Va'ghotan, in the Devgad sub-division, is a small village and port on the south bank of the Vijaydurg river about fifteen miles from the coast. The landing stage is joined with Vijaydurg by a cart road, and lies on the main route to the Deccan through the Phonda pass. Some thirty years ago, with stones taken from the Kharepatan fort, [Gov. List of Civil Forts, 1862.] quays, and a large district officers' and a travellers' bungalow were built. The houses are kept in repair, but the port has no trade, The river is navigable as far as Vaghotan for vessels drawing seven feet of water. [Hydrographic Notice No. 17.]
Velneshvar, a village in Chiplun on the coast about six miles
north of the Shastri river mouth, with, in 1872, 1513 people, is known chiefly on account of a large yearly fair held on MahaShivratra. (March). From ten to twelve thousand people attend, shops and booths are put up, and goods to the value of about £1200 (Rs. 12,000) are generally sold.
Vengurla, north latitude 15° 50' and east longitude 73° 41', the
head-quarters of the vengurla sub-division, with, in 1872, 14,996 people, lies 200 feet above the sea, about a mile east of the mouth of a swampy creek. [Taylor's Sailing Directory, 391.] The camp lies about a mile inland. Hilly and dry with tall jack, cashewnut, cocoanut, and mango, trees, the country is very picturesque. A chain of low hills runs north-east to within 500 yards of the town, and outside of the camp stretches about nine miles south-west as far as Redi.
Except on the south, Vengurla bay is sheltered. When, which
seldom happens, it blows fresh from the south, small coasting craft run before the wind eighteen miles north to Malvan. [It is high water on full and change of the moon at eleven hours. Springs rise eight and neaps five feet. Taylor's Sailing Directory, 392.] Overlooking the point and creek, 250 feet above sea level, is a white pyramid known as Vengurla Beacon Close to this, in the fair season when the port is open, two fixed lights twenty feet apart are shown 250 feet above the sea, and visible for nine miles. From mid-June till the end of August, the port is closed. [Taylor's Sailing Directory, 392.]
Of the total 1872 population of 14,996 souls, 13,970 were Hindus,
554 Christians, and 462 Muhammadans. Of the Hindus 2215 were
Brahmans including 1631 Shenvis, 762 Vanis, 3064 Marathas,
558 Gavdas or Agris, 44 Gavlis, 126 Bhatias,138 Nhavis, 246 Sonars,
159 Sutars, 1975 Gabits, 3916 Bhandaris, 94 Kolis, 294 Telis, 45
Parits, 27 Devlis, 35 Bhavins, 56 Vanjaris, 27 Jains, 68 Lingayats,
173 Mhars, and 92 Chambhars. Of the Muhammadans, 434 were
classed as Shaikhs and 28 as Pathans.
Ever since the British conquest, Vengurla has been a rising
place. It owed its importance, in the first instance, to its nearness to the military cantonments of Belgaum and Dharwar, with which it was formerly joined by a road crossing the Sahyadris at the Ram pass. The people are vigorous, enterprising and energetic, and
take much after the Bombay traders in their liberal and comprehensive views. The opening of the splendid cart road over the Parpoli pass and the erection of a light-house on the dangerous rocks outside of the port, have given a great impetus to Vengurla, which now among Konkan towns ranks next to, though far below, Bombay. Even in the fair season the port is at times most dangerous and in the south-west monsoon it is closed. In spite of this it monopolises the traffic with Belgaum and the neighbouring districts almost from Nipani to Gokak. [Collector's 4430, 12th December 1877.] All troops pass through Vengurla to and from the Southern Maratha districts. The average yearly value of the trade for the five years ending 1877-78 amounted to £727,369 (Rs. 72,73,690) of which £303,308 12s. (Rs. 30,33,086) were exports and £424,060 8s. (Rs. 42,40,604) imports. The chief articles that pass through the town from the Southern Maratha Country to Bombay are cotton, gallnuts, molasses, hemp, grain, pulse, clarified butter, groundnuts, country cloth, and in smaller quantities tobacco, turmeric, chillies, and spices; The local exports are cocoanuts, betelnuts, cashewnuts, oil of kokam Garcinia purpurea, plaited palm leaves, coir fibre, and salt. From Bombay come piece goods, metals, military stores, and miscellaneous foreign articles. As a rule no grain travels eastward. But during the 1877 famine, within seven months no less than 52,000 tons of grain, valued at £429,688 (Rs. 42,96,880) were received from Bombay and forwarded to the distressed districts. Except a few local firms of long standing conducted by Shenvis and Bhatias, the trade is carried on between Bombay and Southern Maratha merchants, who employ forwarding agents, dalals, in Vengurla to receive and push on consignments by sea or land. Advices are sent by telegrams, and the sole duty of the agents is to arrange for freight and shipment to Bombay, or for land carriage to the Deccan. Bulk is seldom broken, and the goods coming in at one end of the town, pass out at the other within a very few days or hours. Supplies for local use are brought by petty Vani and Shenvi dealers, and European stores are provided by Parsis.
