold.] The baked white and black hill-sides soften into greys and browns, and a sudden greening passes over the warm rich plains. Even after heavy rain, in fair days in July and August, the hill-top is pleasant, the paths are firm and tidy, not sodden with damp or overgrown with rank grass or underwood.

The great event of the year is the breaking of the south-west monsoon. Some years the rains come in by stealth. Gentle showers and light mists grow rawer and fiercer till the damp and discomfort drive visitors away. But, as a rule, the hot-weather ends with great thunderstorms from the east, such as has been described as ushering in the south-west monsoon of 1865.

In the afternoon of Monday, June 6th 1865, sullen thunder began in the north-west, where clouds had all day been gathering in towering piles. As they thundered the clouds moved slowly down across the north Konkan, and, about four o'clock gathered against the jagged crest of Bava Malang. To the north, and all along the Bava Malang range, the sky and land were filled with lurid clouds, thunder, lightning, and rain, the Kalyan river flowing black as ink through a scene of the most striking desolation and gloom. South of this abrupt line of storm, the country from Bombay to Khandala was full of pure calm light. Every village, every hut, every road and forest-track, even the bridge over the river at Chauk, came clearly into view. The trees and groves looked magically green; and the light picked out the most hidden streams and burnished them into threads of molten silver. The Panvel and Nagothna rivers shone like mirrors, and the sea was scored with bars of vivid sunshine. Suddenly, at about five, the storm-rack poured over Bava Malang like a tumultuous sea, and swept into the deep valley between Matheran and Prabal, with furious blasts and torrents, awful thunder, and flashes of forked lightning. When the clouds had filled the valley the rain and wind ceased and the storm stood till, and, in dead stillness, the thunder and lightning raged without ceasing for an hour. The thunder mostly rolled from end to end of the valley, but it sometimes burst with a crash fit to loosen the bonds of the hills. At six o'clock the storm again moved and passed slowly south over Prabal towards Nagothna. Another enchanting scene opened in the south. Every hut, tree and stream grew strangely clear, the rain-filled rice-fields and rivers flashed like steel, while fleecy clouds lay on every hillock and slowly crept up every ravine. As the sun set behind Bombay the air was filled with soft golden light. Westward towards Thana the hill-tops were bright with every hue from golden light to deep purple shadow, while, among them, the winding Ulhas shone like links of burnished gold. Then, the moon rose, brightened the mists which had gathered out of the ravines and off the hills, and cleared a way across the calm heavens, while far in the south the black embattled storm-rack belched flame and thunder the whole night long.

The next day (Tuesday) passed without a storm. On Wednesday, the 8th, eastward towards Khandala vast electric cloud banks began to gather. At two in the afternoon, with mutterings of thunder, the sky grew suddenly black and lurid. At half-past two the storm passed west moving straight on Matheran. A mist went before the storm, thickening as it came, first into trailing clouds and then into dripping rain, with muttering thunder all the while. At three the valley between Matheran and Prabal was filled with the storm. Thunder rolled in long echoing peals, and flashes lightened the dense fog with extraordinary splendour. The fog lasted with heavy rain till 3.45, when a light wind swept it west towards Bombay, where, about four, the monsoon burst.

These appalling electric outbursts end serenely. The storm clouds retreat like a drove of bellowing bulls and their last echoes die beyond the distant hills. The sun shines again in majesty, in every dell the delicious sound of running, water wakens life, and the woods are vocal with the glad song of birds. [From the Overland Mail, January 16, 1880, p. 17.]

Rainfall.

The returns for the thirteen years ending 1880 show a yearly rainfall varying from 476.51 inches in 1868 to 136.48 inches in 1877 and averaging 242.39 inches. These returns may be divided into two periods, three years of excessive rainfall with an average of 395.68 inches, and ten years of moderate rainfall averaging 196.4 inches. It is worthy of note that the years of excessive rainfall come together and are the first seasons for which returns are available. Dr. Day, the last Superintendent, questioned their correctness, and, as the returns at present stand, the excess of over 120 inches in the average of the first three years, compared with the highest figure that has since been reached, seems to imply an error so serious as to make the returns useless. The returns for the ten years ending 1880 show, that, on an average, the rainfall in January, February, March, and April, is less than an inch; that it rises to two inches in May and to thirty-four in June, and that it is at its highest, seventy-five inches, in July; from seventy-five inches it falls to fifty-two in August, twenty-eight in September, and about four in October. During November and December the fall is again less than one inch.

The following statement gives the details for the ten years ending 1880:

Matheran Rainfall, 1871-1880.

[The recorded rainfall during the three years 1868-1870 was, in 1868, June 88.4 inches, July 162.53, August 166.53, September 53.55, October 5.86, total 476.51; 1869, May 0 35, June 2775, July 172.25, August 77.93, September 88.87, October 16.51, total 383.66; 1870, June 129.88, July 122.80, August 43.8, September 15.70, and October 15.42: total 326.88.]

MONTHS.

1871.

1872.

1873.

1874.

1875.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

January

4.12

--

--

--

0.22

--

0.10

--

--

--

February

--

--

--

--

0.10

--

0.97

--

0.10

0.2

March

--

--

--

--

015

--

0. 8

--

--

--

April

0.16

--

--

0. 3

0.10

--

--

--

--

--

May

6.26

--

3.18

0.35

0.12

--

0.10

--

4.88

--

June

40.73

34.70

18.77

49.75

41.46

20.11

23.54

28. 0

43.95

32.44

July

62.39

77.80

73.89

99.75

94.45

104.76

54.28

81.47

32.7

77.54

August

40.42

43.15

55. 18

46.35

39. 8

54. 0

33.83

88.21

92.86

31.34

September

15.41

23.20

28.84

19.65

38.35

12.62

17.46

61.73

17.68

45.93

October

3.18

1.50

0. 2

2.75

2.17

--

6.12

13.71

1.63

6. 6

November

3.68

--

0.23

3. 5

--

--

--

1.29

0. 2

0.18

December

0. 8

--

--

--

0.20

--

--

--

--

--

Total

176.43

180.35

180.11

221.68

216.40

191.49

136.48

274.41

193.19

193.51

Thermometer Readings.

The thermometer readings for the five years ending 1880 show that, on an average, December and January are the coldest months with an average mean maximum of 69° 9'. There was a rise in February to 72.56, in March to 78.3, in April to 80.8, in May a slight fall to 80.2, in June a further fall to 77.4, in July to 73.8, in August to 72.6, in September it remained at 72.6, in October it rose to 74.9, and in November again fell to 72.9.

Matheran Thermometer Readings, 1876-1880.

MONTHS.

1876.

1877.

1878.

1879.

1880.

6
a.m.

10
a.m.

4
p.m.

6
a.m.

10
a.m.

4
p.m.

6
a.m.

10
a.m.

4
p.m.

6
a.m.

10
a.m.

4
p.m.

6
a.m.

10
a.m.

4
p.m.

January

65

73

75

52

74

77

55

74

79

60

74

79

58

66

78

February

65

70

75

50

79

83

65

83

87

59

75

80

59

76

92

March

67

74

80

60

83

87

67

86

92

60

85

90

67

85

82

April

71

77

88

64

84

87

70

84

90

70

87

91

66

91

94

May

72

77

85

62

84

89

72

85

91

72

86

91

68

84

86

June

72

86

85

68

82

84

70

80

84

70

74

77

70

78

82

July

72

75

75

70

75

75

72

79

79

68

75

75

70

74

74

August

69

74

74

70

75

75

72

76

77

70

72

72

70

72

72

September

68

74

75

70

75

77

69

76

77

66

71

71

70

71

72

October

70

78

81

72

76

77

70

76

79

68

76

79

66

77

80

November

66

76

80

71

76

80

63

74

79

62

76

79

61

75

77

December

60

76

77

54

76

79

59

74

78

56

72

75

62

74

77

Gardening.

Flowers.

Except on the flat tops of some of the lower spurs no grain is grown. The cost of bringing water limits gardening to the growth of European annuals, geraniums, fuscias, heliotropes, and the commoner roses. English annuals should be sown soon after the rains are over, and almost all kinds including sweet peas do well. Fuscia and geranium cuttings can be grown on the hill, but in most gardens the plants have to be renewed every season. Heliotropes and the common roses thrive, but budded roses die from too much damp. Early in October the house roofs are gay with balsams and other flowering plants.

Vegetables.

Some years ago, on the right or north bank of the Pisharnath valley close above the river bed, terraces were cleared by a Chinaman, and the garden is still kept up by a Mahabaleshvar Musalman of the Davar or iron-smelting class. He grows cabbages, cauliflowers, beet, nolkhol, and tomatoes, and plantains and pine-apples. Strawberries have been tried but failed. When the new dam is finished part of this garden will have to be removed. The present (1881) prices of vegetables are, for cabbages 6d. (4 as.) each, lettuces ¾d. (½ anna) each, large beet root 3d. (2 as.), small beet root 1½d. (1 anna), cauliflower 4½ d. (3 as.), celery 3d. (2 as.) a head, carrots 1d. (9 pies) a pound, and peas 3d. (2 as.) a pound.

In 1876, when the Simpson Reservoir was completed, some Malis cleared a space on the left side of the reservoir path, and, for two seasons, tried to grow vegetables. The attempt failed and has been given up. The chief other marketable products of the hill are grass, most of which is let out for grazing at the rate of 6d. (4 as.) a head of cattle, fuel gathered by the hill tribes and sold at the Superintendent's office at 4s. (Rs. 2) the khandi, baskets of ferns and moss gathered by the hill people, jambul and karand berries offered for sale in the market, and small quantities of wax and honey hawked by the Thakurs.

Plants.

Among the plants [These lists of plants and animals are condensed from the very interesting chapters in Dr. Smith's Matheran. They have had the advantage of revision by Dr. Lisboa, Mr. E. H. Aitken and Mr. G. W. Vidal, C. S., and of additions by Mr. W. Hart, First Judge Bombay Small Cause Court and Mr. H. M. Birdwood, C. S.] of the hill the commonest Grasses are of the smaller kinds, Anthistiria ciliata, Uniola indica, Panicum montanum, P. trigonum and brizoides, Ciloris barbata, hariali, Cynodon dactylon nachni, Eleusine egyptiaca, and a species of Apluda.

Grasses.

Of the larger, grasses there are the aromatic kaskas, Andropogon muricatus, ginger-grass Andropogon martini, Arundinella gigantea, and the chirka, Coix lachryma. Bamboos are found on the lower slopes. They grow also on the top but probably only where they have been planted. The order Cyperaceae and the genus Calamus are also said to be represented on the lower slopes. In some marshy land, about a mile to the east of Neral station, is a grass, probably an Andropogon, whose leaves and roots give out a strong smell of turpentine.

Ferns.

During the rains ferns find a most congenial climate on and around the hill. They are at their best when there are no visitors, but they are still fresh in October, and, though shrivelled and dead-like in the dry months, uncoil their leaves with surprising promptness after the first heavy rain. The leading ferns are the common Brake, Pteris aquilina, which has almost disappeared from Garbat point, but is still found in considerable quantities on the south-east slopes of the hill, near the top, a few feet below the road going from Alexander to Chauk point. The Climbing Fern, Lygodium flexuosum, is also frequently found in the woods on the hill sides and rarely on the top. Among less sparingly distributed species are the Sagenia coadunata, Pteris quadriaurita, Pteris pellucida, the Silver-fern Cheilanthes farinosa, and perhaps the Copper-fern Cheilanthes dalhousiae; of Maiden-hairs, Adiantum lunulatum and caudatum, and A. capillus veneris, Poecilopteris virens, Nephrodium molle, Nephrolepis tuberosa, Athyrium felixfoemina, A. hohenackerianum, A. falcatum, Asplenium planicaule, Pleopeltis membranacea, and Pleopeltis nuda, Acrophorus immersus, Niphobolus adnascens, and Lygodium flexuosum, and the beautiful Polybotrium vulgare. The last is very common in parts of the Sahyddris, but only a few specimens have been found at Matheran, in the Simpson reservoir valley not far from Hart Point.

Annual Herbs.

Of Annual Herbs there are, soon after the rains set in, the Cobra Lily, Arisaema murrayii, with its erect white or purplish cobralike hood, and, of the Ginger tribe, the Curcuma pseudomontana, with yellow flowers and rose-coloured coma. Of Ground Orchids, which flower chiefly towards the close of the rains, there are the giant orchid Platauthera Susannae, Habenaria longicalcarata with several greenish-white flowers, the small white-flowered Habenaria candida, and the large rare Habenaria commelynifolia. Among Tree Orchids are the Eria braccata with its large white flowers that bloom early in the rains, Eria dalzelli a later bloomer, Dendrobia barbatulum and chlorops both of which flower in the cold weather, and the Erides maculosum with fleshy spotted leaves and in the rains a rose corolla freaked with purple. Of other Herbaceous Plants there are the sunki Verbesina biflora, bhamburda Blumea holocerica, ganera Ageratum conysoides, and bundar Vernonia divergens. Of Balsams, Impatiens tomentosa, kleinii, and the rare rivalis, which is supposed to be merely a variety of I. acaulis; two Cynoglossums, coalestinum and glochidiatum, not unlike forget-me-nots, but larger and more straggling; of Cucumbers the karu, Cucumis trigonus and pubescens, whose sulphur-yellow flowers wreathe the long karvi stems, and the kondel, Tricosanthes palmata, with large white-fringed corolla; of Convolvuluses there are Argyreia sericea, Ipomoea campanulata, Ipomoea sepiaria, Porana racemosa, and Convolvulus arvensis.

Shrubs.

