Delhi Sultanate.

At the close of the thirteenth century, Khandes was held by a chief styled the Raja of Khandes who according to Ferista possessed an army of 40,000 or 50,000 men. He was probably the Cohan ruler of Asirgad who according to tradition came into Khandes from Golconda [Todds Annals, II, 411.]. When in 1296, Alauddin, the nephew of the Delhi emperor suddenly appeared before the Yadava capital of Devagiri, Ramacandra, the Yadava ruler sent messages to the rajas of Gulburga, Telangana, Malva and Khandes to send him assistance and reinforcement. Ramacandra was however defeated and forced to pay tribute. On his return march to Delhi Alauddin overran the powerful and extensive Kingdoms of Malva, Gondvana and Khandes storming the fort of Asirgad on the way and destroying all the members of the chiefs' family except one[ Central Provinces Gazetteer, 9 and 377.]. On July 20, 1296 Ala uddin contrived the murder of his uncle and ascended the throne of Delhi. It may be mentioned here that during Ala uddin's reign a campaign was led by Ulugh Khan against Gujarat. The Gujarat King, Vaghela Kama, was defeated and his territory was overrun by the advancing army. Kama escaped and obtained refuge at the court of the Yadava king Ramcandra. Perceiving, however, the danger that might befall his host due to his stay at his court, he left Devagiri and rebuilt the town and fortress of Nandurbar where he set himself up as a semi-independent ruler and vassal prince of the Raja of Devagiri [ Cambridge History of India, III, 112, 518.]. Karna had to give up these possessions too in the subsequent invasions from the north. No Muslim invasion of the Deccan took place till 1307 when, Ala uddin on the refusal of Ramacandra to pay tribute, appointed Malik Naib Kafur to lead an expedition to Devagiri. Malik Kafur was instructed to punish the recalcitrant Raja as also to conquer the other Kings of the south. The Yadava army was defeated. Ramacandra was, however, allowed to govern his territory after paying heavy ransom. This and the subsequent campaigns of the south are of particular significance to the history of the Deccan because they brought practically the whole of the south under the Delhi emperors. The Yadava Kingdom, in 1318 A.D. became part of the Sultanate of Delhi. Devagiri became the Southern headquarters of the Delhi emperors. The absence of Malik Naib in the Deccan unsettled the political climate in Delhi and Ala uddin was forced to recall Malik Naib. This was a signal for the uprising of rebels in various parts of the kingdom. Devagiri revolted under Harpaldeva, the son-in-law of Ramacandra. In the midst of these troubles, Ala uddin died on 5 January, 1316, when Mubarak Sah, Ala uddin's third son ultimately ascended the throne. He sent Khusrav Khan to suppress the revolts. He marched to the Deccan re-established the suzerainty of Delhi in the Deccan and returned to the capital. With his growing power, he aspired to the throne and encompassed the murder of the king on April 15 1320. Khusrav ascended the throne. Shortly after he was put to death by Ghazi Tughluq, the governor of Dipalpur, who ascended the throne under the title of Ghiyas uddin Tughluq Sah on September 8, 1320. Ghiyas uddin reasserted his supremacy over the Deccan. His reign was, however, short-lived. He died in 1325 and was succeeded by his son Ulugh Khan, under  the title of Muhammad Sah. To Muhammad Sah goes the credit of extending the Muslim domination to the remote south by vanquishing the Raja of Kampili and the Hoysala Ballala thus establishing his away, practically all over India. It was in 1326-27 that Muhammad Sah transferred the capital from Delhi to Devagiri which was renamed Daulatabad. This must have considerably enhanced the importance of the province of Khandes due to its close proximity to the new capital. But all was not well in the edifice of the Delhi empire. It began to show cracks, with the rebellions taking place all over the empire. The resurgence of the Hindu chiefs which led to the founding of the Kingdom of Vijayanagar in 1336 also contributed to the decline of the Empire. It may be mentioned here that Ibn Batutah a Muslim traveller who visited India in the early 14th century while on his way to Cambay from Daulatabad passed through Nandurbar which was then in the province of Gujarat. He has the following to say about the city: " We continued on our way to Nandhurbar (Nandurbar) a small town inhabited by the Marhatas, who possess great skill in the arts and are physicians and astrologers. The nobles of the Marhatas are Brahmans and Karris (Kstriyas). Their food consists of rice, vegetables and oil of sesame and they do not hold with giving pain to or slaughtering animals. They wash themselves thoroughly before eating and do not marry among their relatives unless those who are cousins six times removed. Neither do they; drink wine, for this in their eyes is the greatest of vices. [Ibn. Batutah, M.A.R. Gibbs, p. 228.]" In 1345 the amirs of the Deccan rebelled and the Sultan could not suppress the rebellion. Devagiri was seized by the rebel nobles and finally passed into the hands of Hasan Gangu, the founder of the Bahamani dynasty. Under Muhammad Tughluq, Khandes was a subdivision of a subha in charge of an officer stationed at Ellicpur in Berar. When the Deccan nobles had revolted, Imad-ul-Mulk, the governor of Berar and Khandes abandoned his province and retired to Nandurbar. The Berar officers joined the revolt and with the establishment of: the independent Bahamani Kingdom, no part of Khandes except Nandurbar and Sultanpur, remained under the Delhi Sultanate. The newly founded Bahamani kingdom included in the west, Ahmadnagar and in the south, Nasik, and in the east, part of Berar. Between these two points Bahamani rule does not seem to have passed north of the Tapi. Along the Candor or Satmala hills there would seem to have been a line of independent chiefs of Galna, Antur and Vairatgad. The east was under the: powerful Asirgad chief and the west was in the hands of the Raja of Baglan. The fact that subsequently Firoz Tughluq assigned the districts of Thalner and Karanda on the Gujarat-Khandes border: to Malik Raja Faruqi, the founder of the Faruqi dynasty shows that the Bahamani territory did not extend to Khandes. Its districts formed part of the southern boundaries of the Tughluq empire.

Faruqi Dynasty.

This state of affairs continued till 1370 when Malik Raja, [He was known as Raja Ahmad.] a privata horseman in the army of Firoz Tughluq attracted the attention of the emperor. It appears that Malik Raja at the time of the revolt of the Deccan nobles did not participate in the rebellion. He, however, opposed the newly founded Bahamani rule. During the reign of Muhammad Sah, Bahram Khan Mazendarani, the governor of Daulatabad rebelled. [Haig-Turks and Afghans, III, p. 294.] Many chieftains of Berar and Baglan including Malik Raja joined the rebels The rebels were, however, defeated and forced to flee to Gujarat. Malik Raja established himself at Thalner. At this time he seems to have directly entered the services of Firoz Tughluq. [Haig-Cambridge History of India, III 294.] His family claimed descent from the Khaliph Umar Faruq. This is what Ferista has to say about the descent of the Faruqi Family.

Malik raja.

" Mallik Raja, the first Mahomedan ruler of Kandeish is descended from the Caliph Umar Farook and traces his pedigree thus: Mallik Raja, the son of Khanjahan, the son of Ally Khan, the son of Oothman Khan the son of Simeon Sah, the son of Asab Sah, the son of Armian Sah, the son of Ibrahim Sah of Bulkh, the son of Adhum Sah, the son of Ah-mud Sah, the son of Mahmood Sah, the son of Mahomed Sah, the son of Azim Sah, the son of Asghur, the son of Mahomed Ahmud, the son of Imam Nasir Abdoolla, the son of Oomr-ool Farook, the Khaleefa, or representative of the last of the prophets. [Ferishto IV, p. 284.] His forefathers were among the most respectable nobles of Ala uddin Khilji and Muhammad Tughluq. The father of Malik Raja, Khan Jahan Faruqi, was a minister in the court of the Khiljis. Firoz Tughluq, while on an hunting expedition in Gujarat, was rendered timely help by Malik Raja and the emperor on learning him to be the son of Khan Jahan resolved to promote him. At the very first darbar he made him an officer of two thousand horse. Shortly afterwards, he conferred on him the districts of Thalner and Karanda. [The account given by Ayeen Akbery in this regard is very interesting. It says " Formerly this country was desolate except that a few people inhabited Asseer which was their place of worship and called Ascotahma. It is said that Mullick Rajee, from whom Bahader was the ninth, in lineal descent, through the versatility of fortune came from Bundur to this country and settled in the village of Keerandeey, dependent upon Tahleenir. But being molested by the natives, he went to Delhi and entered the service of Sultan Feeroz. As he was an expert huntsman, the king was pleased with him and told him he should have anything he could wish for. Upon this he obtained a grant of the village of Keerandeey. By his prudent management he peopled the deserted lands and brought them into cultivation" Gladwin p. 344] Thus was laid the foundation of a future dynasty which was to rule over Khandes for over two hundred years.