Vengurla is connected with Belgaum by two routes, one of seventy- five miles by the new provincial road over the Parpoli pass, and the other a few miles shorter by the old Ram pass, from its steepness now used only by pack bullocks. A branch road from the Parpoli line, at Akeri eleven miles from Vengurla, connects Vengurla with Malvan, and also with the main road to Ratnagiri and the northern parts of the district.
There are no manufactures of any importance. The eight salt pans near the harbour which formerly yielded an average yearly outturn of 2222 tons (60,000 mans) have all been closed.
The town was made a municipality in 1875. The income from octroi duties, house tax, wheel tax, and miscellaneous items, amounted in 1877 to £1379 12s. (Rs. 13,796), and in 1878 rose to £1468 (Rs. 14,680). In 1879, from a reduction in octroi duties, it fell to
£848 6s. (Rs. 8483). In four years the municipality, besides
thoroughly lighting the town, maintaining an efficient conservancy
establishment and making roads and streets, has carried to completion
a scheme for supplying the most populous part of the town with
water, and has erected handsome public markets. The water works
constructed by Mr. A. T. Crawford, costing £1600 (Rs. 16,000),
of which £1500 (Rs. 15,000) were subscribed by the townspeople; consisted in repairing and strengthening the dam of the old Narayan
reservoir, about three-quarters of a mile north-west of the market, and
laying a six inch iron main from the pond to the town. The pond
is fed by springs, and the water is passed through a filter into the
distribution pipe. On the sides of the principal thoroughfares,
standpipes and open cisterns regulated by ball cocks have been set up
at convenient intervals. The market is a two-storied central building
with a clock tower. The basement hall is divided into stalls for the
sale of fruit, vegetables, and miscellaneous stores, and the upper
story contains the municipal offices. Round three sides of the main
building are ranged shops for general dealers in grain and groceries,
while at the back and separated from the other buildings is the fish
market. The markets are conveniently placed in the busiest part of
the town, on the side of the main road leading to the Parpoli pass.
The cost of the buildings was about £3020 (Rs. 30,200), and the
present monthly rent realised from shops and stalls amounts to
£12 10s. (Rs. 125). Further extension of the buildings and a
separate quadrangle with shops for cloth sellers are needed, and
will be carried out when funds admit.
At the landing stage, a stone quay and steps have at considerable expense been cut from the hill side. Below the headland and beacon at the north of the harbour, are the custom office and a small dwelling built by the salt department. A mile or so inland, at the meeting of the roads, to the Parpoli and Ram passes, and surrounded by houses is the travellers' bungalow. Half a mile along the upper, or Paropli road, where stand the main market and the chief shops and warehouses, is the municipal market, a conspicuous white painted red building, with a square clock tower and gable roof. Between the travellers' bungalow and the markets, and to the north of the road is the telegraph office. On the lower, or Ram road, are the offices of the mamlatdar and chief constable, and the court of the subordinate judge. To the south of this road and near the travellers' bungalow is the old factory or fort now used for commissariat stores and for the temporary accommodation of troops travelling to and from Belgaum. About two miles from the travellers' bungalow, by the side of the Ram pass road, is the camp, a fine open plain on which are built the civil hospital and a few houses for European residents and visitors. Here also is the camping ground for regiments on the march to and from Belgaum.