Of Shrubs and Brushwood there are the dhaura, Woodfordia floribunda, whose beautiful red flowers are used in the Panjab for dyeing silk, the alu Vanguiera edulis, anjani or ironwood Memecylon edule, arsul Canthium umbellatum, bahman Colebrookia ternata, bhoma Glochidion lanceolatum, dhinda Leea staphylea, dingal Crotalaria leschenaultii, ghagri Crotolaria retusa, eshvar Callicarpa cana, pangli Pogostemon purpuricaulis, gela Randia dumetorum, karavti Ficus heterophylla, karand Carissa carandas, karvi Strobilanthes asperrimus, kiral or karipat Bergera koenigii, kuda Tabernoemontana crispa, limbara Heyneanatrijuga, makari Atalantia monophylla, mori Casearia loevigata, papati Pavetta indica, pisa Actinodaphne lanceolata, ramata Lasiosaiphon eriocephalus, and vahiti AEtheilema reniformis.

Trees.

Of Trees, there are, among those found only on the spurs and lower slopes, the gol Sponia wightia, the kaundal Sterculia urens, the mhaura Bassia latifolia, the teak sag Tectona grandis, the silk-cotton tree suir Salmalia malabarica, the bastard cinchona Hymenodictyon excelsum, the hill-palm berli mhar Caryota urens, and the khair Acacia catechu. Among trees found only or almost entirely on the hill-top and upper slopes, are the chandara Macaranga roxburghii, the govinda Diospyros goindu, the gulum Machilus glaucescens, the kokam Garcinia purpurea, the kumbal Sapota tomentosa, laeli Albizzia stipulata, the malia Diospyros nigricans, the phanas Artocarpus integrifolia, the phansi Carallia integerrima, and the varas Heterophragma roxburghii. Among trees found in all parts of the hill, are the ain Terminalia glabra, the apta Bauhinia racemosa, the asan Briedelia retusa, the avali Phyllanthus emblica, the bava Cassia fistula, the burumbi Amdoralawii, the goldar Sterculia guttata, the surungi Ochrocarpus longifolius, the tawir Garcini ovalifolia, the hela Garcinia cambogea, the hirda Terminalia chebula, the jambul Eugenia jambolanum, the pahir Ficus cordifolia, the karmal Dillenia pentagyna, the kosham Schleichera trijuga, the kumba Careya arborea, the mango amba Mangifera indica, the nana Lagerstroemia parviflora, the nandruk Ficus retusa, the pipal Ficus religiosa, the palas Butea frondosa, the pangarah Erythrina indica, the par jambul Olea dioica, the umbar Ficus glomerata, and the sageri Bocagea dalzellii.[The tints of the Matheran woods are a pleasant study. Variety of season, of age, of soil, and of light make it difficult to fix one tint for each kind of tree. The following are believed to be the chief hot-weather tints in the coppice of the open hill-top and in the terrace groves. The deep greens are anjanis, kumblas, makris, most mangoes, some par jambuls, phanslis, polaras, gulums, and tupas; the bright greens are alus, bokhadas, gelas, karand bushes, and kusar climbers; the brown greens are bombas, chandalas, eshvars, some jambuls, karapats, some umbars, and the parasitic bangol; the light yellowish greens are dhamans, kumbas, padals at lalais, piprans, young harkas, hirdas, koshims, and pahirs, bahman and some vaiti bushes, and sikakai and petkuli climbers; the blue greens are aptas, some jambuls, pisas, sisus, and rameta and voiti bushes; the ruddy tints are from young ahins, hirdas, koshims, mhauras, mogiris, pahirs, ranbendis, and helas, withered bombash and kumbas, fresh dinda and withered davti bushes, and fresh hujari and handeva climbers; the greys are from the leafless stems and branches of kumbas, nanas, mogiris, pahirs, varas, and papti and rangoli bushes, and in the lower slopes teak and bors.]

Climbers.

Of Climbers and Creepers there are the ambulgi, Eloeagnus kologa, with shining scaly tendrils and smooth-faced silvery-backed leaves; the chambaryel, Premna scandens, with large Coarse wide-scattered leaves; the chapyel, Canthium didymum, with polished leaves, white sweet-smelling flowers, and black fruit; the chikakai, Acacia concinna, with back-bent thorns, light feathery leaves, and little balls of yellowish flowers; the datir, Ficus volubilis; the kanvel, Ventilago madraspatana, with entire young leaves, serrated old leaves, long branches and leafless flowers in panicles; the kavli, Gymnema sylvestre, and some other milky shrubs; the kordor, Ancistrocladus heyneanus, with long tapering deep green leaves, which grows like a bush four or five feet before it begins to climb; the kulti, Tragia involucrata, an obscure little plant covered with sharp stinging hair; the kusar, Jasminum latifolium, one of the commonest climbers with delicate light-green pointed leaves, white fragrant flowers, and black berries; the lamtani, Anodendron paniculatum, with huge shining laurel-like leaves and yellowish green flowers; the paral, Cyclea peltata, common on the trunks of trees with three-cornered leaves and clusters of cup-shaped flowers; the ragi, Mesoneurum cucullatum, with flowers in long stiff racemes and tufts of compressed seed vessels; the sweet pea, Vigna vexillata, universal after the rains and as fragrant as its namesake; the turan, Zyzyphus rugosa, thorny stems with rough leaves and a white mealy drupe; the vagati, Wagatea spicata, a climbing thorny shrub with orange and red flowers; the vakeri, Rourea santaloides, a rare plant with small shining leaflets not unlike sandalwood; the vatoli, Cocculus macrocarpus, one of the most marked plants in a Matheran thicket, with waving knotted and gnarled cable-like stems, sometimes bristling with thorns and hung with large bunches of grey-green or cream-coloured berries, ending among the tree tops, in patches of small butterfly-like blue leaves; the vukshi, Calycopteris floribunda, a coarse downy-leaved shrub with balls of faint green flowers; the yekyel, Dalbergia sympathetica, with strong hooks, small acacialike leaves, whitish flowers, and thin pods; and theyevti, Hippocratea grahamii, with smooth spreading branches and minute pale green flowers. The common Parasites, whose thick bunches of yellowish leaves are found clinging to the tree tops in all parts of the hill, and are called bangols and bindkulis by the people, belong to the Loranthus family. The commonest variety is L. longiflorus; L. loniceroides, langeniferus, and perhaps elasticus are also found. None of these plants are peculiar to Matheran. Most are found in the plains and the rest are found in the other higher Thana peaks and ranges as well as on Matheran. Some plants of the orders Anonaceae and Guttiferae, which are very sensitive to cold, are found on Matheran, but not, as far as is known, on Mahabaleshvar. Among these are Uvaria narum, Garcinia indica or purpurea, G. cambogia, G. ovalifolia, and Ochrocarpus longifolius the last identified from specimens. Briedelia retusa and Coculus macrocarpus, which are common on Matheran, do not occur on the top of Mahabaleshvar.

Animals.

Insects.

Among insects, of Coleoptera or Beetles, there are the clumsy buzzing Butocera rubra, a kind of Capricorn beetle, the equally large but darker Prionus orientalis, a large Scarabaeus, hundreds of humming Chafers, among them Anomala elata and two others; many Golden Beetles or Buprestidae, many Cetonias, handsome Cicindelidae, nimble Elaters or Click Beetles, long-snouted Curculios, rich-hued Cassidae, spotted Lady Birds, quaintly-armed Bombardiers, the curious little Paussidae with branching horn-like feelers, and the hair-tufted Hispa. Blister flies are common, and, after the first rainfall, the trees are aglow with fireflies. Of Diptera, the Nemocera, including gnats mosquitoes and tipulae, are not very common; the Brachycera are more numerous; Anthrax, Bombylius, and other genera abound. Gadflies swarm and Flies Proper or Muscidae are found in vast numbers, among them are the violet-hued Sarcophaga, the Stomoxys, Musca, Calliphora, and many others. Of Hemiptera the black Cicada ducalis with its membranous leaved wings and ear-splitting air-drum, the large clear-winged Cephaloxys locusta and Hacchys splendidula, and the opaque brown Ophoena dives; of Pachycoridae the Scutellera nobilis and Callidea purpurea; of Asopidae the plain lazy-flying Canthecoma furcillata, and the rugged Caziera verrucosa ; of Pentatomas, Placosternum taurus; two Raphigasters; many Mictidae, among them Physomerus calcar; Mictis lata, bovipes, dentipes, and punctum, and Dalader planiventris; of Coreidae Gonocerus lanciger; of Lygaeidae the scarlet Lygaeus militaris; some bright red Pyrrhocoridae and many Reduvii. Of Orthoptera are several species of Acheta, among them probably the grotesque Acheta monstrosa, several varieties of Gryllus, the Mole Cricket Gryollotalpa vulgaris, the Common Locust, and the beautifully tinted Ædipoda citrina, Mantis religiosa and ocellaria, Blepharsi mendica, a large Phyllium, the huge Phasma maculicollis, and perhaps the ruffle-jointed Empusa gongyloides. Of Neuroptera are the White Ants or Termites, the Dragon Flies or Libellulae, of which the large Ashna and a smaller Agarion are the most common, the Ant Lions including the large lace-winged Myrmeleo zebratus, the long-bodied brown-mottled Myrmeleo contrarius, and a smaller unnamed species, and of the vein-winged long-feelered and hairy-bodied Ascalaphi, A. accusans,segmentator,insimulans,and tessellatus.

Among Hymenoptera are many species of Ants, red, black, and russet. One small black ant of the mason family builds very notable large helmet-shaped thatched nests generally in gela or kumbla trees. Of Pupivorae, some of which lay their eggs in the dwellings and others in the bodies of insects, are the stout bright green Stilbum splendens, and a small green and yellow Chrysis. Other species with small earthen pipe nests, known to the people as the kumbharin or potter's wife, are the ashy and chocolate Sphex ferruginea, the small black and yellow banded Scolia, the large and black Scolia rubiginosa, the blue black-bodied fawn-winged Coeruleus, the black-bodied yellow-winged Mygnimia perplexa, the green and black-bodied and yellow-winged Chlorien lobatum, the small yellow-winged Pelopaeus bengalensis, the black yellow-winged P. spinolae, and the large, black, yellow-winged P. coromandelicus. Of Wasps are the huge black-bodied and dark yellow-winged Vespa cincta, the yellow black-banded Eumenes petiolata, and the black yellow-spotted E. flavapicta. Of Honey Bees which yield excellent honey, are three kinds, the Apis indica and dorsalis, and a stingless bee. Of the heavy-flying solitary Xylocapae or Carpenter Bees, who build separate nests in decayed trees, are the light brown and yellow Xylocapaolivieri,the dark-bodied ashy-winged X. flavonigrescens, and the dark bluish-green ashy-winged X. tenuiscapa. Of other bees there are a prettily marked Anthidium, the blue-striped Crocisa decora, and Anthophora zonata with light grey wings, yellow shield-shaped thorax and black and green striped body not much larger than the honey-bee.

Among Butterflies the Lycaenidae are represented by two leading species, Rosimon white or greyish-blue shining like silver, and Ælianus milk-white bordered with brown, Roxus, Nila, Plinius, Cnepis, and Theophrastus are also found; of the Aphnoei, Etolus and Lohita; of the Pieridae, or whites and yellows, Callidryas hilaria, philippina, and alcmaene, and Pieris paulina, glaucippe, albinia, phryne, and perhaps hecuba and mesentina; of the Papilios, the large slow-flying Papilio polymnestor, the large black and red-spotted P. romulus and P. pammon with yellow dots and white patches, said to be the two sexes of the same species, P. polites with white and red crescents on the lower wings, P. agamemnon blotched with brown and green, P. epius blotched brown and yellow with rows of dots at the bases of the upper wings, blue eyes on the lower, and no tail ; P. sarpedon, smaller than the others, with long black tapering forewings crossed by an irregular band of bluish-green, also P. hector; of the Danaidae a very large and in some cases most beautiful family, the rich-hued Danais plexippus and chrysippus and the plain Euploea careta, the prettily streaked and black and white spotted Danais agloea and others, the richly marked and handsome curve-winged Precis iphita and Junonia asterias, limonias, aenone, and orythia; two Diademas, misippus and bolina, as rich coloured as the Papilios, the common Ergolis ariadne, the black and white Athyma leucothoes, and Neptis acera. Of Nymphalidae there are a lovely leaf-like Kallima, Amathusia bernardi, Debis nilgiriensis, Charaxes athamus, Melanitis leda, Mycalesis polydecta, and Hypanis ilythia. Of Hesperidae there are many. There are also Malanitis banksia, Eronia Valeria, Pyrgus superna and P. purendra, Argynnis phalanta, Isemene aria, Yphthuna lysandra and baldus, Politia nina and others.

Among Moths are the Clear-wing Sesia hylas, the Death's-head Acherontia styx, and the Sphinx convolvuli, two Chaerocampas clotho and celerio, and the Bombay Marble Hawk-moth Daphnis nerii; of the Castnii, Ægocera maculata and two day-moths Eusemia dentatrix and the pale-blue transversa, commonly called the Matheran butterfly; and of the Zygaenidae the common black and white winged Syntoma bicineta. Many others have lately been identified. Among these, not elsewhere known, are Polytela gloriosa, Polydesma boarmoides, Macuglossa stellatarum, Aloa sipalki, and unnamed species of Micaria, Syntomis, and Lithosia. Among Night-moths the leading tribe are the Bombycites or Silk-worms, of which the Lithosias are the most numerous and the Saturnias the largest. Among them are the curious buff and dark green Lithosia entella, Nyctemera alternans, Deiopleia syringa and pulchella, Spilosoma suffusa, Alope ocellifera, Candyba punctata, Ganisa postica, Attacus atlas, Saturnia mylitta, the well known tusser silk-moth and perhaps Actaeus silene. Of Noctuites the Peacock Moth, Patula macrops, the dull brown Argiva hieroglyphica,. the dark-brown and blue Potomorpha manlia and the lighter-hued Ophideres materna, the fawn-coloured Halodes carunca, the Ophusia properata, Lagoptera dotata, Achoea melicerta, and A. cyllota. Of Geometrites, Comiboena devexata, Eumalia rosalia, and the small Orsabana.