In the year 1370 Malik Raja marched with a force to take possession of his assignment. At the same time he reduced Bahirji, the Raja of Baglan and forced him to consent to the payment of an annual tribute to the king of Delhi. He received from the Raja of Baglan five large and ten small elephants besides, a quantity of pearls and jewels and specie by way of tribute. On returning to his capital he covered the elephants with velvet housing, embroidered with gold and having laden several camels, with muslins and other manufactures of Khandes and also some pearls sent them as offering to the Emperor. The Emperor Firoz remarked that the very duty which the governor of Gujarat ought to have performed long ago had been fulfilled by Malik Raja, in consequence the Emperor honoured Malik Raja with the title of Sipah Salar Commander-in-Chief of Khandes and raised him to the rank of three thousand horse. In spite of the independent position held by Malik Raja, he and his successors for a few generations abided by the title of Khan from which his state came to be known as Khandes, " the country of Khans.[ Ayeen Akbery says that Malik Raja sat on his throne at Thalner in Hijri 784 under the title of Adil Shah and reigned for 17 years. Gladwin p. 344] Malik Raja acquired great power in a short time and in a few years could muster twelvet thousand horse and levy contributions from the rays of Gondvana as far as Gadh Mandla. Ferista says that " such was his fame that the Ray (Raja) of Jajnuggur (Vijayanagar), notwithstanding the distance, established a friendly intercourse with him.[ Briggs, IV, p. 282.]

Before Malik Raja's time, the State of Khandes was in a very bad state. For years without any regular government, it had lately been visited by a famine, so severe, that not more than two or three thousand Bhils and Kolis survived. The only prosperous part of the district was near Asirgad, where, Asa, a rich ahir or herdsman was one of the principal landholders. Asa, at this time had many storehouses both in Gondvana and Khandes which his agents opened in order to sell the corn. His wife who was of a charitable disposition, however, persuaded Asa to allow the grain to be distributed to the poor and suffering without payment to which Asa agreed. It was also with a view to employ many of the sufferers as labourers that Asa levelled the old walls of Asir and constructed a fort built of masonry. Asa also distributed food to the aged and decrepit who were unable to perform manual labour.

When Malik Raja assumed authority all over Khandes, Asa, being of a peaceable and unambitious disposition was the first of all the landholders to acknowledge fealty to him. He also presented Malik Raja with many other things which he required on the establishment of his family. Malik Raja soon realised that a strong fort like that of Asir, in the hands of a person of such distinguished qualities as Asa in the very heart of his dominion would be a danger to his government. However Malik Raja felt himself under too many obligations to Asa to wrest it by force from him. He therefore desisted from any attack on Asa and thought it prudent to maintain a status quo.

During the reign of Firoz Tughluq, Dilavar Khan Ghori was appointed the governor of Malva. Dilavar Khan declared his independence, while disorders prevailed at Delhi subsequent the invasion of Amir Timur. Both the families viz., the Faruqi and the Ghori were now matrimonially connected, Dilavar Khan Ghori gave his daughter in marriage to Malik Nasir, the son of Malik Raja. At this time great commotion prevailed in the bordering province of Gujarat where Farhat ul mulk the governor thought of declaring his independence. To suppress the revolt, Zafar Khan was sent by Muhammad Tughluq as governor of Gujarat with the title of Muzaffar Khan. He succeeded in defeating the recalcitrant governor. The invasion of Timur and the escape of Muhammad Tughluq to Gujarat and his subsequent return to Delhi hastened the declaration of independence by Muzaffar Khan who now assumed the title of Muzaffar §ah. Malik Raja relying upon the support of Dilavar Khan, invaded the territory of Gujarat and laid waste the district of Sultanpur and Nandurbar. Muzaffar Sah who at the time was engaged on an expedition to Somnath, on hearing of the invasion of Malik Raja deemed proper to turn his arms towards Khandes. By rapid marches he reached Sultanpur and forced Malik Raja, to retreat towards Thalner where the latter took shelter. The fort of Thalner Was besieged by Muzaffar Sah. Though Muzaffar Sah was in a commanding position, he did not press his advantages but accepted the overtures made by Malik Raja for a negotiated settlement and withdrew to his territory. During the remaining period of his rule Malik Raja confined his military operations entirely to his own country and spent his time in promoting architecture and improving agriculture. Malik's spiritual guide and teacher, Saikh Zain-ud-din of Daulatabad presented him with a robe, " the garb of desire and assent." So long as the dynasty lasted this robe was carefully handed from ruler to ruler. Before his death Malik Raja sent for his two sons Malik Nasir and Malik Iftikar and invested the former with this sacred robe and nominated him his successor. Of his two chief forts, he bequeathed Laling to his elder son and Thalner to Malik Iftikar, the younger son. He died in 1399 and was buried in a handsome tomb at the town of Thalner.

Malik Nasir

Malik Raja was succeeded to the throne by his son Malik Nasir, . also called Garib Khan. The family rose to great fame and power daring the reign of this monarch. Learned men were invited from all parts of the country and arts and letters patronised.

The first act of Malik Nasir after assuming power was the capture of Asirgad, held by Asa. The Ahir Chief had, inspite of his wealth and the strength of his fort, without any struggle acknowledged the Supremacy of Malik Raja, Malik Nasir's father. He had also rendered him help in many ways to establish his power. Malik Nasir, on his accession to throne had also received many personal favours from Asa like his father. Malik Nasir realised the danger of such a principality thriving within the boundaries of his Kingdom. He could not, however, precipitate an attack on Asa and of a peaceable disposition as Asa was, he would not give him any ground for an attack on Asir. Malik Nasir, however, had decided upon seizing Asirgad and making it his own capital. He, therefore, wrote to Asa complaining that he was in great straits as the Chiefs of Baglana, Antur and Kherla were rising against him. Of those the two had collected large forces. He also informed Asa that Thalner was in possession of his brother lftikar and Laling, which was too close to the enemy territories was not a safe place for retreat. He, requested Asa to afford his family a safe retreat. The unsuspecting Asa willingly consented little knowing of the fatal consequences of his act. Asa ordered suitable apartments to be fitted up for the reception of Malik Nasir's ladies. Shortly after several covered litters with women were brought into Asirgad and were visited by Asa's wife and daughters. Next day another troop of 200 litters arrived reportedly occupied by the wife, mother and the rest of Malik Nasir's family. Asa along with his sons went to receive them but to his astonishment instead of women he found the litters full of armed soldiers who leapt up and murdered Asa and his innocent sons in cold blood. Not a single male child in the family was left alive. The inhabitants of the fort were so stunned by the ruthless massacre that they fled with their families from the fort. The treacherous and cunning Malik Nasir, on learning of the success of his scheme, repaired from his camp at Laling to the fort of Asir. He strengthened and fortified the fort and made it his headquarters. [ Ferishta, the noted historian, his conscience biting him to the bones for this dastardly act of atrocity perpetrated by Malik Nasir tries to minimise the gravity of the act by observing that " It is, however, a well authentic cated fact that the property of Asa was never appropriated by any of the Farooky dynasty to their own use; and all the money and jewels taken on this occasion fell in the hands of Akbur Padshah, when he marched to the Southwards and took the fortress of Aseer, two centuries afterward." Briggs IV. p. 290. Such assumption is unbelievable and even if it be true cannot be a sufficient recompense for the murderous villainy of Malik Nasir.] Shortly after this a disciple of Saikh Zain uddin, the tutelary saint of the family came to congratulate Malik Nasir on his success. On his advice Malik Nasir built two cities on the Tapi, one on the east bank called Zainabad after the Saikh and the other on the west bank called Burhanpur after Saikh Burhanuddin of Daulatabad. The latter city became the capital of the Faruqi dynasty.