There are two vernacular schools for boys and one for girls, and a
In 1638, under the name Fingerla, Vengurla is mentioned as a
very convenient haven, where the Dutch had a trade settlement and
victualled their ships daring their eight months' blockade of Goa. [Mandelslo in Harris, II. 360. Before 1641 the Dutch had a fortified factory. Stavorinus, III 107. Baldaeus (about 1660) says the Hollanders have a stately factory at Vengurla a place very considerable, not only for its plenty of wheat, rice, and all sorts of provisions, but also for its situation near Goa. Churchill, III. 602.] In 1660, under the name Mingrela, it is mentioned as a large town stretching half a league along the coast, with one of the best roads in India, where all the vessels that came from Batavia, Japan, Bengal and Ceylon, and those bound for Surat, Ormuz, Bassora and the Bed Sea, both coming and going, anchored, because both the water and rice were excellent. It was famous also for its best of spices cardamoms, which not being had in other countries, were very scarce and dear; also for its great store of coarse calicuts spent in the country, and great quantities of coarse matting that served for packing goods. [Tavernier in Harris, II 360.] About this time Shivaji placed a garrison in the town and a few years later (1664), in punishment of a revolt burnt it to the ground. [Grant Duff, I. 200.] In the next year (1675) it was burnt by the Moghals, the Dutch defending themselves. [Orme's Hist. Frag. 53. In 1670 it was said to be the chief storehouse of the Netherlands East India Company. Ogilby, V. 253.] In 1683 Aurangzeb's rebel son Akbar, meaning to leave India for Persia, took refuge in the Dutch factory, [Orme's Hist. Frag. 125.] and in the next year Sultan Muazzam, to punish it for its support of his brother, sacked the town with fury, the Dutch defending their factory from the windows till they bought off the attack. [Orme's Hist. Frag. 133; Baldaeus in Churchill, III. 152.] In 1696, off Vengurla, seven Dutch and five French ships had an indecisive fight. At this time it is described as once a place of trade, where the Dutch had a factory for cloth, both fine and coarse. In 1696 Khem Savant of Savantvadi [Hamilton calls him Kempason.] overran the country, and under pretence of visiting the Dutch chief, seized and plundered their factory. While held by Khem Savant, Vengurla is said to have been attacked and plundered by Angria. [Hamilton's New Account, I. 248, Khem Savant is described as a soldier of fortune fighting for the chief who pays him best, with 7000 or 8000 men and two pirate grabs.] In 1750 it was the head of 116 villages and yielded a yearly revenue of £2091 12s. (Rs. 20,916). [Tieffenthaler. Res. Hist, et Geog. I. 506.] In 1766 the Savantvadi chief mortgaged its revenue for thirteen years to the Bombay Government to raise the sum of £20,000 (Rs. 2,00,000) wanted to free Bedi, the English promising to establish a small factory with the British flag and a few sepoys to guard it. [Grant Duff, III. 100.] This factory was, in 1772, mentioned as collecting a small revenue. [Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, I. 293.] At the end of the thirteen years (1779) the Savants had failed to carry out some of the stipulations of the treaty and the English refused to give up Vengurla, but it was taken and plundered by the Savants. [Nairne's Konkan, 104.] In 1800 Lieutenant Hayes appeared before Vengurla, landed his men, and taking the chief battery, dismantled it, threw the guns into the sea, and forced the pirate chief to give up all British property. [Low's Indian Navy, I. 204.] In 1812 Vengurla was finally ceded by the Rani of Savantvadi, [Hamilton's
Des. of Hindustan, H. 221.] and has since remained in British hands. [In 1826 it had. 770 houses, 30 shops, a good landing place and a fort 180 feet square, Clune's Itinerary, 73.]