Between insects and reptiles several classes of animals may be roughly grouped. Among them are the active and vicious Leech of which Hirudo zeylanica is the commonest; Land-shells including two species of Helix found in heaps under the laterite ledges, a common trumpet-mouthed Cyclostoma, and a rather rare spiral Achatina; Land-crabs or Gecarcinae; Millipedes of the genus lulus; bottle-brushlike Cermatias; Centipedes; Scorpions; and Spiders, including the large hairy Mygale, two or three Epeirae whose huge tough webs are hung with egg boxes, the Phrynnus, the small jumping Salticus, the Galeodes with its tunnelled web, the long Water-spider, and the skeleton-legged Phalangium (?).

Reptiles.

Of Reptiles there are, of Frogs, the Rana tigrina or Bull-frog perhaps the smaller and darker Rana hexydactyla, the small and light-coloured common Frog, Rana gracilis, the Toad, Bufo melanostictus. and the pale active and graceful Tree-frogs Hylorana malabarica and Polypedatis maculatus.

Of Lizards there are occasionally the large Lizard, Varanus dracaena, about four feet long and harmless in spite of its threatening look, and of smaller lizards, Skinks, Agames, and Geckos. The Skinks are in every veranda, the Agames bask in the sun on tree-trunks and bare rocks, and the Geckos keep mostly under cover. Of Skinks there are the timid Common Skink, Euprepes rufescens about a foot long with shining scaly flattened back, the bare Eumeces punctatus dark grey with brown and white freckles, the smaller E. hardwickii brown above and white below with symmetrical black dots and yellowish white bands, and the very rare and very small Chiamela lineata. Of Geckos, whose six or eight measured notes are often heard at dusk and in the early morning, are the small common Hemidactylus maculatus, the much larger H. sykesii; and the curious squat reddish-olive Gymnodactylus deccanensis Of Agames the large light-green Calotes versicolor, and on trees the blackish Calotes rouxii. The hill people mention the Chameleon and a Winged-lizard, or Draco, like that found in Kanara, but neither has yet been recorded.

Between Lizards and Snakes come the Blindworms of which there are three, the foot long bronze and yellow Onychocephalus acutus the small brown Typhlops braminus, and the minute bluish Texiguus.

Among Snakes, there are, of harmless snakes, the grass-green Tree Snake naneti or Passerita mycterizans, moving with uplifted long snouted head, a vicious ready biter but with no poison fang. Another Tree Snake the Dipsas trigonata, brownish-olive and white-bellied, has a broad depressed head and rounded snout. There are also the Dipsas forsteni and ceylonensis, the Dendrophis picta with fine pale blue between its loose bronze scales, the large fangless Daman or Ptyas mucosus, sometimes seen eight feet long and thicker than a man's wrist, and perhaps the huge Python molurus often more than ten feet long. Of smaller harmless ground snakes there are the Tropidonotus plumbicolor, the brown and yellow spotted Oligodon fasciatus, the reddish olive Ablabes humberti, the greyish olive white-bellied Cyclophis nasalis, the richly variegated Cynophis malabaricus, the stump-tailed Silybura macrolepis, and the very fierce brown white-barred Lycodon aulicus. Of poisonous snakes there are the Cobra, Naja tripudians, not so numerous as in the plains, the manyar Bungarus coeruleus, and the green Pit-viper, Trimeresurus gramineus, the greyish-brown ganas, Daboia russellii, and the small Echis carinata.

Birds.

Among Birds, there are, of Birds of Prey, the white-backed Gyps bengalensis or gidh, the long-billed Gyps indicus, the Scavenger Vulture Neophron ginginianus, and the King Vulture Otogyps calvus. Of Falcons and Hawks there are the Shahin Falco peregrina-tor, the Bhiri Falco peregrinus a cold-weather visitant, the Laggar Falco jugger, the little Kestrel Tinnunculus alaudarius, the Shikra, several Sparrow Hawks, and occasionally it is said the Goshawk. Of Eagles there are the wokhab or Tawny Eagle Aquila vindhiana, the Osprey Pandion haliaetus, and the White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaetus leucogaster. Of Harriers there are the Circus swainsonii; and of Kites the Pariah or chil Milvus govinda and the brahmani Haliastur indus. Owls are uncommon, but the Indian Screech Owl Strix javanica and the brown Hooting Wood-owl Syrnium indranee have been seen.

Among Insessores, of Swallows Martins and Swifts, there are, the English Swallow, Hirundo rustica, sometimes the Wire Tail Swallow Hirundo filifera, the Mosque Swallow Hirundo erythropygia, and the Dusky Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne concolor; and of Swifts sometimes the Cypselus affinis, and perhaps the Edible Nest Swiftlet, Collocalia unicolor. Of Goatsuckers, the peculiar melancholy wail of the Caprimulgus asiaticus is often heard. Bee-eaters, Rollers, and Kingfishers are rarely seen. Barbets and Cuckoos are common, the Common Green Barbet, Megaloema caniceps, the Coppersmith, Xantholema hoemacephala, and the Crow-pheasant, Centrococcyx rufipennis are found in all parts of the hill. Cuckoos, Paroquets, Magpies, and smaller birds, though common in the lower slopes, seldom visit the hill-top. Of Sun Birds there are large numbers which flit from flower to flower or hover over them like bees. Of Shrikes there are the Grey Shrike, Lanius lahtora, and the Common Wood Shrike, also the Drongos, Dicrurus coerulescens and longicaudatus, and of Minivets Pericrocotus brevirostris and perhaps flammeus. Of Fly-catchers, are the Tchitrea paradisi or long-tailed Tyrant Bird and the black-naped blue Hypothymis azurea, the Fantail Leucocerca albicollis, the Verditer Stoporala melanops, and the blue - throated Cyornis rubeculoides. Including Bulbuls and Babblers the Thrushes are the largest family of Matheran birds. Among them the Malabar Whistling Thrush or Lazy Schoolboy Myiophonus horsfieldii, and the smaller-spotted Wren Babbler Pellorneum ruficeps, the dull ashy Quaker Thrush Alcippe poiocephala, the olive-brown Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus horsfieldii, the dark Cyanocinelus cyanus, and the rare pied Turdulus wardii. Of Ground-thrushes are the white-winged Geocichla cyanotis, the rarer orange-headed G. citrina, and the blue-headed Petrophila cinclorhynchas, which, silent at other times, fills the April woods with song. Of the harsh-voiced common Babblers there are two varieties Malacocercus malabaricus and M. somervillei. Among the pleasant voiced and numerous Bulbuls are the common red-whiskered Otocompsa fuscicaudatus, in October the Madras Bulbul Molpastes haemorrhous, the beautiful black yellow and white Iora zeylonica, and probably the larger and duller-hued Iora tiphia. Akin to the thrushes, the gorgeous Orioles are represented by the bright yellow and black Mango-bird Oriolus kundoo. Among Warblers the dayal or Magpie robin is a rare visitant, and the little dusky Thamnobia, the Bush-robin Praticola caprata, and the Tailor-bird Orthotomus sutorius are commoner below than on the top of the hill. Wagtails are abundant, the grey and yellow Calobates melanope, the pied Motacilla maderaspatensis, and perhaps the black-faced M. dukhunensis. A brown Tree Pipit or Anthus and the Indian Grey Tit, Parus nipalensis, are also found. Of Conirostres are the common Crow Corvus macrorhynchus and splendens, the tree Magpie Dendrocitta rufa, and many Mynas both the common myna and the more local Acridotheris marathensis. Of the Fringillidae the small pink-browed Rosefinch, Propasser rhodochrous, is perhaps occasionally seen as a straggler. The black-headed Munia is sometimes found in long grass, and the Indian Sparrow is seen though in no great numbers. Weaver Birds come singly, and the small Crested Lark, Spizalauda deva, is occasionally seen. Of Pigeons there are the Green, Crocopus chlorigaster, the Common, Columba intermedia, and perhaps the Imperial, Carpophaga insignis. Of Doves, the Spotted Dove Turtur suratensis is common and the little brown Cambay and the ashy Ring-dove T. risorius are rare. Game birds are disappearing. The handsome grey Jungle Fowl Gallus sonneratii, formerly common and tame, is seldom seen; the Spur-fowl, Galloperdix spadiceus is heard all over the hill, and there are Bush and Button Quail.

Mammals.

As they are forced to leave it during the rainy months, few mammals are found on the hill top. Of Bats there are the small Scotophile that skims about the rooms of an evening, the larger open air Taphozous longimanus, the small pretty Kerivoula picta, and the large Fruit-eating Pteropus edwardsi, or Flying Fox. Of Rats and Mice there are the destructive Bandicoot, ghus, Mus bandicota, the light-coloured House-rat Mus rufescens, the Brown-rat Mus decumanus, the Black-rat Mus rattus, the Mus urbanus, and other common Muridae. There is also a Musk-rat, either the common Screx coerulescens of the plains, or a hill species very like it and with the same smell. In the evenings Hares, probably Lepus nigricollis, are sometimes seen frisking about the glades. Of Squirrels there are three kinds, the red large Sciurus elphinstonei, the small striped Sciurus tristriatus, and a third longer and not striped, perhaps S. somacrourus. Porcupines, once known on the hill, have disappeared. Of Mungooses there are the Common Mungoose, Herpestes griseus, and a much larger one, perhaps H. vitticollis. Of Cats there is the Wild Cat, Felis chaus, which has probably-bred with the tame cat. Of Deer, the small Pisora, Memimna indica and the Four-horned Antelope, Tetraceros quadricornis, formerly not uncommon, are no longer found. The sharp cry of the Muntjac or bekri, Cervulus aureus, is still often heard, and Sambar, Rusa aristotelis, are said to be sometimes seen crossing the lower slopes. Of Monkeys there are the grey black-faced Hanuman, or Entellus monkey, Presbytis entellus, and the smaller Macaque or Bonneted Monkey, Mecacus radiatus. Of larger animals Hyaenas and Jackals are not uncommon. Panthers, Felis pardus, both large and small frequently visit the hill, and the Tiger is occasionally seen. [A tiger was found in June 1880, near Garbat point and Harrison's spring.] No Bears have been heard of for years.

Domestic Animals.

Besides cats and dogs the only Domestic Animals that remain on the hill throughout the year are cattle, cows and buffaloes, and a few goats in the Kathkari hamlets near the hill-foot. Some sheep are brought in the fair season, but all are meant for the butcher, as sheep do not stand the chilly damp of the south-west monsoon. Several ponies are brought in the fair season, but all leave the hill soon after the beginning of the rains. Of the cattle that remain and graze on the hill-tops some are owned by hill herdsmen and others by servants left in charge of houses.

Hill Tribes.

The people of the hill belong to two main divisions, local hill Tribes,  and strangers. Of local hill tribes there are three, Kathkaris, Thakurs and Dhangars, whose hamlets lie on the lower hill spurs, and who are often met on the hill carrying milk firewood and baggage. Of their history and habits Dr. Smith has recorded the following details:

Of the three tribes, the Kathkaris, or makers of kath or catechu the thickened juice of the khair tree, are the lowest and probably the most purely local; the Thakurs, literally chiefs or lords, a kindlier better-behaved set of woodsmen and husbandmen seem to have a strain of late or Rajput blood; and the large well-moulded limbs and refined faces of the Dhangars or milkmen bear out their tradition that they come from the Deccan.

All three have large, though not very prominent, cheek bones, rather full lips, and deep-sunk eyes. Among the better sort the expression is sparkling and genial, but scowling and unsteady among many Kathkaris and a few Thakurs. The hands, feet, and limbs are usually well formed, the chest is of good breadth, and, in such as are tolerably fed, the whole muscular system is well developed. Straight hair is sometimes, especially among the Thakurs, replaced by curly or frizzled locks. Though much variety of figure and feature occurs among members of the same tribe, each tribe has a well marked special appearance.

Appearance.

As in other parts of the Konkan the Dhangars have a story that they come from beyond Purandhar in the Deccan. The local head of the tribe, Sesu son of Janna Singara, an intelligent handsome man, has a mythical total of thirty-two and an apparent knowledge of seven generations since the date of their settlement in the konkan. He claims kinship with perhaps about 500 houses of Dhangars scattered over Panvel, Karjat, Bor, and Pen, and states as they also state, that when they came they were shepherds and changed their sheep for cattle as they found the sheep died under the cold damp of the south-west monsoon. The Dhangars are much larger and better looking than either the Kathkaris or the Thakurs. The fore and central regions of the head are of greater expanse, the nose is more aquiline, and the nostrils finer.

Names.

Among Dhangars and Thakurs, the men have surnames which their wives take at the time of marriage. Thus in a family of Dhangars there were four brothers Baju, Dhaka, Rama, and Tuka, all surnamed Akada. In another family were three brothers Kumia, Tukia, and Baba, with Zora as the clan name or surname. Their women had such names as Sawe, Babe, and Tumi, and on marriage became Sawe Akadin and Tumi Zorin, according to their husband's clan.[According to Sesu Dhangar the commonest surnames are Gora, Akada, Bodekar, Deba, Kokada, Aupir, and Vayted. Dhangars are careful to keep the rule against marrying in the same clan.] So among the Thakurs there were five brothers Hassu, Kalu, Zanu, Duma, and Daya all with the surname of Paradi; their wives were known as Umbi, Sirke, Gomi, Kani, and Shimre. Kathkaris seem to have no surnames. To their personal name of Rupa, Honia, Ratnia, and Shamia men add Kathkari, and to Pauli, Nabi, and Zanki women add Kathkarin.

Houses.

Kathkaris generally live on the outskirts of Kunbi villages, Thakurs in hamlets of their own not far from the plain, and Dhangars in settlements of two or three sheds within hill and forest limits.