It will be recalled that Malik Raja, Malik Nasir's father had bequeathed the fort of Thalner and the surrounding district to his younger son Malik lftikar. Malik Nasir, after his success against Asa cast an avaricious eye on the fort of Thalner, the possession of which he regarded as essential for the security of his territory. He, therefore, in 1417, solicited the help of Sultan Hosang of Malva who was his brother-in-law. The latter dispatched a force of 5,000 under the command of his son Ghizny Khan to the assistance of Malik Nasir. The combined armies of Malik Nasir and Sultan Hosang laid siege to the fort of Thalner. Malik lftikar remonstrated with his brother and wrote in vain to Ahmad Sah of Gujarat for sending succour.; However the fort of Thalner fell after the siege had continued for. some time. Malik lftikar was taken prisoner and kept in confinement in the fort of Asirgad. Flushed with this success and to forestall; any attack from Ahmad Sah of Gujarat and with a view to repairing the discomfiture of his father who had made an unsuccessful attempt to annex the south eastern districts of Gujarat, Malik Nasir, with the combined forces of Malva and Khandes entered the Gujarat territory, attacked Nandurbar and invested the fort of Sultanpur. On hearing of this invasion Ahmad Sah of Gujarat marched with the whole of his army to the south. He sent a considerable detachment under Malik Mahmud Turk in advance to disperse the forces of Malik Nasir and Ghizny Khan. Malik Turk worsted the combined forces of Khandes and Malva and forced them to flee the battle field. Ghizny Khan fled to Mandu. Malik Nasir retreated to Thalner which was closely besieged by Malik Turk. The siege continued for some time. With no prospects of any succour and having been reduced to extreme distress, Malik Nasir made overtures of peace to some of Ahmad Sah's ministers. He succeeded. Ahmad Sah, not only accepted the presents which Malik Nasir sent him, but in return he bestowed on him the white canopy and scarlet pavilion and honoured him with the title of Khan. Malik Nasir sweared fealty to Ahmad Sah and promised to abstain in future from aggression. Nasir's brother Iftikar Hasan retired to Gujarat where he and his descendants for generations found a home and intermarried with the royal house. It may be noted here that the reluctance of the Sultan of Malva to help Malik Nasir during the siege of Thalner by Malik Turk estranged the relations between the two. Malik Nasir, inspite of his matrimonial connection with Sultan Hosang, never directly or indirectly helped that Sultan in all his subsequent adventurous campaigns against the Sultans of Gujarat.

In 1429 Ahmad Sah Bahamani deputed his ambassador Azim Khan to Nasir Khan soliciting the hand of his daughter in marriage for his son Alauddin. Apprehensive of the power of the neighbouring Sultan of Gujarat, Nasir Khan received this offer favourably and sent his daughter in great state with the ambassador to Ahmadabad Bidar where the nuptials were celebrated with much magnificence. This union, however, only engendered strife. Khandes, after a disastrous war with the powerful Bahamanis was at length driven into the arms of Gujarat. In the same year Raja Kanha, the Jhalavar King fled from Gujarat and took refuge with Malik Nasir at Asir. He presented Nasir some elephants and other valuables and requested him to assist him in recovering his country from his Gujarat overlord. Nasir Khan who knew the power of Ahmad Sah of Gujarat refused to be drawn in an immediate conflict with Gujarat. He advised the Raja to seek the help of Ahmad Sah Bahamani. The Raja accordingly was dispatched to Bidar with a letter from Nasir soliciting his help to the Raja. Ahmad Sah Bahamani put a small force at the disposal of the Raja to recover his country. The detachment arrived at Nandurbar and laid waste the district. Ahmad Sah of Gujarat sent a force to oppose the aggressors under the command of his son Muhammad Khan, and Malik Mukarrib, an officer. Muhammad defeated the aggressors in the engagement which took place near Sultanpur. A large number of Deccanies were killed. The Bahamani forces retreated to Daulatabad and thence conveyed the news of the disaster to Bidar. When the news reached Ahmad Sah Bahamani he assembled a force under his son Ala uddin. The force was put under the command of Khan Jahan and Kuddas Khan at Daulatabad. They were joined by Malik Nasir. Raja Kanha who had fled to Khandes also joined them. The combined army moved several marches in the direction of the Gujarat army. It encountered the latter at the Manikpunj pass about 38 miles Northwest of Daulatabad. An action ensued in which Kuddas Khan was killed and the combined army fell back. They however rallied and forming into a solid body, made a desperate charge on the Gujarat army. They were, however, so steadily opposed that they fell back and were completely routed Ala uddin fled towards Daulatabad. Malik Nasir and Raja Kanha took refuge in the fort of Laling. The prince of Gujarat with' drew to Nandurbar, where he remained on the alert after laying, waste part of Khandes.

In 1435 when Ahmad Sah of Gujarat was engaged in hostilities with the Sultan of Malva, Malik Nasir involved himself in hostilities with Ala uddin Bahamani his son-in-law who had succeeded his father Ahmad Sah Bahamani. This was at the instigation of the Gujarat King. Malik Nasir's daughter Malika Jahan, who was married to Ala uddin Bahamani complained to her father that she was being- neglected by her husband for a beautiful Hindu wife, the daughter of the raja of Sangmesvar, whom Ala uddin had given the title of: Paricahrd (Fairy Face).[ Briggs', II. p. 427.] To avenge his daughter's wrong, Malik Nasir invaded Berar with his own forces. He was supported by; many malcontent Deccani Chiefs. He had made private overtures to them promising them great rewards if they would join his standard A considerable force was also received from the Raja of Gondvana. The Bahamani officers who had joined hands with Malik Nasir; designed a plot to arrest Khan Jahan, the governor of Berar. On receiving information of the plot Khan Jahan fled to the fortress of Narnala. He wrote the account of the disaster, to Ala uddin Sah Bahamani. In the meanwhile Malik Nasir was advancing in Berar, He had his Khutba read on Fridays in the principal mosques of the province as the king of Berar[ Bahamanis of the Deccan-H. K. Sherwani, p. 234.]

Miran Adil Khan.

On receiving this serious news, Ala uddin called a council of his ministers and military chiefs. He appointed Khalaf Hasan Malik-ut-tujjar to lead the campaign. Khalaf Hasan proceeded with a well equipped army of 7000 Arabs. He entered Berar. He was joined by Khan Jahan at Mehkar. Khan Jahan, was dispatched to Ellicpur to ward off any attack from the Raja, of Gondvana. Khalaf Hasan himself moved with the main body towards Rohankheda Ghat where Malik Nasir was camped. At the foot of the Ghat an encounter took place between a detachment of Malik Nasir's forces and the Bahamani troops. The Khandes troops were defeated with great slaughter. Malik Nasir retreated from the field and fell back on Burhanpur. He was very closely pursued by Malik-uttujjar who sacked the city of Burhanpur and levied heavy contributions from its citizens. He proceeded to lay waste the province of Khandes. At this time he received the news that the army of Malwa had joined hands with the Gujarat forces at Nandurbar and Sultanpur to help Nasir Khan. Malik-ut-tujjar determined to attack Malik Nasir before reinforcements could reach the latter. He moved on to Laling by forced marches with a select body of four thousand troops. Nasir Khan had a force of over 12,000 with him. He underestimated the real strength of the Bahamani army, issued out of the fort and gave battle. He was, however, completely defeated. Many of his principal officers together with the rebel chiefs of Berar were slain in the battle. Malik-ut-tujjar returned to Bidar with seventy elephants and a large booty. [Briggs, II, p. 430. The account given by Sayyad Ali Tabataba does not substantially differ from that given by Ferishta. Bahamani Gharanyacha Itihas, pp. 95, 96.] Malik Nasir, frustrated and overcome with anxiety and grief, died a few days after. He was buried by his son Miran Adil Khan, at Thalner. Adil Khan, who was also the nephew of Sultan Hosang of Malva, succeeded his father as the ruler of Khandes.