The fort or factory at Vengurla stands behind the swamp. It is a strong building slightly fortified, entirely European, and in appearance more Portuguese than Dutch. [Taylor's Sailing Directory, 391.] In 1862 it was in good order, garrisoned by a detachment, and with five small guns. Water was abundant, and it was used by the military department as an arsenal and storehouse. [Gov. List of Civil Forts, 1862.]
Nine miles west north-west of Vengurla lie the Vengurla rocks or Burnt Islands, a group of rocky islets stretching about three miles from north to south and one mile from east to west. The passage between the rooks and the mainland, about 2¾ miles from the shore, though deep, is dangerous from sunken rocks. Of the islands the highest is about 180 feet. On the outermost of the three larger rocks is a light-house with a white fixed light 110 feet high seen for fifteen miles. [The stone and cement used in building this light-house were taken from the Sindhudurg fort. Nairne'a MS.] The three larger rocks are entirely metamorphic, and are composed of numerous varieties of quartzo-micaceous rocks mostly more or less ferruginous, and in many places a good deal decomposed and broken up. The rocks are quite bare, but the crevices everywhere and some few smooth places near their summits are filled and covered with quantities of a coarse tangled jointed grass. The largest of the three is pierced from side to side by a huge tunnel-like cave, and about the middle of the island, owing to the falling in of the roof, a shaft has broken down into the cave. Even in the fair season the landing is difficult. During the stormy months it, is rarely practicable. [Mr. A. O. Hume, Stray Feathers, IV. 418-420.]
These rocks are probably Ptolemy's (150) Heptanesia and the
Sesikreienai of the Periplus (247). [McCrindle's Periplus, 129, 130; Vincent's Commerce of the Ancients, II. 433.] In 1540, Dom Joao de Castro under the name pf Ilheos Queimados, or Burnt Islands, describes them as many in number, but ten of them specially large, five at sea and five close to the land. They were called burnt islands because they were of bare rock without water or vegetation. [Primeiro Roteiro da Costa da India, 17.] In 1788 they were held by the piratical tribe of Malvans.
Veta'lgad Fort, on a hill in Pendur village in the Varad petty division of Malvan, has an area of about twenty-two acres. In 1862 the walls were in bad order and there was no garrison. Water and supplies were abundant. [Gov. List of Civil Forts, 1862.]
Vijaydurg (Fort Victory), or Gheria (the Enclosure), north
latitude 16° 32' and east longitude 73° 22', a port in the Devgad
sub-division, with, in 1872, 2331 people, lies on the south shore of the entrance to the Vaghotan river, 170 miles south of Bombay. One of the best harbours on the western coast and without any bar, it may be entered in all weathers, and even for large ships is a safe south-west monsoon shelter. In the fine season vessels may anchor
anywhere in the harbour, the best position being a mud and clay bottom with three and a half fathoms at low water. Between Vijaydurg fort and the fortified cliffs to the north-east, the channel is six cables wide, with, at low water, depths of from twenty to twenty-four feet. Inside it rapidly shoals, and two and a half cables further the low water depth is not more than twelve or thirteen feet. The deep channel, only one and a half cables broad, lies close to the left bank of the western shore, and except at high water spring tides, there is not room for large vessels to swing. [It is high water on full and change of the moon at eleven hours, mean springs rise nine feet and neaps five feet. Taylor's Sailing Directory, 390.] The village, small and poorly built, with little tillage and no industry but fishing, is connected with Vaghotan fifteen miles distant, and through the Phonda pass with the Deccan by a good but little used road. [By the early Europeans Vijaydurg, called Kharepatan from the town of that name twenty-five miles from its mouth, was thought one of the best of the Konkan ports. Com Joao de Castro (Prim. Rot. da Costa da India, 30) calls it (1538) the noblest and most favourite river in west India. The only big river without bar, or rocks, or other dangerous troubles. To enter wanted no skill, for whether you went by the middle or the side you always met with a kindly welcome and a good depth to anchor. About a century later (1660), Tavernier (Harris' Voyages, II. 360) calls it the best port in Bijapur with fourteen or fifteen fathoms of water near the land. Ogilby, 1670 (Atlas, V. 246). also mentions it as one of the best Konkan ports. After it was Angria's capital, A. Hamilton (1710) mentions it as Gheria or Vizendruk, fortified by a strong oastle washed by the sea (New Account, I. 246). In 1756 Sir W. James, surveying before the English attack, speaks of a ' very large town betwixt the fort and a hill to the south. The town seems to have been nothing but a large collection of palm leaf huts. Low's Indian Navy, I. 133. Its great natural advantages make it probable that the mouth of Vaghotan river is one of the oldest coast settlements. There seems reason to suppose that it is Ptolemy's (150) Byzantium, a Greek corruption of Vijayanta. See Weber in Ind. Ant. II. 148. Rashid-ud-din's (1310) Karoba has been thought to be Gheria. Yule in Ind. Ant. III. 209.]