In 1851, when the first European house was built on the hill, there were twelve Dhangar settlements, or vadas, each of two or three sheds. These settlements were mostly on level plateaus, not far from springs. Each shed was occupied by a family and varied in size with the wealth of the owner. The largest was about eighty feet long by thirty or forty broad, and there was a partition in the middle to divide the cattle from the family. The framework of the shed was of rough wood, chiefly anjan, ain, jambul, and teak; and all the walls were of wattled and daubed karvi. The favourite thatch was chirka grass, interlaid with teak, palas, and kumba leaves. The roof fell with a gradual slope to within two or three feet of the ground, and the floor was of beaten earth. There was a large front door for the cattle, and a smaller side door for the family. Near the smaller door was a raised ledge for grain baskets, and both doors were furnished with screens to make all snug in rough weather. The Dhangars have still some temporary sheds on the hill-tops, but their regular dwellings are now on the flat-topped spurs near the foot of the hill.

The Thakurs' huts are much smaller and are built in larger clusters. They are of the same materials as the Dhangars' sheds, and the cattle, when they have cattle, are housed under the same roof with the family. A space is screened for cooking, and the household gods are conspicuous hung with peacock's feathers and the leaves of the til and kumbil, and surrounded with, metal plates in which incense, dhup and ud, are burnt. From the rafters hang all manner of odd things, the wooden iron-shod pestle for cleaning rice and other grains, the fishing creel, and drums and masks for the Holi revels. On a platform outside are very neatly plaited grain baskets, kungas, and lying about are leaf rain-shades, sickles, and other articles of field or house use.

The Kathkari huts are wretched and filthy. Goats take the place of cattle, and the house gear is of the scantiest. They have one characteristic tool called vilat, a bar for digging the burrows of field rats.

Speech.

Each tribe has a dialect which they use among themselves, but all speak Marathi to strangers. Especially with the Thakurs this Marathi is disguised by mispronounced vowels and consonants, a nasal twang, a sing-song intonation, and the use of several Hindustani words.

Dress.

The usual dress of all is scanty. Among the men the ordinary dress is a blanket thrown across the shoulders or drawn over the head, a loincloth and waistcloth, and at festive times a turban. Among the women both of the Kathkaris and the Dhangars the Marathi robe is worn without a bodice. Thakur women wear a tight scrimp bodice, many rows of blue and white beads round the neck, and the robe passed between the legs and wound very tightly round the waist. According to Dr. Smith, though it makes so little show, Thakur women pride themselves on their waistcloth, spending on it sometimes as much as £5 (Rs. 50).

Ornaments.

Earrings are worn both in the lobe and rim, and by men as well as by women and children. Bangles and necklaces are found in abundance, noserings are rare, and anklets are unknown. The hair is not much cared for by either sex, and has none of the elaborate interlacing with beads and shells, that is seen among some other hill tribes.

Food.

All three tribes eat mutton and game when they can get them. But their usual diet is nachni, vari, rice, and clarified butter, with forest roots and fruits. Thakurs eat squirrels but not rats, and rats are greedily devoured by Kathkaris. The wild plantain yields a starch which they have no means of extracting properly, but they bite off tender strips, chew them, and throw away the fibre. The root of a curcuma, called alami, which yields a kind of arrowroot, is cut in pieces and boiled for food. The mushroom or gopur is also eaten, and they are skilful in choosing those that are harmless. Of wild fruit they eat the berries of the jambul, toran, karand, phansi, and aturni, and the seeds of the kokar, ambulgi, and other plants. The leaves of the apta are used for cigarettes, and along with timburni leaves, which are preferred by the Kamathis, are daily brought for sale to the Matheran market. The juice of the wild mangosteen makes a palatable drink; and many other trees and herbs hold a place in their esteem either as food or physic. All three tribes are reputed to be immoderate drinkers, not daily or habitually, but on occasions of feasting and revelry. The juice of the hill or wild palm and moha spirit are drunk universally.

Their chief fish are the mullya a kind of carp, and the large sivra which runs from the sea when the rivers are full. Lines and nets are little used. In the rains they make walls across streams, and place bamboo or wicker baskets under the curve of the waterfall, into which, when the streams are in flood, the fish drop as they are swept over the wall. When the streams are lower, very neat creels, about two feet long and six or eight inches in diameter, are fixed in gaps in the wall with the mouth down stream. The fish enter by a converging hollow, like the hollow of a mousetrap, and the elasticity of the bamboo slips prevents their escape. A second cone opens into the back part of the creel, and through a hole in this compartment the fish are shaken out. In the dry weather men and women wade up to the waist, using the women's robes as drag-nets. They also stupefy the fish by throwing into the water the fruit of the ghela and the bark of the rametta.

They catch the mungoose the hare and the squirrel in a noose, or hasli, baited with grain, a lizard, or a land crab. This snare is an elastic bough, eight or ten feet long, fixed firmly into the ground at one end, and having a double-ended string tied to the other. A little way off a small circle of twigs is stuck into the earth, and the bait laid in the circle. One end of the string, in the form of a noose, is spread loosely round this circle of twigs, and to the other end are attached two pieces of stick, arranged to press against each other within the circle and keep the bough bent. The nibbling of the bait displaces the sticks, the bough is set free, and the prey, caught in the noose, is swung into the air and still further secured by a bar of wood and a tube of bamboo, that slip up and down upon the string.

Character.

Under ordinary tests the intelligence of these hill tribes seems low. They cannot tell their exact age, nor can they count much over twenty without getting confused. They know the days of the week but they do not number the days of the month, observing only the changes of the moon. In such matters their capacity is feeble. But ask them the names of trees and their times of flowering or fruiting, or question them about the habits of beasts, birds, or insects, and their answers are astonishingly minute and accurate. Their manner is generally shy and quiet. They are gentle among one another and free from crime. Such quarrels as they have, they settle among themselves or lay the case before the headman of the hill. Kathkaris alone have a bad name. No one who owns a fat sheep or a sleek goat is safe from their pilfering. Formerly the Kathkaris carried bows and arrows, and many of the Thakurs were good marksmen but all now go unarmed.

Occupation.

The Dhangars are cattle breeders and milk-sellers and grow hill grains to a small extent. They seem never to work as labourers or to take to new pursuits. The Thakurs and Kathkaris are husbandmen and field labourers, and eke out their earnings by cutting grass and firewood and by carrying loads. As a class the Dhangars are well-to-do, the Thakurs less prosperous, and the Kathkaris poor.

Religion.

The chief god on the hill is Pisharnath, and the Dhangar is his priest. He has a shrine in a fine grove of jambul and other trees on the left or south bank of the Pisharnath valley. The figure of the god is a shapeless object, said to represent the bust of an ascetic, whom the Dhangars found in possession of the hill when they came from the Deccan. It is smeared with red paint and all around are smaller red-smeared stones, Pisharnath's guards and servants. In front of the central stone is a peaked wooden archway, or toran, with a cross bar hung with bells. Strewn about are vessels for burning oil and incense, stone troughs for the god's bathing water, numbers of small brass bells, figures of animals, and remains of offerings. The bells and other offerings have been made by sufferers from some ailment, who, in return for a cure, have vowed to give Pisharnath a bell or a cocoanut, or to sacrifice a sheep, a goat, or a cock. On Sunday, which is the god's high day, the offerings are made through the Dhangar ministrant, the animals being sacrificed either by the Dhangar or by a Muhammadan mulla who stands some way off. The usual mode of consulting Pisharnath is to place some offering before him, and, after pouring rose-water and scattering flowers over his image, to mark his brow with sandal powder and burn camphor and loban before him. The worshipper prays, and, stating his wants to the priest, tingles a bell and goes aside to await the reply. Two small stones are laid in a hollow on Pisharnath's chest, and, according as the right or the left stone first falls from its place, the worshipper's prayer is believed to be granted or denied. The goats and fowls are afterwards eaten, the priest being allowed a share of the sacrifice. [The priest talks to the god explaining what is wanted and telling what offering has been made or promised. He then lays two stones in a hollow on Pisharnath's chest, and,if the stone on Pisharnath's right hand is the first to fall,the priest tells the worshipper that his prayer is granted. If the stone on Pisharnath's left hand is the first to fall, the priest tells the worshipper that the god will not grant his prayer unless he makes a handsome offering. If the worshipper has made or has promised a handsome offering, and the unlucky stone is the first to fall, the priest puts it back. If it again falls first, he remonstrates with the god, telling him he should show pity to his worshippers. If it again falls, he upbraids the god and warns him that, if he persists in such ill-humour, his good name will go and offerings will cease. This, if necessary, is repeated till the lucky stone falls and the worshipper is satisfied. Mr, J, L. Johnston, C. S.] Marathas and Mhars make offerings through the Dhangar ministrant, but Thakurs and Kathkaris never join in the worship. Smaller gods are worshipped in the neighbouring villages. A sprite called Yir, who is not honoured with red paint, is held in dread, as well as the Tiger-God and Matadevi, the small-pox goddess.

Charms.

For charms they use the head of the cobra and branches of the pandri, Stereospermum suaveolens, a small crooked bush with white bark and pointed light-green leaves. The cry of the owl and goatsucker, and the chirping of small birds, are carefully noted when any business of moment is in hand. The dismal groan of the brown wood-owl is believed to foretell painful and certain death.

All three tribes bury their dead, the Dhangars sitting with the face towards the rising sun; the others lying with the head to the south. Kathkaris observe the custom of digging up all bodies, except those who die of small-pox and cholera, a fortnight after burial, when their lamentations are renewed over the ghastly relics, which, amid much liquor drinking, are burnt to ashes. [Other accounts state that the Kathkaris dig up those only who have died of cholera and small-pox. This seems to be the present practice. The custom of digging up corpses seems once to have been common, as there is a rule in Manu against digging up corpses and burning the bones.] For the twelfth day rites some Dhangars employ a Brahman, others a Kumbhar, and others a Jangam or Lingayat priest who lives in Karjat and whose forefathers are said to have come with the Dhangars from the Deccan.

Strangers.

According to the 1881 census the total number of strangers, that is of persons not belonging to the local hill tribes, was 1601 souls. [In May 1880, the totals were, Europeans 357, natives 2423.]  Among these 1307 were Hindus, 766 Musalmans, 107 Christians, 20 Parsis, and one a Chinaman. Among the Christians are European visitors from Bombay, Poona, Haidarabad, Nagpur, and Madras; Portuguese or Goanese visitors priests and shop and hotel-keepers ; Portuguese or Goanese servants; and, when house building or public works are in hand, Goanese carpenters and masons. Of Musalmans there are Musalman shopkeepers from Poona and Bombay, cloth and grain dealers who attend the Sunday market, servants to Europeans, pony owners and keepers, water-carriers, and gardeners palanquin-bearers and labourers. Among them, besides the regular Sunnis, are a Meman grocer, a Daudi Bohora contractor, and six or seven Davars, or iron-smelters, who, since iron-smelting has been stopped at Mahabaleshvar earn their living as water-carriers, gardeners, palanquin-bearers, and labourers. The Parsis are hotel-keepers and shopkeepers all from Bombay. Among the Hindus are a few Brahmans, clerks and overseers in the Superintendent's and Public Works Offices, a family of Gujarat Vanis who are grain-dealers, a Bhatia cloth-merchant, one or two Marwar Vani grain and cloth-dealers who come to the Sunday market, a Maratha Sonar from Satara, one or two sweetmeat-makers, Poona Malis in charge of houses, Marathas some in the police others palanquin-bearers and carriers from Satara [Among the cowherds on the hill there are many young Marathas from Satara. They begin work when eight or nine years old, generally live with some Maratha who has charge of a house, get 6d. (4 as.) a. cow for a month's herding, find their own food, and are given a blanket and a waistcoat. Their daily round is herding from daylight to twelve, home till two, back till six, and then home. Most of them are bright healthy-looking boys.] and a third class gardeners and water-carriers from Ratnagiri, Kunbis from Neral and other Thana villages who come as carriers or labourers, Sutars or carpenters and Beldars or masons who come from Thana and Poona when building is going on, Konkan Telis or oilmen who ply with pack-bullocks, Kamathis Telagu speakers from Haidarabad, Deccan masons and barbers, a Kanarese Dhangar a blanket-seller from Bijapur, Pardeshi or Upper India washermen, Burud cane-workers from Satara, Koli sellers of dry fish from Kolaba and Bombay, Chambhar shoemakers and cattle-keepers from Satara, Mhar palanquin-bearers and carriers from Satara, Dhed house servants from Gujarat, and Bhangi sweepers from Poona and Bombay. The Chinaman is the last of a gang of convicts that were settled at Matheran about the year 1855. He was formerly a gardener but is now a master carpenter very well-to-do. He lives throughout the year on the hill. A Marathi woman lives with him but they have no children, and he seems to keep to his own religion of ancestor worship.

The strangers or outsiders belong to two classes, those who stay on the hill all the year round and those who remain during the fair season only. Two sets of outsiders remain throughout the year, servants in charge of houses and some labourers and craftsmen who have built themselves dwellings and settled at Matheran.

Servants.

In some houses one servant, a gardener, and in a few of the better houses two servants, a gardener and a water-carrier, are kept during the whole year. The Malis are all Hindus partly people of the Mali caste from Poona and partly Marathas from Malvan in Ratnagiri. Their monthly pay varies from 16s. to £1 (Rs. 8-Rs. 10). Of the water-carriers, who, except one Musalman, are Ratnagiri Marathas, one or two stay throughout the year and the rest go to their homes during the rains. Those who go leave their bullocks to graze in the charge of some Mali or Dhangar and find their way home by sea. They are paid 16s. (Rs. 8) a month if the bullock belongs to their master, and from £1 4s. to £1 8s. (Rs. 12 - Rs. 14) if the bullock is their own. There are also three Suratis or Gujarat Dheds, who are employed as house servants and remain on the hill all the year round.

Craftsmen.