Inspite of the reverses which Malik Nasir suffered, he was able to secure the position of his house and kingdom. Without taking into consideration his matrimonial relationship with the Bahamanis, he wisely acknowledged the suzerainty of the Sultan of Gujarat. This step was to save his successors on several occasions.

Miran Mubarak.

After Miran Adil assumed Kingship, he wrote pressing letters to the Sultans of Gujarat and Malva to come to his succour. Shortly after, the Gujarat army arrived at Sultanpur. Malik-ut-tujjar was forced to raise the siege of Laling and retire to the Deccan. Miran Adil Khan reigned subsequently for three years till 1341. According to Ferista he suffered Martyrdom [ Briggs, IV, p. 296. The expression implies assassination. ] at Burhanpur. He was buried at Thalner by the side of his father. Miran Adil Khan was succeeded by his son Miran Mubarak. He reigned for a period of sixteen years without undertaking any foreign conquest or drawing upon himself the hostility of his neighbours. However he led two campaigns against the Raja of Baglan; this brought him in to conflict with Mahmud Khilji of Malva.

It may be mentioned here that after the death of Muhammad Sah II of Gujarat in February 1451, Mahmud Khilji of Malva resolved to seize the opportunity (of conquering Gujarat. Young Ahmad Sah had succeeded his father in Gujarat. Mahmud. Khilji assembled an army of 10,000 horse and 500 elephants and invaded Nandurbar. The commander of the fortress of Nandurbar, Ala uddin Suhrab made no attempt to hold the fort against such a force. He surrendered it to Mahmud Khilji who then advanced to Baroda. He was, however, ultimately defeated and had to flee to his own territory. After a few years, Mahmud led a desultory war against the Bahamanis. On being forced by a superior army he beat a hasty retreat. Soon after his return, Mahmud was approached by his vassal, the Raja of Baglan whose territory had been invaded by Mubarak Khan Faruqi of Khandes. Mahmud sent an army to help the Raja. Mubarak was completely defeated and fled after suffering heavy losses. Mubarak again attacked the Raja of Baglan next year. However, on hearing of the approach of the Malva army to the help of the Raja, Mubarak had to retreat to his country without risking a battle. Miran Mubarak Khan Faruqi died on June 5, 1457. He was succeeded by Adil Khan II. Adil Khan had a very long and fruitful reign of 46 years. Ferista remarks that under his government, the province of Khandes attained a degree of prosperity which it had never known under any of its former rulers. [Briggs, IV, p. 298.] He was one of the most powerful and energetic rulers of Khandes. He spread his power over the neighbouring chiefs of Gondvana and Gadha Mandala whose rajas acknowledged fealty to him. He suppressed the depredations of the Kolis and Bhils, thus ensuring safety to the travellers in his dominion. He further carried his conquest as far as Jharkhand the modern Cota Nagpur and assumed in consequence of these circumstances, the title of Sah-i-Jharkhand (King of the forest region). Adil Khan strengthened Asirgad by fortifying the strong outwork of Malaigad, built the citadel of Burhanpur and raised many magnificent buildings in that town. It was during his reign in 1462 that Mahmud Sah Begada, the Sultan of Gujarat, on receiving a call for help from the infant Bahamani ruler Nizam Sah, who had been attacked by Mahmud Khilji of Malva, marched to Nandurbar and thence eastward into Khandes. He forced the Malvese army to retire to its own country in utter confusion. Adil Khan, due to the enormous power he had gained scorned dependence upon the Sultans of Gujarat whom the Khandes rulers had regarded as their natural protectors since the invasion of Khalaf Hasan, the Bahaman General He openly declared that he owed no allegiance to the Sultan of Gujarat. Adil Khan, in his career of victory, withheld the payment of usual tribute to the Sultans of Gujarat. This brought upon him the invasion of Mahmud Sah Begada. Muhmud Sah ordered his army into Khandes and directed that it should not return till the arrears of the tribute were received. This event took place in 1498 The Gujarat army had been moved into Khandes under Sultan Begada. With its onslaught, the Khandes army retreated within the walls of Thalner and Asir. Both the places were invested by the forces of Mahmud Begada. Adil Khan, unable to cope up with the superior strength of the Gujarat forces, agreed to pay arrears of tribute. The Gujarat forces then retired to their kingdom.[ In this connection Fcrishta says " some historians state that Mahmood Shah marched in person against Adil Khan and having arrived on the river Tapti, received his submission there" Briggs', IV, p. 73.

A very interesting account of the campaign of Mahmud Begada is given by Ferishta in his history of the kingdom of Ahmadnagar. He says that when Mahmud arrived with his army at Sultanpur, Adil Khan requested the aid of Imad-ul-Mulk and Ahmad Nizam Shah to oppose Mahmud Begada. Ahmad Nizam Shah was at this time investing Daulatabad. He raised the siege and marched with 15,000 troops to Burhanpur where the allies camped. The allies brought about the defeat of the Gujarat forces by employing a strategem of doping an elephant in the Gujarat army and by creating confusion in it thereby. Ferishta concludes by saying that the " Gujarat historians have omitted to mention this defeat, desirous, perhaps, to conceal this blot on the fame of Mahmood Shah Begurra, so that god only knows whether it be true or false ". Briggs' III. p. 202.]  He hereafter maintained cordial relations, with the Sultan of Gujarat "whose court he visited. [Cambridge History of India, III, p. 313.]  Adil Khan died a few years later on 28th September 1501.

During the reign of Muhammad Sah Bahamani III, Adil Khan II of Khandes paid a complimentary visit to the former and was accorded a royal reception at Bidar. There is evidence to show that Bahamani coins were current in Khandes and the BahamanI Sultan was mentioned in the Friday prayers right throughout Khandes. When Adil Khan was in the Bahamani capital the city was given to pleasure and rejoicing and no stone was left unturned to make the visit of Adil Khan a grand success [Bahamanis of the Deccan, p. 330.] Perhaps this new relationship between the Bahamani Sultan and the Sultan of Khandes which developed and was built up over a period of time encouraged Adil Khan to severe his relations with the Sultan of Gujarat. Adil Khan was buried, at his request, near the palace of Daulat Maidan (Royal Grounds) in Burhanpur. [Briggs', IV, p. 299. It may be mentioned here that Khandesh did not remain unaffected to the upheavals that were rocking the Bahamani Kingdom after the death of Mahmud Gawan the prime minister of the Bahamani Sultan. The rivalry between the Deccanis and the foreigners erupted again and thousands were killed on both sides in the streets of Bahamani capital. When peace was restored Malik Naib, Qasim Barid and Imad-ul-mulk administered the city and kept the young king Mahmud Shah under subjugation. Dilawar Khan the African, resenting his exclusion from the highest offices, attempted, in obedience to the secret orders of the young Sultan who chafed under the restraint to which he was subjected to assassinate the Ministers but failed and was obliged to flee to Khandesh to take asylum with Adil Khan Faruqi.

Subsequently when Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, and Berar declared their independence, Qasim Barid became supreme and seized power. Dilawar Khan With the support of Adil Khan of Khandesh returned to help the king, defeating Qasim Barid but was killed accidentally in the pursuit of Kasim Barid who now emerged victorious.]

Daud Khan.