The population consists mainly of Muhammadans by whom most of the trade is carried on. There are in addition a few Brahmans, Bhandaris and other Hindus, and a small colony of native Christians, Some of them Abyssinians, who have built a small chapel.
A little traffic passes between Bombay and the Deccan by the
Phonda route. The average yearly trade, during the five years ending 1877-78, was valued at £50,643 6s. (Rs. 5,06,433) of which £21,565 16s. (Rs. 2,15,658) represented exports and £29,07710s. (Rs.2,90,775) imports.' During the 1857 mutinies, troops, guns, and treasure were, in the stormy season, forwarded by this route to the Deccan and Southern Maratha Districts. During the 1877 famine, the Vaghotan road, originally made by the villagers, was out of repair and not open for cart traffic. In spite of this about 1000 tons of grain passed from Bombay through Vijaydurg to the Deccan. In the same year about seven and a half miles of the road were re-made as a famine relief work, and the rest has since been finished out of local funds. Coasting steamers call three times a week at Jaytapur at the mouth of the creek six miles off.
The local carpenters make much admired bison-horn ornaments of various kinds. But the industry is very small and the craftsmen much indebted.
The village has a sea custom office, a post office, and a vernacular school. In the fort are two buildings for the use of travellers, and a large government shed made as a grain depdt during the 1877 famine.
Never a place of much trade or wealth, the whole interest of the
village centres in its fort. [The special interest of Vijaydurg is that its old Musalman buildings are.less than in most forts, hidden under Maratha additions. Nairne's Konkan, 38. There is also a mosque and the tomb of a Musalman saint, the first in the centre of the fortress very near the flagstaff. Nairne in Ind. Ant. III. 320.] On the neck of rocky land that forms the south side of the bay, Vijaydurg, one of the best and, most Muhammadan of Konkan fortresses, though not very striking from the sea side, rises grandly about 100 feet above the river. The walls, of very great strength and protected by twenty-seven bastions, rise, at their highest point, into a great round tower. On the west breached in several places by the sea, they are over their whole length loosened and ruined by trees and creepers. Their triple line of fortifications encloses about twenty acres, [Gov. List of Civil Forts, 1862.] overrun with bushes, but with some good wells and several large habitable buildings. [Bombay Government Gazette, 3rd July 1879, 699. In 1862, except a part of the first and third outer walls, the fort was in good repair. Water was abundant and supplies easily obtained. There were 278 old unserviceable guns. Gov. List of Civil Forts, 1862.] The fort is probably old, enlarged under the Bijapur kings, and about the middle of the seventeenth century, much strengthened by Shivaji [Grant Duff, 85,; Nairne's Konkan, 63.] to whom it owes its finest features, the triple line of walls, the numerous towers, and the massive interior buildings. [Nairne in Ind. Ant. III. 320.] About forty years later (1698), the pirate chief Angria made it the capital of a territory stretching for about 150 miles along the coast and from thirty to sixty miles inland. For more than fifty years, Angria's pirates were a terror to all traders, and the English were forced to keep a special fleet to act against them. In April 1717 their ships of war, carrying a considerable body of troops, sailed against Gheria. An attempt to breach the wall failed, the storming party was driven back with great loss, and the fleet forced to withdraw. Three years later a joint Portuguese and English fleet under Mr. Walter Brown destroyed sixteen of Angria's vessels, but made no impression on the fort. [Low's Indian Navy, I. 100; Nairne's Konkan, 80.] In the same year (April 1720) the English ship Charlotte was attacked, and after a gallant defence, her powder having run down, she was caught and taken into Gheria. [Low's Indian Navy, I. 100.] In 1724 a Dutch fleet from Batavia attacked the place, but with no better success. [Grant Duff, 231. There is said to have been another Dutch attack in 1735.] In 1786 Angria's vessels took the richly laden English East Indiaman Derby, the armed ship Restoration of twenty guns, and several other vessels of less note. In 1738, in an action between Angria's fleet and Commodore Bagwell, Angria's fleet fled up the Bijapur creek and escaped with little loss. [Low's Indian Navy, I. 107. According to another account (Bom. Quar. Rev. IV. 75) some of the Commodore's broadsides reached the enemy, causing much damage and killing the admiral.] Besides several captures from