Of the other strangers who remain on the hill throughout the year, there is a Gujarat Vani family of three brothers, who have been from ten to twelve years on the hill. They sell grain grocery and cloth, and lend money. Their families are in Gujarat and they visit them from time to time. They have no women in their house, and are said to do all their own cooking and house work. There is also a Sonar from Satara who makes ornaments and stays on the hill throughout the year. Of lower class Hindu residents there are four houses of Kamathi masons from near Haidarabad, who speak Telagu in their homes and who have their families with them. In the fair season the men earn from 9d. to 1s. (6-8 as.) a day. Their women do not work. There is also a Kamathi barber, who, like the other Kamathis, speaks Telagu at home. These all bury their dead and employ local Brahmans. There are also two Pardeshi washermen, who work for the hotels and stay on the hill throughout the year. The Chinese carpenter remains on the hill throughout the year.

Visitors.

The visitors to Matheran are of two classes, the holders of houses, and the poorer classes to whom householders give employment. Almost all the visitors to Matheran are Europeans, some from Haidarabad, some from the Bombay-Deccan, and some from Gujarat, but the greatest number from Bombay. There are also several Native Christian and Parsi families, and a few Musalmans and Hindus. The chief classes of strangers whom these visitors draw to the hill are hotel and shopkeepers and labourers. Of hotel and shopkeepers, there is a Christian hotel-keeper and a baker and liquor-seller, several Parsi hotel and shopkeepers, a Bhatia cloth-seller, two Musalmans one a Kachhi and one from Poona, grocers and oilmen, several families of green-grocers or Bhagvans from Poona, some Musalmans others Hindus, four Musalman mutton butchers from Satara, two Musalman beef butchers from Panvel, a Kanarese blanket-seller from Bijapur who comes in May and leaves early in June, three families of Buruds or cane-workers from Satara and Poona,and ten or eleven families of Mochis or shoe-makers from Wai in Satara. The men make shoes and the women work as labourers. They have lately begun to keep cows and buffaloes and sell milk. A few of them go to Bombay and Satara for the rains. Besides these there are the Palki-bearers and porters who are almost all from Mahabaleshvar and Wai, and are some of them Marathas and others Mhars. These men have come to Matheran, because, since the carriage road has been made to Mahabaleshvar, their former occupation has ceased, and because at Matheran they find no local competition as the people of the Konkan are unfit for the severe strain of Palki carrying. Of the Palki-bearers six families are Marathas and twenty are Mhars. Among both Marathas and Mhars some of the women work as labourers. The ordinary load-carriers are Marathas from Satara, though some of the Neral villagers, chiefly Kunbis and some Kathkaris and Thakurs, carry bundles for hire. For a trip to Neral they get 7½d. (5 as.) from which they have to pay ¾d.anna) for toll. A few of them stay on the hill throughout the year. There are also the pony and horse-keepers, most of whom are Deccan Musalmans who employ boys and men, chiefly Musalmans from Poona, Marathas from Talegaon in Poona, and Mhars from Junnar to take care of the ponies. The people, who have pack-bullocks engaged in carrying grain mortar and sand up the hill, are Marathas, Telis, and Musalmans. Few if any are Vanjaris, but some are Lamanis from Kalyan and the Deccan. The Marathas are Poona husbandmen, the Telis are Konkan oilmen chiefly from Kalyan, and the Musalmans belong to Neral and neighbouring villages. The Sunday-market draws to the hill-top some fish-sellers and cloth-dealers from the neighbouring market-towns. When houses or reservoirs are building, there are generally some Brahman clerks and overseers, and carpenters and masons Christians from Goa, and Hindus from Poona and Bombay.

Trade.

According to some accounts there are traces of iron-smelting in the upper part of the Pisharnath valley, but the latest examiner, Mr. Maclaran, C. E., thinks that the slag-like appearance may have been caused by charcoal fires acting on the surface of the iron clay. [Smith's Matheran, 150. See above, p. 241.] Almost no produce leaves the hill. The Thakurs show taste and skill in plaiting neck chains and bracelets of coloured bark and grass. But these articles have little trade value, and the quantities of wax honey firewood and grass are little more than are required by the people of the hill and of the villages at its foot. The only export, and that a very small one, is the surplus stock of the Mochis, boots and shoes which they dispose of in Bombay. The whole trade of the hill is an import trade, supplies for the visitors their servants and horses, and for the palanquin-bearers and labourers. Mention has been made of a bakery, a liquor-shop and a cloth-shop, and of several butchers' grocers' and vegetable-sellers' stalls. These remain open throughout the fair season. Besides these, on Sundays, a weekly market is held, when supplies of grain are laid in for the week and the labouring classes and hill tribes make small purchases. The market is held in an open space, to the left of the main road, a little beyond the seventh mile from Neral. In this space the sellers sit in irregular rows, some of them in the open air and others under the shade of a rough cloth or blanket. The market lasts all day and is busiest about noon. Among the sellers are several green-grocers or Bhagvans from Poona offering betel leaves, brinjals, mangoes, plantains, guavas, and pot-herbs; one or two glass bracelet-sellers Musalmans from Neral and Chauk; some bagfulls of dried fish brought on bullock back or as headloads by Kolis and Musalmans from Bombay and the Alibag coast; a heap of cocoanuts brought by a Marwar Vani; Musalman grain-dealers from Neral with millet wheat rice and gram, tobacco, cocoa fibre, molasses, ginger, pepper, and onions; one or two booths, of Musalman and Marwar Vani cloth-dealers with robes, bodices, turbans, and blankets from Neral and Bombay ; some Buruds with baskets and cane chairs; one or two sweetmeat-sellers from Chauk; and some groups of Kathkaris and Thakurs with grass, honey, and apta leaves. The chief buyers are the servants of European visitors who purchase grain for themselves and their masters' horses, sweetmeats, or any dainties that may take their fancy among the grocers' and vegetable-sellers' stores; labourers buying grain, cloth, cocoanuts, and fish; and Thakurs and Kathkaris buying grain, bracelets, or some article of clothing. Most purchases are paid for in cash, a few are settled by barter, but in none are cowries the medium of payment.

History.

As it was never either a stronghold or a place of religious resort, Matheran is almost entirely without a history. Nothing is known of Matheran till, in 1850, Mr. H. P. Malet, Collector of Thana, while camped at Chauk, strolled one evening half way up the hill by the narrow steep bed of the Varosha stream between Great Chauk and One Tree Hill. Thinking the hill worth exploring, he came back next day, took some water from the small stream that then, even in May, ran freely through the Pisharnath valley, filled a basket with earth, struck off some pieces of stone, and went back to Chauk through the Ram Bagh between Alexander's point and Little Chauk. He came again in November, lived about a month in a small hut, and cleared footpaths to several of the points. He came once more in February 1851, built a stone house now called the Byke, [Mr. E. G. Fawcett built the second house, the Hermitage; Captain Henry Barr the third; Captain C. Walker the fourth; and Mr. Arthur Malet the fifth, Stonehenge.] and, in 1852, obtained a grant of £50 (Rs. 500), and so improved the path from Chauk through the Ram Bagh forest that Mrs. Malet was able to come up seated in a chair fastened with ropes to bamboo poles. Shortly after this, Government ordered the Quarter Master General of the Army to have the hill surveyed with a view to make it a military sanitarium. The survey was carried out by Captain Ponsonby in 1852, who drew a map of the hill, laid out a road from the north to Neral, and marked sites for a church, an hospital, a barrack for two hundred men, a jail, and other public buildings. But the idea of making Matheran a military sanitarium was given up as the medical authorities preferred Khandala. Next year (1853) Captain Peacock traced and cleared some fresh paths, and marked sites for private houses. When the survey was completed, a map of the hill was printed, and Government, after reserving certain plots, authorised Mr. Malet to allot sites to the public. By the end of May 1853 seventy sites had been applied for.

Between 1855 and 1858,Lord Elphinstone, then Governor of Bombay, did much for Matheran. At a cost of £1000 (Rs. 10,000) the road from Neral, instead of climbing the steep valley, was brought up the gentle slope of the Neral spur. An embankment was thrown across the Maldunga stream below the modern Simpson reservoir, but was carried away in the first rains, and afterwards a double line of wall was built across the Pisharnath stream. Most of the rides and paths, leading to the different points, were laid out with admirable taste, under Lord Elphinstone's direction. He chose the site of Elphinstone Lodge, built a hut on it, and laid the foundation of the present house. His staff followed his example and Matheran became fashionable. Houses rapidly sprang up and building sites were in great demand. The foundation of the Church was laid in 1858, and in three years the building was completed. Several additions, especially a fine window presented by Mr. Michael Scott, were afterwards made, and it was consecrated by Bishop Harding in 1865. During the last twelve years no new houses have been built, but considerable additions have been made to Pinto's, the Clarendon, and the Hope Hall hotels. A Superintendent's office, including a post and telegraph office and a small library, a new market, a sanitarium, and a rest-house for natives have also been added, and a Gymkhana, with several lawn tennis and badminton courts and a large badminton shed, adds greatly to the pleasure of life on the hill.

The Season.

As a place of resort Matheran has two seasons, after the rains in October and November, and from the first of April to the middle of June. The Superintendent generally comes about the first of October, and, by the middle of the month, hotels are open and visitors have begun to arrive. From the middle of October to near the end of November, the hill is fairly full, most of the rooms at the hotels and about thirty of the eighty-three houses being occupied. By the end of November all but a few families have left. Some thirty or forty European visitors and a large number of Parsis come for the Christmas and other cold-weather holidays. After they go the hill remains nearly empty till the end of March. For the hot season (April 1st to June 10th) almost every house is taken. Many families come early in April, but it is not till after the first week in May, when the Bombay Law Courts close, that all the houses are occupied and the hotels crowded. This busy gay time lasts till the damp and mud of the first rains and the opening of the Bombay Courts, force many to leave the hill. A few well-housed Bombay people, to avoid the trying first fortnight in June, stay to the fifteenth or sixteenth, or even as late as the twentieth or twenty-fourth, enjoying the fine days that generally follow the first rainfall. When the rain again sets in supplies are hard to get and the palanquin-bearers are anxious to be home to look after their fields. The Superintendent closes the market and leaves for Poona. From this till the beginning of October the market remains closed, and except three of the hotel-keepers, the hospital assistant, the head constable, a Public Works clerk, servants in charge of houses, and a few shopkeepers, porters, and labourers, the hill is deserted. In the breaks between the heavier bursts of rain, when reservoirs are building, an engineer, or an enterprising house-owner from Bombay, occasionally visits the deserted hill and sometimes for days together enjoys most pleasant gleams of bright weather. Visitors can be taken in at the Clarendon and Pinto's hotels. But they should send word ahead and bring supplies, and, unless they are fortunate in weather, there is little comfort on the hill till after the middle of September.

Management.

Up to 1860 the hill-top was distributed as forest and grazing land among the villages at its foot. Of a total of 1648 acres, 160 4/40 in the north-east belonged to Neral, 20 18/40 in the east to Bekri, 527 31/40 in the south-east to Sondaivada, 156 34/40 in the south to Borgaon, 537 31/40 in the west to Varosha, and 185 14/40 in the north to Maldunga. In 1860 the 1648 acres of hill-top were formed into the new village of Matheran. In August 1861 the Government of India sanctioned a yearly grant of £500 (Rs. 5000), and on an average about £500 (Rs. 5000) more are yearly collected from the rents of building sites, tolls, and the sale of grass and firewood. During the last four years the revenue has fallen from £1109 (Rs. 11,088) in 1876-77 to £977 (Rs. 9777) in 1880-81 and the expenditure, exclusive of special public works, been reduced from £841 (Rs. 8407) to £555 (Rs. 5553).

Staff.

The management of the station is entrusted to the Civil Surgeon, who, with the title of Superintendent, has, within station limits, the powers of a Third Class Magistrate. Subject to the Collector of Thana he has the entire management of the station, looking after the repairs of roads, settling the charges of palanquin-bearers pony-keepers and porters, and regulating the use of water, the conservancy arrangements, and the market. He holds office for two years, and has under him a first class hospital-assistant, a head constable and three constables, who, besides their dispensing and police duties, attend to the general work of the Superintendent's office. There are also a native clerk, an overseer and assistant-overseer of roads and reservoirs, four messengers, two gardeners, two reservoir and two firewood men, and two sweepers. Including the Superintendent's pay and allowance the monthly cost of the establishment amounts to £144 (Rs. 1446) in the busy, and to £136 (Rs. 1361) in the dull season. [The details are, all the year round, Superintendent's pay £109 6s. (Rs. 1093), allowance £10 (Rs. 100), hospital-assistant's pay £6 (Rs. 60), allowance £3 (Rs. 30), one head constable £1 4s. (Rs. 12), chaudri £2 (Rs. 20), four messengers £3 4s. (Rs. 32) two gangers £2 4s. (Rs. 22), and two gardeners £1 12s. (Rs. 16); for nine months in the year, three constables £2 8s. (Rs. 24), office clerk £1 (Rs. 10), two firewood men £1 12s. (Rs. 16), and two sweepers £4 (Rs. 40); for seven months in the year, two reservoir men £1 12s. (Rs. 16).]

The yearly road repairs cost about £100 (Rs. 1,000). The main Neral road, which was completed in 1858, has lately (1880), at a cost of between £300 and £400 (Rs. 3000-Rs. 4000), been widened and improved between Neral station and the top of the spur. It stretches for about eight miles from Neral station to the Clarendon Hotel. The levels show for the first mile a rise to 126.70 feet, for the second a rise to 555.89 feet, for the third to 975.38 feet, for the fourth to 1525.07 feet, for the fifth to 2138.94, for the sixth to 2283.95 feet, for the seventh to 2376.92 feet at the market, and from this a fall in the eighth mile to 2109.30 feet in the Pisharnath or Bund Valley. This road is kept in good repair, and though unfitted for carriages or carts, is in all places wide enough for two or three ponies to pass. On the hill-top, the two and a half miles to  the Clarendon Hotel are fairly level and the road has a breadth of about twenty feet. This could easily be made fit for carriages, and the drive could without difficulty be continued round Chauk Point. The returns show that on an average the ascent of the hill costs £648 (Rs. 6480) for tonjans and palanquins, £814 (Rs. 8140) for ponies, £253 (Rs. 2529) for bullocks, and £25 (Rs. 245) for post runners. This revenue of £2300 (Rs. 23,000) would, it has been calculated, pay a cheap hill railway. The first four miles would be comparatively easy, but the ascent of the steep cliff in the fifth mile would be difficult and costly. Besides the main road there are about thirty-two miles of bridle paths varying in breadth, but always with room for two riders to meet. These lanes wind over the hill, with many ups and downs, and have the charm of being well-shaded, and, every now and again, of commanding views of the outlying points and of Prabal, Bava Malang, and other high neighbouring hills. In some parts of the hill, as at Echo and Danger points, the path is so steep and runs so close to the cliff that it is seldom used by riders. Besides the main Neral road, the old Chauk road through Ram Bagh and the part-paved part rock-cut stair up the ravine between Great Chauk and One Tree Hill, many tracts lead down the hillside. Several of these, though rough, are passable for a booted European, but numbers are too steep and slippery to be used by any one but the barefooted hill-people.