Adil Khan died without any male issue. The Kingship of Khande'S devolved on his younger brother Daud. It will be recalled here that Malik Nasir had expelled his younger brother Iftikar Hasan to Gujarat where he and his descendents were given protection by the Sultans of Gujarat. Adil Khan, the great grandson of Malik Hasan was now enjoying the protection of Mahmud Begada. He was, incidentaly, Begadas' grandson, too. Most of Malik Hasan's descendants had married princesses of the royal house of Gujarat. At the time of the death of Adil Khan II, Mahmud Begada induced Adil Khan to nominate his grandson Alam Khan as heir apparent. Mahmud Sah however could not press the claim at that time and Daud succeeded to the throne of Khandes without opposition. He was a feeble but reckless prince. He completely fell under the influence of two scheming brothers, Husain Ali and Yar Ali. He appointed the former as his Wazir and gave him the title of Hisam uddin. At the instigation of his new Wazir he declared his intention of attacking some of the frontier towns of the Ahmadnagar Kingdom. It may be mentioned here that after the murder of Mahmud Gavan the Bahamani prime minister, that Kingdom had dissipated and provincial governors had assumed independence. Malik Ahmad of Ahmadnagar was the first to assume the royal title to be shortly followed by Yusuf Adil of Bijapur and Fatehullah Imad-ul-mulk of Berar. Ahmad Nizam Sah. anticipating the movement of Daud Khan, marched an army into Khandes. Unable to face Ahmad Nizam Sah, Daud Khan retired into the fort of Asir and appealed to the; Sultan of Malva, Nasiruddin, for help. A force was sent by Nasiruddin under Ikbal Khan to assist Daud Khan. Malik Ahmad, unwilling to embroil himself in a fresh dispute with the Sultan of Malva, retreated to his own territory. Daud Khan had, however, to pay a price for inviting the assistance of the Sultan of Malva Ikbal Khan did not withdraw on hearing of the retreat of Malik Ahmad. He advanced upto Burhanpur and forced Daud Khan to agree to the Khutbd to be recited in the name of Nasiruddin. Ikbal Khan retired to Mandu after taking a tribute of two elephants and sundry articles of value from Daud Khan.[ Some historians say that the attack of Ahmad Nizam on the kingdom of Khandesh was not the result of the proposed aggression of Daud Khan against the Ahmadnagar territory alone but the invitation Ahmad Nizam Shah had received from a nobleman of the court of Khandesh who plotted to depose Daud Khan and put Alam Khan on the throne. Sayyad Ali gives a fictitious account of this episode stating that after the death of Adil Khan, mahmud Shah ascended the throne of Khandesh. Feeling insulted on the assumption of his name by the Sultan of Khandesh, Mahmud Begada attacked Khandesh being invited at the same time by the brothe'r of Mahmud Shah. Sayyad Ali then states like Ferishta, how Ahmad Shah by a strategem wrought defeat upon mahmud Begada of Gujarat who returned to his dominion defeated and humiliated and for which now the Sultan of Khandesh ever remained grateful to Ahmad Nizam Shah. This account is purely fictitious because no one ascended the throne of Khandesh by the name of Mahmud Shah. (Ahmadnagarchi Nizam shahi pp. 32-34). The events which led to the attack of Ahmad Nizam Shah on Khandesh are described in the pages that follow.]

Ghazni Khan.

The inglorious rule of Daud Khan ended on 28th August 1508 after eight years.[ After the death of Quasim Barid in 1504 Amir Ali Barid, Ahmad Nizam Shah and Qutb-ul-mulk, conspired against Yusuf Adil Shah regarding him as a Shiah heretic. Yusuf was unable to withstand the confederacy arranged against him and fled to Berar. But Imad-ul-mulk who could not protect him against his enemies advised him to retire to Khandesh and take asylum with Daud Khan of Khandesh. Yusuf owed dissension in alienating Ahmad shah and Qutb-ul-mulk to his side and then left Khandesh to attack Ali Barid with the help of Imad-ul-mulk, defeating Ali Barid at Kalam in Berar.] His son Ghazni Khan was placed on the throne by Malik Hisamuddin and other officers of the Kingdom. Ghazni Khan was, however, poisoned by Hisamuddin after a reign of only ten days. There was now no male heir to the throne residing in Khandes. The nobles of the court therefore decided to raise to the throne one Alam Khan, a scion of the Faruqi family then residing at Ahmadnagar. Ahmad Nizam Sah and Imad-ul-mulk of Berar decided to support and acknowledged Alam Khan as the king of Khandes and with the object of placing Alam Khan on the throne invaded Khandes. Mahmud Begada how-ever decided to dispute the claim of Alam Khan and instead uphold the claim of Adil Khan, the son of Hasan and grandson of Malik Nasir by the daughter of Mahmud Sah who was then residing at Thalner and had begged Mahmud Sah for his support, to capture the Government of his ancestors. Mahmud Sah, with his forces, marched towards Asir and halted at the town of Cikhali. Khandes was thus divided into two factions, one supporting the Gujarat claimant and the other, the Ahmadnagar claimant. When Malik Ahmad and Imad-ul-mulk heard of the arrival of Mahmud Sah at Thalner they decided to leave four thousand cavalry each to assist Alam Khan. They themselves retired to Gavilgad. The Khandes Officers perceiving themselves unable to resist the Gujarat forces dispersed, with Hisam uddin joining hands with the king of Gujarat. The troops left to support Alam Khan soon deserted him, thus forcing Alam Khan to flee from Burhanpur and again seek protection from Ahmad Nizam Sah. In the meanwhile Malik Larun. an officer in charge of Asir who had refused to acknowledge allegiance to either of the con testants, submitted to Mahmud Sah of Gujarat. With the opposition thus liquidated Mahmud Sah of Gujarat held a court at Thalner and installed Adil Khan III to the throne of Khandes with the title of Azim Humayun. The event took place in April 1509. He cemented the alliance between the two kingdoms by giving his grand daughter [Daughter of Muzaffar Shah who later succeeded his father Mahmud Shah Begada.] in marriage to Adil Khan III and presenting him a sum of Rs. 2,00,000.

Adil Khan III

On assumption of power, Adil Khan bestowed upon Malik Larun the title of Khan Jehan and the Jagir of Ahulas. Hisamuddin was given the title of Ser yar Khan, the town of Danvar as an estate and was placed in charge of Thalner. Adil Khan now removed his family and property from Thalner to Burhanpur and Hisamuddin pro-ceeded to Thalner. Adil Khan had some trouble with this noble and suspecting complicity on his part with Ahmad Nizam Sah in a plot to place Alam Khan on the throne, he ordered Hisamuddin to the court. Not suspecting any foul play, Hasam uddin visited Adil Khan in the audience hall. No sooner had he left the hall than he was murdered by the king's servants who had received previous instructions to that effect. The officers of Hisamuddin were attacked and cut down by Malik Burhan, an officer of the Sultan of Gujarat. This vigorous but sanguinary measure restored to the king the whole of the Thalner district, which formed nearly half of his territory. It also removed an ambitious and powerful rival. Subsequently Adil Khan visited the fort of Asir. He discovered that Ser Khan and Saif Khan, the two Gujarat nobles whom he had left in charge of Asir were intriguing against him, with Ahmad Nizam Sah. Nizam Sah had actually arrived with Alam Khan on the frontiers of the kingdom. Adil Khan thereupon sent urgent messages to Muzaffar Sah of Gujarat, who had succeeded Mahmud Sah Begada, to send a force to his assistance. Muzaffar sent Rs. 8,00,000 to Adil Khan to enable him to raise an army and also a large force under Dilavar Khan and Safdar Khan to his aid. Muzaffar Sah also informed the ambassador of Ahmad Sah at his court of his determination to support the lineal descendant of the house of Faruq even at the risk of his crown.

Ahmad Nizam Sah, too weak to face such a formidable adversary, thought it prudent to retreat. Adil Khan employed the forces sent by the Sultan of Gujarat to help him in levying tribute from the Raja of Baglan, a vassal of the Sultan of Ahmadnagar, from whom he raised a large sum of money. After this the Gujarat forces returned to their country. In the year 1517 A.D. Adil Khan accompanied his father-in-law, Muzaffar Sah in a campaign in Malva where the Rajputs under Maharana Sanga and Medini Rai, had deposed Sultan Mahmud II of Malva. Adil Khan, along with Kivam-ul-mulk, first marched against Maharana Sanga of Citod while Muzaffar marched against Mandu. After the fall of Mandu, Adil Khan, with a small body of light cavalry went in pursuit of Rana Sanga again. The latter had retreated to Citod. However Rana Sanga and Medini Rai, re-grouped their forces shortly and inflicted a crushing defeat upon Mahmud II of Malva and the Gujarat contingent of 10,000, horse led by Adil Khan and Kivam-ul-mulk. Muzaffar Sah sent further reinforcement. Their services were however, not required as the great Maharana Sanga had already restored Mahmud to the throne of Malva. Adil Khan then returned to Khandes. The rest of the reign of Adil Khan is undistinguished and is not marked by any note worthy event. In the year 1520, Adil Khan fell dangerously ill and died at Burhanpur after a reign of 19 years. He was succeeded by his eldest son Miran Muhammad whose mother was the daughter of Muzaffar Sah and sister of Bahadur Sah of Gujarat.