the Dutch, Angria about this time took the French forty-gun ship Jupiter, with 400 slaves. In 1749, Mr., afterwards Sir William, James was attacked by Angria's fleet, and after a hard fight, drove them to Gheria, pursuing them and causing great loss. [Low's Indian Navy, I. 127.] Next year, in spite of their defeat, they were bold enough to attack Commodore Lisle in command of a fleet of several vessels, among them the Vigilant of sixty-four and the Ruby of fifty guns. [Milburn's Oriental Commerce, I. 296.] Again, in February 1754, attacking three Dutch ships of fifty, thirty-six, and eighteen guns, they burnt the two large ones and took the third. Elated with this success, Angria built several vessels, set two large ships on the stocks, and boasted he should soon be master of the Indian seas. For long the Peshwa and the Bombay Government planned Angria's ruin. At last, in 1755 it was settled that in the next fair season the Peshwa's troops should attack him from land and the British by sea. At the close of the year (1855, Dec. 22) Commodore James was sent to survey Gheria fort, then thought as strong as Gibraltar. He found that ships could get within point-blank shot; that on shore guns could be carried, and a diversion made from the tops of two hills; and that the fort was crowded with unprotected buildings. The place was surprisingly unlike what he had heard. [I assure yon, Sir, it is not to be called high, nor, in my opinion, strong. It is indeed a large mass of buildings, and I believe the walls may be thick. But that part of the works which fell under my observation and which was three-quarters of their circumference is quite irregular, with, round towers and long curtains in the eastern manner, and which discovered only thirty-two embrasures below and fifteen above. Commodore James, 21st Decr. 1755; Ives' Voyages, 80.] The Bombay Government were fortunate in having in their harbour a Royal squadron under Admiral Watson and a strong detachment of troops under Lieutenant-Colonel, afterwards Lord, Clive. On the 7th April 1756, the fleet of twelve men-of-war, six of the Royal and six of the Company's navy, with 800 European and 600 native troops, and five bomb vessels with a company of artillery, and four Maratha grabs and forty gallivats, sailed from Bombay. [The details were: Royal squadron, one 70 guns, one 66 guns, one 60 guns, one 60 guns, one 20 guns, and one 16 guns; Company's squadron, one 44 guns, four 28 guns, and one 16 guns. Of the native troops 300 were Portuguese and 300 sepoys. Low's Indian Navy, I. 134. These details differ slightly from those given by Orme. Hist, Frag. 408-417 in Nairne's Konkan, 92.] Sending a few vessels ahead to block the harbour, the fleet arrived off Gheria on the eleventh. The Maratha land force, for some time a-field, was camped against Gheria. Terrified by the strength of the British fleet, Tulaji Angria, leaving the fort in his brother's charge, surrendered to the Maratha general. Hearing that the Maratha general had extorted from Tulaji an order for the delivery of the fortress, Admiral Watson on the next morning (12th) summoned the fort to surrender. Getting no answer, the fleet, with the afternoon sea breeze, forming two divisions, sailed each in line of battle ship covering a bomb ketch, and protecting the column of smaller vessels from the enemy's fire. They passed the point into the river, and under a heavy fire, anchoring fifty yards off the north fortifications, battered them from 150 pieces of cannon. Angria's ships were drawn up under the fort, all fastened together,