Palanquins.

The chief means of conveyance are palanquins, long chairs hung on poles called tonjans, and ponies, and the chief means of carriage are pack-bullocks and porters. Of twenty-six palanquins and tonjans, thirteen belong to a Satara Mhar, the foreman of the bearers, and thirteen belong to the Superintendent. On the top of the hill a gang of six bearers is enough for a palanquin, but to go up or down the hill a double gang is wanted. The fare up or down the hill is 16s. (Rs. 8), and for a trip on the hill-top from 3s. to 6s. (Rs. 1-8-Rs. 3). Of the 16s., 1s. (8 as.) goes to the owner of the palanquin, 1s. (8 as.) as a fee, and 2s. (Re. 1) as toll. The remaining 12s. (Rs. 6) are divided equally among the bearers. The bearers who number about 150 men, are strangers from Wai and Mahabaleshvar. Of the whole number about 100 are Maratha Mhars, forty Marathas and ten Musalmans of the Davar or iron-smelting class. All but a few leave the hill after the middle of June.

Ponies.

The ponies, of which there are about eighty, almost all come from Poona. The charge for a trip up or down the hill, or for a day on the top, is 4s. (Rs. 2) and 2s. 6d. (Rs. 1-4) if for a servant. The ponies are almost all quiet and well cared for; they vary in value from £2 10s. to £20 (Rs. 25-Rs. 200). Their keepers and owners, some of whom have as many as three or four pairs, are Poona Musalmans, Junnar Mhars, and Talegaon Marathas. For a trip up and down the hill the toll is 2½ d. (1½ as.) for a horse and 1d. (9 pies) for a pony.

Pack Bullocks.

The pack-bullocks generally belong to Konkan Telis or oilmen and Musalmans, and to Poona Musalmans and Lamanis. They carry loads of from 100 to 140 pounds chiefly of grain, sand, and mortar, and charge 1s. (8 as.) a trip. A bullock pays a toll of 2¼ d. (1½ as.)

Carriers.

The carriers are almost all from the Satara district, Wai and Mahabaleshvar. They are Marathas and Mhars, and one or two are Davar Musalmans. They carry baggage and market supplies, the smaller articles on their heads and the larger swung from a pole slung on the shoulders of two or more men. In 1852 the charge for a labourer for a day or for a trip to Neral was 3d. (2 as.); it was raised, in 1871, to 7½d. (5 as.) with the provision that a man must carry as much as forty pounds. These terms are still in force. Besides the regular carriers, Neral and other Kunbis, and, of the hill-people, both Thakurs and Kathkaris, carry small articles of personal baggage and other light loads.

Water Supply.

In regulating the water-supply the Superintendent's supervision is limited to enforcing the rules against washing clothes or otherwise fouling the water of the Bund and Simpson reservoirs. Places are set apart for the washing of clothes in the beds of the streams below the dams of these reservoirs. There is no charge for the water either of the reservoirs or of the springs. The heavy cost of water-carriage is a sufficient check on waste. For the winter season, from the 1st October to the 31st March, water-carriers are paid 18s. (Rs. 9) a month for a daily supply of six water-bags. For less than four bags the charge is at the rate of 1¼d. (10pies) a bag. For the hot season, from 1st April to June 15th, the monthly charge is £1 4s. (Rs. 12) for six water bags a day, and for less than four water-bags 1½d. (1 anna) a bag.

Conservancy.

In addition to about five private sweepers, two Government sweepers, each paid £2 (Rs. 20) a month, are made responsible that no night-soil is allowed to gather on the hill.

Public Buildings.

For the convenience of visitors a telegraph office is open from October to June, and throughout the season there are two daily posts. The chief public buildings and institutions are the Superintendent's Residence, the Superintendent's, Post, and Telegraph Offices, the Police Lines, the Hospital-Assistant's Quarters, the Public Works Storehouse, the Sanitarium and Native Rest-house, the Hotels and Market, the Library and Gymkhana, and of places of worship the English Church and Catholic Chapel, the Mosque, the Temples of Maruti and Shiv and the shrine of Pisharnath. The Superintendent's residence is a well-built convenient house on the central plateau a little to the south of the English Church. It is said to have cost £3000 (Rs. 30,000) to build, but it was bought by Government in 1868 for £700 (Rs. 7000) and yields a monthly rent of £4 (Rs. 40). The Superintendent's, the post, and the telegraph offices are in one building on the main road near the Clarendon Hotel. The police lines, a small stone building with room for six men, lie to the east of the Market road a little to the north of the market-place and close to the Superintendent's office are the hospital assistant's quarters and the Public Works storehouse, fifty feet long by eighteen broad. The sanitarium, built by Government in 1866, stands on a pleasant site in the south-west of the hill about half way between Danger point and One Tree Hill. It is a one-storied building raised on a high stone plinth divided into six partially furnished sets of quarters. As the Chauk road is seldom used, these rooms are much out of the way and are little in demand. Visitors arrange for their own board and pay 2s. (Re. 1) a day for a set of two rooms. Close to the market place, to the west of the main road, is the native rest-house a tiled one-storied stone building, fifty-four feet long by thirty-four broad divided by a central wall.

Hotels.

The station has five hotels. One on Garbat hill in the north-east, three in the central Pisharnath valley, and one on the southern Chauk plateau. The Garbat hotel on the south slope of Garbat hill has room for twenty-five guests and charges 10s. (Rs. 5) a day. In the central valley to the right, a little beyond the market-place, Pinto's, or the Alexandra hotel, has room for twenty-one guests and charges 12s. (Rs. 6) a day, if for less, and 10s. (Rs. 5) a day, if for more than a week; close by is the Hope Hall Hotel with room for eight guests and a daily charge of 10s. (Rs. 5); a little further, beyond the Superintendent's office, is the Clarendon Hotel with room for eighteen visitors and a daily charge of 10s. (Rs. 5); and, on the high Chauk plateau, is the Chauk Hotel with room for twenty-five guests and a daily charge of 10s. (Rs. 5).

Market.

The original market place stood on flat ground on the north side of the Pisharnath valley. It was badly placed to the windward of many houses and on the gathering ground of the reservoir. On the destruction of the original buildings by fire, on the 12th of April 1865, Government gave £500 (Rs. 5000) for a new market and private subscriptions were added. The present site, close to leeward of the thickest peopled part of the hill, was chosen and a new market sprung up in every way better than the old one.

The shops and labourers' houses connected with the market place cluster on the east slope of the hill-top on both sides of the main Neral road about seven miles from Neral. Coming from Neral, about a quarter of a mile from the seventh mile stone, the row of thatched huts on the left belong to the Wai Chambhar shoe-makers and cattle-keepers. Beyond them, to the right, are the small police lines and Public Works store-shed, and, on both sides of the road, are the huts of Marathi palanquin-bearers and carriers; further on the left are the pony stables and the Satara Sonar's house, and the huts of the Kamathi masons and barbers; a little further to the right are a small temple to Maruti, a one-storied stone bakery and liquor-shop, and a stone cloth-shop kept by a Bhatia, a tailor's house, and two Vanias' houses, and above, to the right, the mutton market. To the left of the main road are two native grocers' shops, one kept by a Kachhi or Memon and the other by a Poona Musalman, and close by are one or two vegetable-sellers with baskets of pine-apples, mangoes, potatoes, onions, and yams. Between these shops and the cliff is a quadrangle surrounded by thatched or iron-roofed sheds which are let as dwellings and shops. Of the shops one is a tailor's, one a sweetmeat-seller's, three are grain and grocery shops, and two are empty. A little further is the open space where the Sunday-market is held, and beyond it to the left, on the brink of the cliff, is a hamlet of about twenty small thatched wattle and daub huts, the quarters of the Mhar palanquin-bearers who belong to Wai and Mahabaleshvar. Opposite the Musalman grocers' shops a path leads west, up the hillside, to the mutton-market. To the right are some grocers' and onion-sellers' sheds, and on the left is a small well-kept stone mosque. The mutton-market is a row of thatched and iron-roofed houses parallel to the main road. Among the shops are four green grocers' shops with supplies of mangoes, plantains, oranges, onions, pine-apples, carrots, limes, and pot herbs; four mutton butchers' houses; [When the hill is crowded about eight or ten sheep are killed every day and on Sundays twelve or thirteen.] four Buruds' houses with hen-crates and baskets; two washermen's houses, in one house a Bijapur blanket-seller, and, a little to the left, two Musalman beef butchers who spend the three rainy months in Panvel.[For the supply of beef a cow is killed every other day.]

Library.

The Library is a small room close to the Superintendent's office. It has 590 volumes and takes the two daily local papers, the Times of India and Bombay Gazette, and three weekly English papers, the Illustrated London News, Punch, and the Overland Mail. There are (1881) eighty-two subscribers who pay 4s. (Rs. 2) a week, 5s. (Rs. 3) a fortnight, 10s. (Rs. 5) a month, or £1 (Rs. 10) a year.

The Gymkhana, or Sport Club, with grounds prettily placed on a small tree-fringed plateau below and to the north-west of Artist Point, is, both in the mornings and evenings, a favourite resort. Round a small circular pavilion are laid out four lawn tennis and four badminton courts, and, on a terrace to the south, under a shed that was built in 1879 at a cost of about £10 (Rs. 100), are two more badminton courts. The present (1881) rates of subscription are for non-playing members 4s. (Rs. 2) for the season, and for playing members 4s. (Rs. 2) for a week, or, for the season a donation of £1 (Rs. 10) or an entrance fee of 4s. (Rs. 2) with a monthly subscription of 8s. (Rs. 4).

Houses.

Exclusive of shops and labourers' huts, there are eighty-three houses. Except in the centre of the hill near the market where the sites are not more than an acre, each house is on an average surrounded by a plot of about five acres. Almost all the houses are built of laterite stone which is always at hand, cheap to work, and lasting. All other building materials, timber, sand, and mortar, come from the foot of the hill. Of the whole number of houses thirty are tiled, twenty-eight iron-roofed, and twenty-four thatched. Their accommodation varies from four to sixteen rooms, and their rents range in the October season from £10 to £100 (Rs. 100-Rs. 1000), and in the May season from £20 to £100 (Rs. 200-Rs. 1000). Of the whole number eighteen are owned by Parsis, fifteen by Europeans, ten by Hindus, four by Muhammadans, four by Portuguese, three by Jains, and one by an Arab. [The following details have been supplied by Mr. E. W. Flower, the House Agent. The numbers are those shown on the map. On the eastern ridge, (1) the Chalet, rent Rs. 700 in May, Rs. 500 in October; on the main hill in the north, (2) Rajasthan; (3) Craigie Burn, Rs. 450, Rs. 300; (4) Redland; (5) Harrison's Bungalow, Rs. 500, Rs. 400; (6) Elphinstone Lodge; (7) Fernwood, Rs. 500, Rs. 300; (8)Hill House; (9) Springwood, Rs. 600, Rs.450; (10) Rose Hill; (11) Beehive, Rs. 800, Rs. 550; (12) Lynch's Bungalow, Rs. 600, Rs. 450; (13) Steam's Cottage; (14) Stonehenge, Rs. 700, Rs. 500; (15) Gowan Lodge; (16) the Folly, Rs. 1000, Rs. 1000; (17) Scott's Bungalow, Rs. 700, Rs. 500; (18) Rugby Lodge, Rs. 500, Rs. 300; (19) Walker's Bungalow, Rs. 600,Rs. 450; (20) the Grange; (21) the Mount [Superintendent's House]; (22) Rozario House, Rs. 500, Rs. 350; (23) Bella Vista, Rs. 500, Rs. 350; (24) Maria Cottage, Rs. 500, Rs. 350; (25) Hermitage, Rs. 800, Rs. 550; (26) The Wilderness, Rs. 200, Rs. 100; (27) Bundside Cottage, Rs. 500, Rs. 350; (28) Prabal, Rs. 500, Rs. 350; (29) Coxen's Bungalow, Rs. 500, Rs. 300; (30) Arnold Lodge, Rs. 500, Rs. 350; (31) Sunny Side; (32) Forest Lodge, Rs. 650, Rs. 450; (33) Rose Cottage, Rs. 150; (34) Keepsake, Rs. 360, 360; (35) Prospect Hill; (36) Cuprera House, Rs. 600, Rs. 450; (37) Aladdin Lodge, Rs. 400, Rs. 250; (38) Mary Lodge, Rs. 500, Rs. 350; (39) Sand's Bungalow, Rs. 700, Rs. 400; (40) Bar Cottage, Rs. 500, Rs. 400; (41) The Dell, Rs. 400, Rs. 250; (42) Red House; (43) Wallace & Co.'s; (44) The Byke; (45) Mangaldas' Bungalow; (46) Benedict Lodge; (47) Paradise Lodge, Rs. 700, Rs. 450; (48) Terrace Cottage, Rs. 600, Rs. 350; (49) Mendes House, Rs. 500, Rs. 300; (50) Kollah House; (51) Wadia Lodge; (52) Gomes' Bungalow; (53) Florence Lodge, Rs. 600, Rs. 400; (54) Kinloch Castle Hill; (55) Underwood; (56) Fleetwood, Rs. 500, Rs. 400; and, on the west ridge, (57) Stone House; (58) Ewart Lodge, Rs. 500, Rs. 350; (59) Cairnmore House; (60) Maldunga; and (61) Woodlands, Rs. 500, Rs. 350,] Of late years, though no new houses have been built, the accommodation at several of the hotels has been greatly increased. Carpenters and masons from Bombay, Poona, and Goa remain on the hill for eight months in the year, carpenters getting a daily wage of 2s. (Re. 1) and masons of 1s. 6d. (12 annas). Contracts for the repairs of houses are taken by Messrs. Allybhai Adamji & Co. of Poona, and by a Chinese carpenter who has settled on the hill. During the south-west monsoon most houses are cased with thatched screens. But this makes the inside so close and damp that the furniture gets covered with mildew, and it is probably better to leave at least one side of the house open.