Miran Muhammad.

At the time of the accession of Miran Muhammad, Imad Sah of Berar and Burhan Nizam Sah of Ahmadnagar were embroiled in a war with each other. Imad Sah was defeated and took refuge with Miran Muhammad of Khandes. Miran Muhammad and Imad Sah wrote to Bahadur Sah of Gujarat seeking his mediation in the dispute with Burhan Nizam Sah. Bahadur Sah agreed and sent Ain-ul-mulk, his ambassador to mediate a peace. Burhan agreed to a temporary truce. However, on the return of Ain-ul-mulk to Gujarat he worsted the territory of Berar by attacking Mahur and other places. Imad Sah now formed an alliance with Miran Muhammad who marched with all his army and elephants to the aid of Imad-ul-mulk. In a desultory action Imad-ul-mulk defeated a contingent of Burhan Nizam Sah and gave himself to plunder. Burhan Nizam Sah rallied and with a body of three thousand cavalry attacked the allied army and completely routed both Imad Sah and Miran Muhammad. The allies lost several of their elephants, with a considerable number from their army slain on the battle field. Miran Muhammad fled towards Asir and Imad Sah towards Gavilgad and from there entreated Bahadur Sah to send assistance [After the death of Muzuffar Shah a war of succession ensued between his sons Sikandar, Latif and Bahadur. The town of Nandurbar was a scene of great activity during this great turmoil in Gujarat. Imad-ul-mulk a nobleman of Gujarat court raised Sikandar to the throne whereas Latif started collecting army at Nandurbar. When a force was sent against him he retreated from Nandurbar and fled to Baglan but subsequently returned to Gujarat. In the meanwhile, Sikandar was assassinated by Imad-ul-mulk Khush Kadam and his infant son was raised to the throne under the title of Mahmud II. Prince Bahadur was returning to Gujarat from the north at the express invitation of file principal nobles of Gujarat who detested the behaviour of Imad-ul-Mulk. Imad-ul-mulk now wrote to Burhan Nizam Shah to invade Nandurbar send-all him monetary gifts. Burhan accepted the gifts but did nothing in return. Bahadur Shah now reached the Territory of Gujarat and entered Champaner, Imad-ul-mulk was unable to oppose him. Latif Khan who was lurking in the town fled to Nandurbar and was joined by a number of partisans. Ghazi Khan who was upholding Bahadur's cause in the Nandurbar district defeated Latif and made him a prisoner. Latif died on his way to capital where he was being sent at the orders of Bahadur Shah.] to fight against Burhan Nizam Sah. Bahadur Sah decided to march personally. He arrived at Nandurbar where he was met by Miran Muhammad and the Raja of Baglan Bahadur gave his sister in marriage to Miran Muhammad, bestowed upon him the title of Sah and after the rainy season of 1528 marched towards the Kingdom of Ahmadnagar by way of Berar. On the way he was joined by Imad Sah. Bahadur advanced through Berar. He asked Imad Sah to dismiss his officers and appoint his nominees in their places. This threat put Imad Sah in a quandary. He therefore pleaded with Bahadur Sah, on the advice of Miran Muhammad, to march towards Ahmadnagar. Bahadur accepted this advice and occupied Ahmadnagar. He was accompanied by the Berar and Khandes troops. The Ahmadnagar army was occupied in cutting off the supplies of the invaders. Bahadur now turned towards the fort of Daulatabad which he invested. Here he was attacked by Burhan Nizam who now thought of seducing Imad-ul-mulk. The latter had grown suspicious about the intentions of Bahadur Sah. Burhan succeeded in his plan and Bahadur Sah now perceived his difficult position with one of his allies deserting him and the other Miran Muhammad desiring peace. Bahadur therefore permitted Miran Muhammad to carry negotiations fors peace and agreed on terms sufficiently humiliating to Burhan Nizam Sah. Burhan agreed to recite the Khutba in the name of Bahadur Sah and return the elephants of the allies captured in the battle. It was with great difficulty that Miran Muhammad succeeded in recovering his elephants from Burhan Nizam Sah. With the treaty thus concluded, Bahadur Sah, Miran Muhammad and Imad-ul-mulk returned to their respective dominions.

In 1532 disputes arose between Bahadur Sah of Gujarat and Mahmud Sah of Malva. The former decided to settle the issue by recourse to arms. He advanced towards Mandu accompanied by Miran Muhammad Sah of Khandes. Mandu was captured and the whole of Malva was annexed to Gujarat. Bahadur Sah returned to Gujarat and on his way was entertained by Miran Muhammad Sah at Burhanpur. Burhan Nizam Sah, alarmed at the conquest of Malva, sent Sah Tahir and Narsu Pandit to Burhanpur. He requested Miran Muhammad Sah to intercede on his behalf with Bahadur Sah to reconcile some differences which existed between him and the Sultan of Gujarat. On the advice of Miran Muhammad Sah, Bahadur Sah agreed to the proposal. The meeting between the two took place at Burhanpur in the presence of Miran Muhammad Sah. Bahadur gratified Burhan's vanity by recognising his title of Sah.

In 1532 Bahadur Sah of Gujarat, on learning of the disloyalty of Rajput Silahdi who was the vassal of the Sultans of Malva, marched to Malva. He dispatched a force under Miran Muhammad Sah and Imad-ul-mulk Malikji against Silahdi. Miran Muhammad Sah established Bahadur's authority over the outlying districts of Malva and met Bahadur Sah at Sarangpur. Bahadur Sah then returned to Campaner and Miran Muhammad went to Khandes. After the rainy season in 1532 Miran Muhammad again joined Bahadur and both proceeded to Citod which was captured. Both the kings then retired to their respective kingdoms. They returned to Malva in 1534 Bahadur Sah now became estranged from Humayun, the Moghal emperor who attacked him. Bahadur Sah could do nothing against the skilled Moghal archers and had to beat a hasty retreat to Gujarat with Miran Muhammad Sah and his other officers in Malva. He was hotly pursued by Humayun who occupied the whole of Gujarat and marched into Khandes. Muhammad Sah begged Humayun to spare his small kingdom the horrors of an invasion. At the same time, he wrote to the Sultanates of the Deccan. But Humayun's affairs were confined to a military promenade through Khandes whence he returned to Mandu. [Haig, III, p. 333.] The sudden eruption of Ser Sah from Bengali into Delhi territory obliged him to return hastily to Agra. Bahadur closely followed the retreating Moghals and re-established his hold on Gujarat. Bahadur then requested Miran Muhammad Sah to invade Malva and drive away the Moghal officers who had been stationed there. Miran Muhammad Sah, in concert with Mallu Khan, the Gujarat Governor of Malva, took possession of Mandu. Here he heard of the death of Bahadur Sah. He himself was chosen to succeed the vacant throne of Gujarat by the mother of Bahadur Sah and the nobles of Gujarat.[Sultan Bahadur Shah had, during his lifetime, indicated to the assembled nobles that his sister's son Miran Muhammad Shah, ruler of Khandesh, should succeed him to the throne of Gujarat.]  He was formally crowned at Mandu. His reign as Sultan Muhammad III was however short lived On his journey to Ahmadabad, he was taken ill and died in May 1535. He lies buried at Burhanpur in the vault of his father Adil Khan.

Miran Mubarak Khan.