and a shell setting one on fire, the whole were burnt. [One ship of 74' guns, eight grabs of from 20 to 30guns, and sixty gallivats. Low's Indian Navy, I. 136. Of Angria's ships Dr. Ives (1755) writes: ' They are not unlike the Tartans of the Mediterranean, only a great deal lower; they carry two guns in the bow and vast numbers of men. Their music is a plain brass tube, shaped like a trumpet at both ends and about ten feet long, and a drum called a torntorn, a skin stretched on a large shallow brass pan, on which they strike with two large sticks and make an amazing noise. Among them are two ketches which they call grabs' (Ives' Voyages, 43). Several of the gallivats had blue or green on white pendants like the Portuguese at their mast heads, and one had a white flag with a red cross in the middle. (Ditto, 80).] Another shell set fire to the buildings in the fort, and the tremendous cannonade silenced the fort guns. [According to another account the same fire which burnt the ships passed to a large vessel lying on the shore, and from her to several smaller craft that were building. From the building yard it was conveyed to the arsenal, storehouse, suburbs and city, and even to several parts of the fort, particularly to a square tower where it continued burning all the night with such violence that the stone walls appeared like red hot iron. Iver Voyages, 85.] Still the commander held out. Learning that the fort was to be handed over to the Marathas, Colonel Olive landed and held the ground between the Peshwa's army and the fort. Next morning the admiral again summoned the fort to surrender. The commandant asked for time to consult his brother. A respite was granted, till, in the afternoon, as no answer came, the bombardment was re-opened. By five o'clock the garrison surrendered, and Colonel Clive, marching in, took possession. [According to Dr. Ives (Voyages, 85), Colonel Clive making his approaches from land greatly annoyed the enemy. At a quarter after five he came to the Admiral's ship bringing an officer from the fort with the articles of capitulation, which being agreed to by himself and the two Admirals, an English officer was sent in to take possession of the fort and to hoist English colours. Captains Forbes and Buchanan were, next, with sixty men, detached to see the garrison lay down their arms, and on the 14th at sunrise the Colonel and the whole army marched into the place.] Though the masonry was destroyed the rock defences were so perfect, that a determined garrison need not have yielded to any sea attack. Fifteen hundred prisoners were taken; eight Englishmen [Ives (Voyages, 88) gives the names of ten Englishmen.] and three Dutchmen were rescued; and plunder, amounting besides stores to £125,000 (Rs. 12,50,000), was divided among the captors. [Milburn's Or. Com. I. 296. In Gheria were found 250 cannon, six brass mortars, an immense quantity of stores and ammunition, £10,000 in silver rupees, and £30,000 in valuable effects (Ives' Voyages, 86). According to Dr. Ives (Voyages, 81-82), a council of sea and land officers, held before setting out on the expedition, had, to avoid disputes, settled that Admiral Watson as commander-in-chief of the King's squadron should have two-thirds of one-eighth of the spoil, and Rear-Admiral Pocock one-third of one-eighth, while Lieut. Colonel Clive and Major Chambers were to share equally with the captains of the King's ships. The captains of the Company's ships and captains of the army were to share equally with lieutenants of men-of-war and subaltern officers of the army, and lieutenants of the Company's ships with warrant officers of the navy. Afterwards the officers of the army, not liking that their Commander-in-Chief should share with captains of men-of-war, the Admiral to satisfy them gave his own security to make Colonel Clive's portion equal that of Admiral Pocock, making good the deficiency out of any moneys he himself might be entitled to. In this way, after Gheria fell, a sum of about £1000 was found due to Colonel Clive from Admiral Watson. This Admiral Watson sent with his compliments, but Colonel Clive was generous enough to refuse it, saying that he would not deprive the Admiral of the contents of his private purse, and that he had appeared to accept of the terms only for the good of the service.] The ruin of Angria's navy was completed by the destruction of two sixty-gun ships on the stocks. Four of the
Company's vessels and a detachment of 600 European and native troors were left to guard the harbour and fort. [Tulaji Angria remained till his death a prisoner first in a fort, according to one account, near Raygad in Kolaba, according to another in Vandannear Satara (Grant Duff, I. 66), and afterwards in Sholapur. Low's Indian Navy, I. 136. Grant Duff, I. 66. His tomb and those of his six wives, one of them a sati, are shown at Vijaydurg. Nairne'a Konkan, 95.]