Ground Rents.

In 1879-80 ground rents yielded £185 (Rs. 1850). The original rent of 10s. (Rs. 5) an acre was afterwards raised to 14s. (Rs. 7), and it is at this enhanced rate that leases are renewed. In letting sites for building it is stipulated that the house should be built within two years, that no trees of more than twenty-four inches in girth shall be cut without leave, that landmarks are kept in repair, and that the Collector of Thana may resume the land on non-payment of rent.

English Church.

The Church stands on one of the highest and most central sites on the hill, a little north of the Superintendent's residence. The foundation was laid in 1858, and, with the help of a Government grant, the Church was completed by private subscription in 1861 at a cost of £2626 (Rs, 26,260) and consecrated by Bishop Harding in 1865. It has been made over to the Bishop of Bombay in trust for the residents of Matheran. It is a plain neat building, with seats for 130 persons, a richly painted window, the gift of the late Mr. Michael H. Scott, a stone font, and- a harmonium, and is in all respects well and orderly appointed. As there is no resident chaplain, the services are usually performed by clerical visitors, or, in their absence, by the Superintendent. To the east, in a hollow of the hill a little below the level of the church plateau, is the small European burying ground.

Catholic Chapel.

The Catholic Chapel of the Holy Cross, situated near the Superintendent's office, was built soon after the hill was made a sanitarium (1852), consecrated in May 1858, and greatly improved in 1872. With seats for ninety people, it has a nave twenty-five feet long, fourteen broad, and eighteen high, aisles fifteen feet long ten broad and 20¼ high, and a chapel fifteen feet long thirteen broad and 25½ high. Of resident parishioners there are not more than eight or ten, but the congregation increases in the October season to seventy or eighty, and, in the May season, to 125 or 150. To the south of the Chapel is the priest's dwelling.

Mosque.

On the left of the path that leads from the Market road to the mutton market is a small and neat Mosque of laterite stone. It was built in the year 1872, chiefly from funds contributed by Messrs. Muhammad Ali Roge, Kamu Seth, and Rahim-at-ullah three rich citizens of Bombay.

Temple.

On the same side of the Market road, not many yards further north, is a small modern stone temple with a large red image of Maruti or the Monkey God. The Temple was built in 1874 from money subscribed by Marathas and Brahmans in sums varying from 6d. to 10s. (annas 4-Rs. 5). A Brahman clerk in the Public Works Department takes charge of the temple. The worshippers are Marathas, who offer flowers and cocoanuts and burn camphor. Close to the Clarendon Hotel and Public Works Storehouse is a temple of Shiv which was built in 1870. The only other Hindu shrine on the hill-top is the shrine of the Dhangar's god Pisharnath, in a thick grove on the south bank of the Pisharnath valley. A description of the shrine has been given in the account of the Dhangars.

Hill Top Walks.

East Wing.

From Pinto's Hotel the leading points on the hill-top can be comfortably seen in three rides or walks. The first morning may be given to the eastern ridge or wing of hills, Panorama point and Governor's hill, Garbat hill and Garbat point. The details are: North along the Neral road nearly two miles to the neck that joins the eastern ridge to the body of the hill; north about a mile and a half to the end of Panorama point; back on foot along the crest of Governor's hill, a mile and a half to the Neral toll from the toll south round the east side of Garbat hill about a mile and a quarter to the end of Garbat point; and back by the west side two miles to the main hill a little to the south of the dry reservoir known as the Fife Filter; from this back a mile and a quarter to Pinto's; total about nine and a half miles.

Round Chauk.

The next morning may be given to Alexander point on the east, Chauk and Danger points on the south, and the Pisharnath valley and Fuller lake on the west. The details are: Half a mile southeast to Alexander point, back round the hollow at the top of little Khatvan valley half a mile, past the road to the Ram Bagh, south nearly a mile to Little Chauk, west round little Chauk half a mile to Great Chauk, west round the top of the Varosha valley a quarter of a mile to One Tree Hill, north half a mile to the Sanitarium, north by a footpath three-quarters of a mile to Danger point, north-east through the grove and past Pisharnath's shrine to the Pisharnath valley along the Charlotte Lake, and, up the valley, half a mile east to the Clarendon Hotel and half a mile north to Pinto's; total five miles.

West and North.

The afternoon of the same day, or of some future day, for it is an afternoon walk, may be spent in visiting the west and north-west, Echo, Landscape, Louisa, Porcupine, Monkey, and Hart Points, and the northern part of the crest of the hill. Pass west down the Pisharnath valley to the north of Fuller lake, at the foot close to the dam turn north half a mile to Echo point and a quarter further to Landscape (this must be done on foot), a mile south-west along the low road through a wooded hollow to Louisa point, a quarter of a mile north along the crest of the point, to the left along the western cliff a mile north to Porcupine, north-east half a mile to Malet's springs, about half a mile down to the springs and back passing Ponsonby spring on the left which is worth a visit, half a mile north-east to the Gymkhana, north half a mile leaving Elphinstone Lodge on the left past Craigie Burn to Monkey point, a quarter of a mile north to Hart point, three-quarters north-east to Simpson reservoir, down a steep track about half a mile to the reservoir and back, leaving the Market road on the left keep the crest of the hill above the Gymkhana one mile south to Artist point, and along the Bare Church plateau a second mile south to Pinto's; total nine miles.

Half-day Walks;

Besides to the points on the hill-top there are several walks, some of them easy half-day trips to the terraces on the hill-side, others heavier trips, most of them involving a climb down to the Konkan plain, and some of them including a visit to one of the neighbouring hills. Of these walks thirteen may be noticed, seven of the shorter and six of the longer class. The seven short half-day walks are:

1, Down to the Ram Bagh wood round Chauk and up the One Tree Hill;

2, Down Louisa Point and up Porcupine Point; 3, Round Louisa Point; 4, By Malet's Spring to Porcupine Point; 5, Round Panorama Point; 6, Round Alexander Point; and 7, Round Garbat Point. [These trips have been contributed by Mr. W. Hart, First Judge Bombay Small Cause Court,]

Ram Bagh.

1. RAM BAGH WOOD TO ONE TREE HILL: From the crest of the cliff a little south of Alexander point the path winds down a rough steep slope, between the rounded rocky brow of Alexander point and the sheer scarp that stretches south to Little Chauk. During the hot season, to the left, lightened by young trumpet-shaped plantain leaves and golden tufted pahirs, a withered slope, grey with leafless branches, falls to a broad belt of evergreen forest, varying in tint from yellow and grey green, through bright green and blue, to masses of deep green, and tufts of orange and brown. [The trees are yellow piprans, grey-green umbars and asans, bright-green jambuls and mangoes, bluish pisas and aptas, deep green tupas, gulums, and anjans, orange branches of the bangol parasite, ruddy tufts of young hirda and nana leaves, and bare grey heads of leafless varas, nanas, and pipris.]

Beyond the forest, across the great Khatvan ravine, stands Garbat point and the long low spur that stretches south to Sondai peak. Behind this spur rise many flat isolated blocks of hill, and, in the distance, stretches the wall of the Sahyadris broken by the cleft of the Kusur pass. In the Ram Bagh, except the overhanging crag to the west, the view is bounded on all sides by rich leafage. Raspberry-like underwood hides great moss-covered boulders, from which bonda and mango stems rise in branchless columns over fifty feet high and with an even girth of six or seven feet. [Mr. F. B, Maclaran, C.E., gives the following details: One bonda tree, six feet nine inches in girth, six feet from the ground, has a straight stem fifty feet high and at that height a girth of five feet. Another bonda tree with a girth of six feet, at six feet from the ground, is sixty-five feet high from the ground to the first branch and at that height has a girth of three feet. A mango tree with a girth of six feet, at nine feet from the ground, has a height of thirty-five feet to the first branch. Another mango tree with a girth of fifteen feet, at about five feet from the ground, has a straight trunk of about forty feet at which height it has a girth of eight feet.] Among the large tree the thick underwood of bushes and large-leaved seedlings, is varied by the long dark sprays of the polara or great mountain ash, and the light green of the kumba, and is adorned by festoons of great climbing trees, whose cable-like trunks, some smooth and tight-drawn, others ragged knotted and loose-swinging, stretch from the ground to the tree tops and cross overhead from tree to tree. Some years ago a number of young vanilla bushes were planted on the left of the path soon after entering the Ram Bagh, but almost all have died. A beautiful fern, the Acrophorus immersus, which five years ago was abundant, has also lately disappeared or nearly disappeared.

Beyond the nook or hollow behind Little Chauk the terrace is opener and the trees are small and stunted, little larger than in the poorer and less sheltered parts of the hill-top. Onwards the path winds through a thin coppice of yellowish grey and bright green bushes, with a sprinkling of larger trees with smooth black bark, spikes of small bottle-brush flowers, and fresh dark-purple leaves ageing into deep green. [The bushes are, yellowish-green bahmans, bright karandas, purple-sprayed nandeva creepers, bluish-green pisas, coarse russet eshvars, tamarind-like avalis, kudas with white sweet-smelling flower heads, and purpled-tipped ranbhendis; the large trees are ains.] Round Little Chauk, beyond the mouth of the Katvan valley, an easy footpath winds over rocky spurs scantily clothed with trees and shrubs. To the right rise the smooth rounded masses of Little and Great Chauk with huge honey-combs clustering under some of the overhanging ledges. To the left, down a steep slope, stretches a narrow band of leafless trees and bushes. In front is the small ravine of the Borgaon stream, whose further bank rises above some black rocks in a bright many-tinted slope of green, which falls gently south, opening into brown and yellow glades as it nears the plateau's edge.[Yellow piprans, grey umbars and asans, blue pisas, jambuls, and sisus, deep green tupas, anjanis, kumblas, and mangoes.] Along the edge runs a low rocky scarp, under which stretches a second broader wooded belt, with open glades and clumps of trees, leading to a bare flat spur on which cluster the huts of the Karpa hamlet. To the west, as if from the outer fringe of the upper terrace, rise the gentle slopes that centre in the tower-like rock of Isalgad.

Under Great Chauk the wood again grows thicker, with a fresh undergrowth of bushes and seedlings, hiding great mossy boulders whose shapes fit the hollows and scars in the scarp above. Again the path leaves the deeper wood, and, along winding glades, passes among clumps of brushwood and groups of trees, that, to the right, rise in a bank of bright leafage, above which, in form and colour like a huge elephant, towers the black mass of Great Chauk. On the right, past Great Chauk point, the bare south bluff of Matheran, with notable vulture nests in the holes on the face of the cliffs, stretches west to the outlying buttress of One Tree Hill. In front is a well wooded slope, through whose trees looms the flat mass of Prabal, passing south into the long ridge that leads to the plateau and rocky peak of Isalgad, behind which rise several ranges, the chief of them ending to the south-east in the funnel hill of Karnala. Further on, falling to the bed of the Varosha, the path enters the Varosha forest among huge boulders, thick underwood, festoons of climbing trees, and mighty mango trunks. From the upper fringe of this forest the path partly paved, partly rock-cut, steep but nowhere so rough as to require scrambling, climbs in sharp zigzags up the narrow bed of the Varosha between the black bastion-like bluffs of Great Chauk and One Tree Hill. Looking back from the crest, on a flat spur, beyond the deep green of the forest, are the thatched roofs of Varosha. About five miles across the plain, close to the dark green line of the Panvel highroad, is the large village or country town of Chauk, and, beyond Chauk, rise the rugged peaks and flat ranges of Bhor in Satara and of Pen in Kolaba.

Louisa to Porcupine.

2. LOUISA POINT TO PORCUPINE POINT. To go down Louisa point and up Porcupine point, take the path between Ewart Lodge and Stone House, close to the gate of Stone House, and go down about 300 feet to the terrace. On the terrace, before reaching the Thakur's huts, turn to the right, and follow the path, which leads north, through the wood, to a dead tree almost right under the end of Porcupine point. Then follow a little path to the right which runs pretty straight up the hill, and reaches the top close to Porcupine point. This round is about two miles long, the time about three-quarters of an hour, and the path fairly good all the way.

Round Louisa.

3. ROUND LOUISA POINT. TO walk round Louisa point, go down to the terrace as in the last walk. Then, instead of taking the right, turn to the left, and so double Louisa point. Then keep pretty-high and go straight to a watercourse running down from the hill on the left. Climb this watercourse, past a perennial spring below Stone House, on to the Louisa point road immediately opposite Stone House gate. This round is not much over a mile; the time nearly three-quarters of an hour; the path easy till it rounds the point, after this it is sometimes faint and easily lost. At the end of May and the beginning of June, under the end of the point, the terrace is covered with beautiful fragrant white lilies, whose bulbs lying close to the surface can be easily dug up with a pocket knife.

Malet's Spring.