Miran Muhammad Sah was Succeeded by his brother Miran Mubarak Khan.[ The nobles of Khandesh raised Raja, the son of Miran Muhammad Shah to the throne but Miran Mubarak deposed him and assumed royalty. Ayeen Akbery, p. 345.] He immediately brought upon himself an invasion from Gujarat. The late king Miran Muhammad had brought up Mahmud Khan, the son of Latif Khan, the rebel brother of the late Sultan Bahadur Sah of Gujarat. The Gujarat nobles decided to put Mahmud Khan on the throne of Gujarat. Miran Mubarak hoped to receive a summons to the throne of Gujarat. Seeing the circumstances taking a turn contrary to his wishes he refused to surrender Mahmud Khan, the declared heir to the throne of Gujarat. The Gujarat army under Ikhtiyar Khan invaded Khandes and forced Miran Mubarak to surrender Mahmud Khan who was taken to Gujarat and crowned king. Differences soon developed between Ikhtiyar Khan who had now become regent and Imad-ul-mulk Malikji, another prominent noble of the kingdom. These led to the assassination of the former. Another noble Darya Khan now came into prominence and a rift developed between Imad-ul-mulk and Darya Khan leading to an open clash. Imad-ul-mulk was defeated and driven into Khandes. He was hospitably received by Miran Mubarak who encouraged him to collect a body of 12,000 troops. Both of them, then marched to meet Darya. Khan. Their ostensible object was to secure the throne for Mubarak Sah. Darya Khan, in the meanwhile, along with Mahmud Sah followed Imad-ul-mulk. A battle was fought at Dangri, near Tapi in which the Khandes troops were totally defeated. Mubarak fled to Asir and Imad-ul-mulk went away to Malva. Darya Khan, following up his success, plundered and laid waste the country of Khandes. He compelled Mubarak to pay a heavy indemnity. A treaty was concluded. Miran Mubarak paid a visit to Mahmud Sah accompanied by his respectable nobles. Darya Khan and Mahmud Sah then returned to Gujarat. [It was at this time that Miran Mubarak acquired for himself the districts of Sultanpur and Nandurbar. Mahmud Shah, when in confinement in Asir (under Miran Muhammad Shah), had promised that if ever he succeeded to the government of Gujarat he would give the districts to Miran Mubarak. Upon this occasion he fulfilled the promise. Briggs', IV, p. 315.

The account given by Commissariat based on Mirat-i-Sikandari is as undet:—

"Twice during this reign, Sultan Mubarak Shah, ruler of Khandesh, who was closely related by blood to the Gujarat dynasty and who resented the fact that the nobles of that kingdom had not only passed over his claims to the succession in favour of boy-rulers like Mahmud III and Ahmad III but had also partitioned the country among themselves led his army to the Gujarat frontier in order to take advantage of the distracted condition of that country. On the first occasion he was induced to abandon his designs upon the pious remonstrances of Saiyid Mubarak. But the second invasion was instigated by Itimad Khan himself who had taken refuge at the court of Burhanpur when he found his power at Ahmadabad temporarily eclipsed.

This time the invader could only be bought off by the surrender of the districts of Sultanpur and Nandurbar which were thus alienated from the Gujarat Saltanat in this unhappy reign." I, p. 469. The version of this episode given by Mirat-i-Sikandari appears to be correct because a victories Mahmud Shah would never have agreed to the cession of these two district to Miran Mubarak as narrated by Ferishta.]  It may be recalled here that after the annexation of Malva by Humayun and later with the occupation of the Delhi throne by Ser Sah, Sujat Khan had been appointed governor of Malva. Later, when Humayun recovered his throne, Sujat Khan refused to acknowledge him as his sovereign. After his death his son Biz Bahadur assumed royal titles. When Akbar ascended the throne he invaded Malva and forced Baz Bahadur to flee. Baz Bahadur sought protection with Miran Mubarak Sah of Khandes. Pir Muhammad Khan, the Moghal general, pursued him to the very centre of Khandes, and devastated the country. He sacked the city of Burhanpur, dishonoured the females and committed enormities unfit to relate. [Briggs', IV, p. 315.] Miran Mubarak Sah, therefore, wrote to Tufal Khan of Berar, who had become all powerful by arrogating the authority from Imad Sah of Berar to himself, to assist him in this moment of crisis. Tufal Khan responded to the entreaty of Miran Mubarak Sah and marched with all his forces to Khandes. Pir Muhammad Khan who was withdrawing with all his booty and spoils without order and discipline, was surprised by the allied forces on the banks of the Narmada. He was defeated and put to flight with heavy losses. The allies marched right upto Mandu, reinstated Baz Bahadur on the throne and after wards returned to their respective territories. Miran Mubarak Sah did not survive for long after this. He died in December 1566 after a reign of thirty-two years.

Miran Muhammad Khan

Miran Mubarak was succeeded by his son Miran Muhammad Khan. Immediately on his accession he had to face an attack from Gujarat. That country was riddled by the warring nobles who had practically divided the country among themselves Itimad Khan was the regent in Gujarat to whom a demand was made by Cangiz Khan, a fief holder, for additional territory to support his troops. Itimad Khan advised Cangiz Khan to recover the district of Nandurbar which formerly formed part of Gujarat but was new held by the Sultan of Khandes. Cangiz Khan fell for the bait, invaded and occupied Nandurbar and forcing the Khandes army to retreat, advanced towards Thalner. Miran Muhammad wrote pressing letters to Tufal Khan to send assistance to fight this aggression from Gujarat. Tufal Khan responded favourably. On arrival of the Berar troops both the armies marchal to the western frontier. On their arrival at Thalner they found Cangiz Khan strongly posted with ravines on his flanks and fled artillery and carriages of all descriptions forming a barrier in his 0front. Miran Muhammad avoided an attack during daylight. He reconnoitred Cangiz Khan's position and made every effort to induce him to quit his position. However, at night time, Cangiz Khan fled to Broac, leaving all his army and artillery in the hands of the combined forces. Nandurbar was immediately retaken and Miran Muhammad occupied the territory vacated by Cangiz Khan. The affairs in Gujarat had not improved much and many noblemen even refused to acknowledge the right of Muzaffar Sah to the throne. Miran Muhammad thought it a splendid opportunity to stake his claim to the throne of Gujarat. He expected to get support from this faction of the nobility. He, therefore, collected a force of 30,000 horse and marched to Ahmadabad. Cangiz Khan, who had emerged successful in the power struggle in Gujarat, on hearing of the attack of Miran Muhammad, collected a force of 7,000 and assisted by the Mirzas, the cousins of Emperor Akbar who had been driven away by Emperor Akbar and had taken refuge in Gujarat, made contact with Miran Muhammad and inflicted a crushing defeat upon him. Miran Muhammad retreated to Asir, leaving behind his elephants, artillery and all the royal equipage which the rulers of Khandes possessed. [Briggs,, IV, p. 318. ] The Mirzas had now become a nuisance. Not only did they carry out depredatory activities in Gujarat but they extended their arms to Khandes which they invaded. Before Miran Muhammad could collect an army sufficient to oppose them, they laid waste and levied contributions in several districts. They then quitted the province [Briggs", IV, p. 319. ] in 1572. This coincided with the annexation of Gujarat in the year 1572 by Emperor Akbar.