The Bombay Government were very anxious to keep Gheria, and offered to give Bankot in exchange. To this the Peshwa would not agree, and Cheria was handed over in the following October. [Low's Indian Navy, I. 136.] The Peshwa made it the head-quarters of a district and the seat of his Admiral Anandrav Dhulap, whose descendants are still settled at Vijaydurg. Under the Peshwa piracy flourished as vigorously as ever. In 1780 Anandrav attacked and captured an English ship carrying despatches to the Court of Directors, and imprisoned an officer in Basalgad near Mahabaleshvar. Again in April 1782, in spite of a gallant resistance, he captured the Banger a ship of the Bombay Marine. [Grant Duff, 457 in Nairne'a Konkan, 105.] In 1800 Lieutenant Hayes was sent to harass the pirates, but though he punished them severely, they were soon as troublesome as ever. In May 1818 Colonel Imlack, attempting to take Vijaydurg, was met by so heavy a fire, that his ships were forced to cut their cables and run. But the whole of the district had now passed to the British, and in June of the same year the commandants, two brothers of the Dhulap family, surrendered. In the river was taken the Admiral's ship, 156 feet long 33 beam and 430 tons burden. [Waddington's Report in Asiatic Journal, IX. 123. On their surrender the Dhulap family were, by the Bombay Government, given two villages near Vijaydurg. Here they are still settled, and though impoverished by mortgages, hold an honourable place among Marathas, their daughters being fit matches for the highest families. Nairne'a Konkan, 105.]
Two miles from the fort, on the same side of the river, is an old dock, hollowed out of the rock by Angria, 355 feet long and 227 in the broadest part, and said to have been able to hold vessels of 500 tons. [Waddington's Report in Asiatic journal, IX. 123.] Though nearly choked with mud the stone face and entrance may still be seen. There was also a small building yard and a mast house. [In 1819 the bottom of the dock, sloping gently upwards from the entrance, was thick with mud and sand. The gateway 23 feet broad below and 37 above, stood open without gates. Of the walls parts on the south and east were cut in the rock; the rest was of masonry' in good repair. From the south-east corner ran a stone-built water channel. Lieut. B cominicette, 9th June 1819; Public Diaries 432 of 1819,1055.] On the creek two miles below the dock is (1862) a strong well built Martello tower called the MitatyaBuruj. A little way from the fort, on the Vaghotan road, is the temple of Bameshvar, probably 100 years old, built by Gangadhar Banu, a brother of Nana Fadnis (1720.1800,). An ordinary temple with a large rest-house lying deep in a glen, its chief interest is the approach about 250 yards long, cut through rock fifty feet deep. The idol, a four-armed figure seated on a bull, is of solid silver said to weigh a hundredweight.
Vijaygad. There is a second Vijaygad fort on the north bank of the Shastri, about two miles across the river from Jaygad. [See above, p. 341.] A
small fort, about a quarter of an acre in area, it is surrounded on three sides by a ditch. In 1862 the walls were ruinous and it had only one entire gun. There was no garrison and no water. Supplies could be obtained from neighbouring villages. [Gov. List of Civil Forts, 1862.]