4. MALET'S SPEING TO PORCUPINE POINT. TO go from Malet's spring to Porcupine point, follow the bed of the watercourse at Malet's Spring for a short distance till a narrow path appears on the left. Follow this through the wood till it meets another path running down on the left from the spur just below the end of Porcupine point. Climb this spur till close under the rocky nose of the point, then turn to the right, and keep under the rock of the point for about 200 yards, till, near the top, you hit on the path by which the ascent is made in walk number two. This is a far rougher and more difficult walk than those already described. The distance is about two miles, the time more than an hour, the path bad and steep all the way, and in places faint and easily lost.

Round Panorama.

5. ROUND PANORAMA POINT. The walk round Panorama point is one of the most beautiful and interesting on the hill. Pass down the valley of the Simpson reservoir, keeping on the right bank of the stream below the dam, until you reach a point about 300 yards short of where the stream falls over the edge of the hill into the valley, a few yards above a spring of water close to the right bank the stones round which are covered with red paint. The foundations on the left bank of the stream and a steep red-soil bank on the right are traces of the Elphinstone Reservoir which was swept away during the first rains after it was built. At the top of the red-soil bank is the Kathkaris' burial-ground, the graves marked with mounds of loose stones on some of which are the remains of offerings. Across this burial-ground north-east towards Panorama point, a path runs into the belt of wood which stretches almost round the hill about the level of the Ram Bagh. Follow this path till it leads under the end of Panorama point. Here a narrow slightly sloping ridge stretches a considerable distance north. The point of this ridge commands a striking view. Looking back all that can be seen of Matheran is the map of Panorama point rising in a huge steep cone like a miniature Matterhorn. Looking north, perched on a neighbouring hill, are the ruins of the Maratha fort of Peb so close that the lines between the stones can be clearly seen. Though so close it cannot be reached, unless with the aid of ropes or ladders. A little below, the ground falls sheer away in a short overhanging bluff, and a steep nick with scarped sides cut in the narrow isthmus which joins the ridge with Peb hill adds to the difficulty of the passage. In late May and in June the terrace below Panorama point, like the Louisa point plateau, is covered with sweet white lilies. Returning to the path below the cliff, pass round the point, and keep the path south-east through the wood to a very large old fig tree, where the path branches in several directions. The shortest way is to keep to the highest or right hand path till it leads to one of two steep little tracks which climb the hill on the right. The first of these tracks leads to the hill-top a few yards north, and the second track, a few yards south of the Governor's Site. Both of these paths are hard to find, both are steep, and if, as is not unlikely, one of the many watercourses is mistaken for the path, a troublesome and rather dangerous climb ends in a steep impassable scarp. The midmost path leads slightly down past the spring which feeds the water-pipe, out on to the Neral road a few yards above the point where the pipe crosses the road, and about a quarter of a mile above the drinking fountain on the upper terrace. The lowest path in the wood, after turning north for a short distance, leads to the upper terrace close to the drinking fountain. The whole distance of this round is about four miles; the time nearly two hours; the path fairly good all the way, but there is a little difficulty in finding it at the beginning near the Kathkari's burying-ground and also in choosing the proper track up Panorama hill at the end.

Round Alexander.

6. ROUND ALEXANDER POINT. The walk round Alexander point is interesting, but rough. At the meeting of the three roads to Alexander point, the Clarendon Hotel and Chauk point, just below the back of Paradise Lodge, in the corner between Alexander point and the body of the hill, a path in the steep bed of a watercourse runs down the eastern face of the hill. For the greater part of the first five minutes the path seems to have once been paved like an ancient Roman road. Further down, in the bed of the stream, are a number of holes like shallow wells. The deepening of these pools and the paving of the path probably date from the time when the market place was close by. A few yards further down a path runs into the wood on the left. Follow this path east, round the south-western slope of Alexander point. At times the path is faint and easily lost, and in one place it runs for a few yards most unpleasantly near the edge of a sheer drop of seventy or eighty feet. In time it leads into another better-marked and more-used path, running from the left down the spur under the end of Alexander point. This path which is long and steep, and very rough in one or two places, leads to the top right over the tip of the nose of Alexander point. The length of this round is about one and a half miles, the time about an hour; the path very steep all the way and in places difficult.

Round Garbat.

7. ROUND GARBAT POINT. Round Garbat point is a short and easy walk, but somewhat exposed to the morning sun. To avoid the sun keep the eastern side of the point, and follow a narrow track which runs down to the left about 300 yards from where the two roads to the point divide. After rounding the end of the point and passing a little hamlet, a narrow track up the west side of the point leads to the top, rather nearer the. end than where the eastern path left the crest of the hill. This round is about one and a half miles, the time a little over half an hour; and the path good and easy throughout.

Whole-day Walks.

Of the six whole-day, or at least heavy half-day, walks, four keep to Matheran hill and two stretch to the neighbouring hills. The four long Matheran trips are from Chauk spur to Alexander point; 2, From Louisa point to One Tree hill; 3, From Louisa spur to Porcupine point; and 4, From Elphinstone Spring to Porcupine point. The two neighbouring hills which can be easily visited are Prabal on the west and Peb on the north. These walks are from five to eight miles with a long steep climb right into the plain. None of them can be easily done in less than three or four hours, and they are beyond the powers of most ladies. Nailed boots and a long strong staff are almost necessary, especially on the steep slippery lower slopes.

Chauk to Alexander.

1. CHAUK SPUR TO ALEXANDER POINT. Chauk spur to Alexander point is a beautiful walk, especially in October, when the streams are full and the lower slopes of the hill-side are covered with flowering plants. Start, as in half-day walk number 1, by the old Chauk road into the Ram Bagh and follow the path towards One Tree hill for about half a mile, till a broad well-marked path runs into it on the left. Follow this path for nearly another half mile till almost straight above the village at its foot. Then, turning sharply to the left, pass down the north face of the spur into the valley. Thence, keeping north-east, cross the large watercourse which runs from the corner between Alexander point and the body of the hill, work round the long spur which runs down from the end of the point past some Thakurs' huts to the north of it at the east foot of the hill, and then strike up to the west by a path which runs down on the left over the slopes on the eastern face of the point. This leads to the top some 200 yards north of Alexander point. This is the longest way up, but it is the easiest and steadiest climb. The bed of the watercourse (the path followed in the beginning of half-day walk number 6) is much shorter and is in the shade almost the whole way. But it is extremely steep and rough, and the lower part is almost impassable if there is any water in the stream. The track up the spur just below the end of Alexander Point (the path which ends short walk number 6) is also much shorter, but it is very steep, bare of trees, and open to the sun almost all day long. The longer route passes a beautiful deep pool about eight feet broad under a waterfall some twelve feet high, a perfect bathing place in October. Then also the path through the wood is gay with the beautiful purple-centred yellow flowers of a tall mallow, and a thick bush covered with large bright magenta blossoms.

Louisa to One Tree Hill.

2. LOUISA POINT TO ONE TREE HILL. To go from Louisa point to One Tree hill, take the path near Stone House, and on reaching the terrace keep to the left as in short walk number three. Before reaching right under the end of the point strike down to the right by a steep path which runs almost straight into the valley. Follow a track which runs south, along the left bank of the stream, to some Thakurs' huts on the western slopes of Matheran, a little to the north of One Tree hill. From this a very steep path up the slope, on the left, leads to the Ram Bagh terrace, a little to the north of One Tree hill. Turning to the right, a little path to the south leads in a few minutes into the large path that runs from One Tree hill to the village of Chauk. Here turn east to the left, and climb by the One Tree hill path as at the end of half-day walk number 1.

Louisa to Porcupine.

3. LOUISA SPUR TO PORCUPINE POINT. Looking down on the terrace from the top of the path near Stone House, beyond the Thakurs' huts, a long narrow ridge stretches north-west, apparently joining the terrace with the low hill to the north-east of Prabal. But between them a deep narrow gorge cuts the north-west of the ridge into an almost sheer cliff. Go down to the terrace as in the last walk, but keep straight on, past the Thakurs' huts, by the path which runs to the north-west along the crest of the ridge. Shortly before the end of the ridge a steep but quite practicable path runs down on each side. The path on the left leads down the western slope into the Prabal valley. The path on the right, down the northern slope a little further along the ridge, leads into the Maldunga valley. Taking the north path, just before the last descent into the valley, is a difficult and rather risky bit of climbing. On reaching the bottom, keep to the nearest or south bank of the stream which runs through the gorge at the north-west end of the ridge. Follow this north-east till you meet a steep narrow path running from the western slopes of the hill on your right. Working always to the north-east, for in places the path is not well marked, this leads to the terrace between Louisa point and Porcupine point, described in half-day walk number 2, at a point about five minutes from the beginning of the last ascent in that walk. Here turn to the left and follow the path to the northeast to the dead tree, under the extreme end of Porcupine point, and then finish as in half-day walk number 2. The forest and brushwood in the lower parts of this walk are much thicker than they are either between Louisa point and One Tree hill or between Chauk spur and Alexander point; they are less frequented by human beings, and consequently richer in animal life. The wild cat, the large black mungoose, and a very dark squirrel, all of which are rare on the top of the hill, may be constantly seen. A large dark woodpecker, with a dull red head, rarely if ever seen on the hill-top, makes the woods resound with the noise of his strong quick blows.

An easier but very much longer walk is, on reaching the valley below the Louisa spur, instead of turning up by the steep little path on the right, to keep north-east till you strike the broad well-beaten path beween Maldunga and Matheran. Following this to the right it runs east and then south, to the dead tree at the foot of the last ascent.

Elphinstone Spring to Porcupine.

4. ELPHINSTONE SPRING TO PORCUPINE POINT. To Walk from Elphinstone spring to Procupine point, take the steep narrow path that runs down by the watercourse below the spring between Elphinstone Lodge and Craigie Burn, and keep north till you reach the plain below the west of Hart point, a short distance from its end. Thence go west to the main bed of the stream which flows down below Malet's spring from the corner between Hart and Porcupine points. Follow this stream till, after passing a clump of very large trees and a cluster of Thakur's huts, about a mile west from Hart point, there stands on the left a single hut beside a single tree on a spur of the hill above. Climb this hut, and take a path running round the northern slopes of Porcupine point. Following this round to the north-west of the point it leads to the dead tree already mentioned, from which the round can be finished as in the last long walk. A shorter but steeper way is, before rounding the point, to strike to the left by a narrow and little used path, running straight up the spur immediately below the end of Porcupine point and finish as in half-day walk number 4.

Excursions.

The two trips to Prabal and Peb involve twelve or fourteen miles hard walking, with two long steep descents, and two difficult ascents. The walking takes nearly eight hours, four going and four coming back, and a halt of not less than three or four hours should be made in the heat of the day. A whole day of twelve hours should therefore be given to each of these trips and they should not be tried by any but good walkers.

Matheran to Prabal.

1. MATHERAN TO PRABAL. Prabal may be reached from Matheran either from Louisa point or from One Tree hill. The Louisa point route is shorter but the One Tree hill route is easier, especially in the Matheran part. Starting from Louisa point and coming back by One Tree hill, begin as in whole-day walk number 2, until you reach the bed of the stream in the Prabal valley. Then, instead of keeping down the stream, strike across it to the west and climb by the spur which runs down the east face of Prabal, to the south of the square plateau about half way up on the north-east. The path, which is not always easy to keep, trends slightly to the north, until it reaches a wooded ravine about two-thirds of the way up. Here the path turns sharp back to the south and leads to the top a little north of the middle of the east face of the hill. Prabal, though not nearly so large, is much like Matheran. The same flat wooded terrace runs along the hill-side, about a third of the way down, and is particularly notable under the north-east end. The same steep sea-cliff-like scarps rise from this terrace to the crest of the hill. There is the same flat top, more thinly wooded, but with here and there in the hollows some fine timber. The same points or capes stand out from the body of the hill and end in the same weather-worn conical crags. There is even a central hollow like the Pisharnath valley, only sloping east not west, down which, for some time after the rains, a stream flows and falls over a high rock in the east edge of the hill, almost opposite the outfall of the Pisharnath stream on Matheran. There are no regular dwellings on Prabal, but a colony of Kathkaris, from the neighbouring villages, occasionally set up a few temporary huts in the north of the hill. Of former occupation the chief traces are the ruined Maratha fort and a rock-cut cistern at the south end, still in fair preservation. The chief part of the fort now standing is on a ledge below the south end of the hill. But there are signs that the whole hill-top was once fortified, for here and there are clear traces of a wall or line of ramparts running round the top of the hill. Looking east is the long flat top of Matheran with sheer cliffs rising from a belt of wood much like what Prabal looks from Matheran. Seaward and over the Konkan is a fine view, much wider than the view from Matheran. To return, take a path at the south end of the hill which runs from the fort down the southeast slopes into the valley. Then keep slightly north of east to the Thakurs' huts which formed the turning point of whole-day walk number 2. Thence finish as in whole-day walk number 2. In the wood below the fort of Prabal hill grow two sorts of climbing fern, Lygodium scandens and Lygodium flexuosum, which have of late years become rare on Matheran.

Matheran to Peb.

2. MATHERAN TO PEB. Peb is the fort on the nearest or southmost point of the Bava Malang range, which, in half-day walk number 5, has been noticed as ' so near and yet so far 'from the plateau below Panorama point. Descend by Elphinstone spring as in long walk number 4, but, instead of turning west to the left, keep straight north, leaving Hart point, the Simpson reservoir cliffs, and Panorama point successively on the right, till you reach the foot of a wooded ravine sloping down from the north-west, in the corner between Peb hill and Nakhinda, the next peak of the Bava Malang range. A stiff scramble up this ravine leads to the rear or northwest side of the fort, to a narrow grass-cutter's path, that runs sharp back towards the south-east at the foot of the fort wall. Follow this south-east fort a short distance till you meet another narrow path on your left, rising steeply for a short distance over a breach in the fort wall. The fort, like the Prabal fort, seems to have been planned to enclose the whole top of the hill, but, unlike Prabal fort, it has no spring or reservoir within the walls. To the north the ground rises gradually in a long narrow ridge to a point apparently considerably higher than Matheran.