Shortly after this Khandes was engaged in a conflict with Murtaza Nizam Sah of Ahmadnagar who had invaded Berar. Tufal Khan of Berar had imprisoned Burhan Imad Sah and had usurped all power. Tufal Khan was defeated and fled to Khandes to seek protection from Miran Muhammad Sah. He, however, refused to give him asylum fearing revenge from Murtaza Nizam Sah. Ultimately Tufal Khan was captured and the whole of Berar was annexed to Ahmad-nagar. The northward expansion of Ahmadnagar roused the suspicions of Miran Muhammad Sah and Ibrahim Kutb Sah. A revolt in Berar encouraged Miran Muhammad Sah to intervene. Miran Muhammad Sah sent an army of 3,000 horse and seven to eight thousand infantry under the command of his minister Zainuddin [Sayyad Ali places the strength of the army at 20,000 troops. Ahmad-nagarchi Nizamshahi, p. 173.] to Berar. It was to support the cause of a pretender, probably a scion of the Imad Sahi family, who had taken refuge in his court. This force occupied a large portion of Berar. On hearing of this Murtaza marched in haste towards Berar. Sayyad Murtaza, his officer, who had preceded his master, having come up with the pretender at the head of eight thousand troops, had already attacked and defeated Zainuddin. Murtaza Nizam Sah, in the meanwhile, had entered Khandes by the Rohankheda ghat and laid waste the country to the very gates of Burhanpur which he sacked and burnt. Miran Muhammad Sah shut himself up in the fortress of Asir which was invested by Cangiz Khan, the Wazir of Murtaza Nizam Sah with 8,000 troops. Miran Muhammad Sah sent a detachment of his troops to cut off the rear of the besieging forces but the detachment was repulsed with heavy losses. Some of the officers of the Khandes army were taken prisoners. Murtaza Nizam Sah then himself marched in person to Asir from whence he sent out parties to devastate the surrounding country. Miran Muhammad Sah was compelled to purchase peace by the payment of an indemnity of 10,00,000 Muzaffari coins of Gujarat. It was only then that the Nizam sahi troops retired to their own country. In the year 1576 Miran Muhammad Sah fell sick. He died a few months later. [The account of this estrangement between Khandesh and Ahmadnagar and the subsequent attack by Ahmadnagar on Khandesh given by Sayyad Ali doeS not differ substantially from the one given by Ferishta. His account is as under Miran Muhammad was incited to attack Berar by Kutb Shah and Adil Shah who promised help. When the commande'r-in-chief of Khandesh marched in Berar, all the officers of Ahmadnagar except Chagtai Khan left their posts and fled to Ellichpur. Khurshid Khan the Sariashkar of Ahmadnagar in Berar, left for Gavilgad and from there he harassed the Khandesh army. The KhandessH army took over the Ahmadnagar troops at Nanala which it besieged and inflicted a crushing defeat upon them. The Ahmadnagar army regrouped on the banks of the Purna but had to fall back with heavy losses after being attacked by Miran Muhammad Shah. When the news of this disaster reached Murtaza Nizam Shah he marched with his general Sayyad Murtaza. This unnerved Zain-ul-Abidin, the commander of Khandesh forces, who withdrew to his own country. Miran Muhammad fled to Asir fort. Murtaza, in the meanwhile marched to Burhanpur and completely sacked the town. Murtaza then proceeded to besiege Asir fort. On his way he defeated a contingent of Khandesh troops sent to oppose him. He devastated the entire districts of Asir and Burhanpur and matching further besieged the fort of Asir. The siege continued reducing Miran Muhammad to a miserable plight. Miran Muhammad therefore sent Khan Khanan to Murtaza Nizam Shah begging for peace. Murtaza Nizam Shah agreed to raise the siege of Asirgad and retire to his territory on condition of receiving an indemnity of 1 lakh of Muzaffari Rupees. The seige was raised and the amount was paid to Murtaza Nizam Shah after he crossed the river at Burhanpur on his way to his kingdom. (Ahmadnagarchi Nizamshahi pp. 173-176).]

Husain Khan.

Miran Muhammad Sah was succeeded by his minor son Husain Khan. But Raja Ali Khan, the late king's brother, who was at Agra at the time of the death of Miran Muhammad, hurried toward  Burhanpur. He was received by the nobles of the kingdom who placed him on the throne by deposing Husain Khan. [Briggs, IV, p. 321. ] At this time the entire south was in the throes of an invasion from the north by Emperor Akbar who had lately annexed the kingdoms of Malva and Gujarat to his empire. In the summer of 1577 Akbar sent an expeditionary force to Khandes which secured the submission of Raja Ali Khan. The importance of the submission of Raja Ali Khan to Akbar cannot be minimised because it was a part of a grand scheme of the Delhi emperors to subjugate the entire Deccan. Between the Deccan and the Moghal empire, Khandes was the only political barrier. Raja Ali Khan earnestly desired the maintenance of independence of the Deccan States. He was, however, apprehen sive of their future as well as his own, due to the prevailing inter-necine strifes and bitter and bloody domestic feuds. These could, in  the event of an imperial attack, prevent them from rendering him any active assistance. This situation forced Raja Ali Khan to belie his sympathies for the Decean States by formally submitting to the might of Akbar. In the same year there was a rebellion in Gujarat by one Muzaffar Husain Mirza who occupied Nandurbar and Baroda. The expeditionary force stationed in Khandes was sent against him. It was defeated. On hearing of the news, Todar Mal who was at Patan hastened to Gujarat and defeated the rebel. On the return of Todar Mal, Muzaffar Husain again raised his head and defeated Vazir Khan, the viceroy of Sarnal. An accidental bullet shot killed Mihar Ali, Muzaffar's deputy, when Muzaffar got panicky and fled to Nandurbar. He was seized by Raja Ali Khan and surrendered to Akbar.

In 1586 Akbar planned an invasion of Berar to reinstate a few discontented nobles of the Ahmadnagar court. They had rebelled against Salabat Khan, the prime minister, and fled to Akbar's court. Khan Azam, the governor of Malva, was ordered to attack Berar. Raja Ali Khan now sided with Ahmadnagar and the combined forces of the two effectively cut the raiders off their base and forced Khan Azam to beat a hasty retreat to Gujarat. While on his way to Gujarat, he suddenly came upon Sultanpur and Nandurbar, plundered them and retired to Malva. The armies of Khandes and Ahmadnagar then retired to their respective territories.'

In 1589 Akbar again sought the opportunity of interfering in the affairs of the Decean. He supported Burhan, the younger brother of Murtaza Nizam Sah. The latter had been murdered and his son Husain had ascended the throne. However, Husain was also murdered in the same year and Burhan's son Ismail was put on the throne. Burhan now marched to the Deccan to depose his son and secure for himself the throne of Ahmadnagar. Akbar now wrote to Raja Ali Khan to support Burhan in his designs. After initial reverses Burhan fled to Khandes. There he was reinforced by Raja Ali Khan with an army. Raja Ali Khan also sought the assistance of Ibrahim Adil Sah. Jamal Khan, the Ahmadnagar commander, defeated the Adilsahi troops sent under Dilavar Khan. He then turned to face the combined forces of Raja Ali Khan and Burhan. Jamal Khan was, however, defeated and slain. Ismail Nizam Sah was captured on the battle-field. Burhan now ascended the throne of Ahmadnagar as Burhan Nizam Sah II. He immediately came to grips with Ibrahim Adil Sah for employing Dilavar Khan, who had been disgraced by his monarch. However, the intervention of Raja Ali Khan and Muhammad Quli Kutb Sah saved the situation from deteriorating further.

In 1591 Akbar sent missions to the courts of the Sultans of the Decean. Faizi was accredited to Raja Ali Khan of Khandes and to Burhan Nizam Sah II of Ahmadnagar. Faizi reported stubbornness On the part of the latter. Akbar then stationed a permanent force in Malva under Murad with instructions to intervene in the Decean affairs at the slightest provocation.

In 1593, dispute arose between Salabat Khan, the Ahmadnagar regent and Sayyad Murtaza, the governor of Berar. An action was fought between the two near Ahmadnagar wherein the latter was defeated. Sayyad Murtaza was closely pursued. He reached Burhanpur where he sought the help of Raja Ali Khan who wavered in taking a decision. Growing impatient, Sayyad Murtaza sacked the town and marched towards Agra. Raja Ali Khan, however, overtook Murtaza on the banks of the Narmada and defeated him. Murtaza however, managed to escape and sought asylum with Akbar. Akbar enrolled him in his service and decided upon invading the Deccan. Raja Ali Khan, on learning of the turn the events had taken, deputed an envoy to Akbar and presented all the elephants he had captured from Sayyad Murtaza. In the following year, however, Akbar sent Sayyad Murtaza and other Deccan chiefs to Malva for the specific purpose of invading Berar. From Ahmadnagar Mirza Muhammad Taqi was sent to oppose the invading army. When the imperial forces arrived at Handia, its commander deputed an envoy, sah Fathullah Sirajl, to Raja Ali Khan asking him to bring about accommodation with Ahmadnagar. On the other hand Mirza Muhammad Taqi made overtures to Raja Ali Khan inducing him to join hands with him. Raja Ali Khan preferred to side with the Ahmadnagar forces. The combined armies arrived within two miles of the Moghal camp at Handia. But no action took place. A contingent of the, Moghal army made a diversionary attack on Berar and before being contacted by the combined forces retired to Handia. The forces| of Khandes and Ahmadnagar also retired to their respective territories. 

At this time the affairs at the court of Ahmadnagar were in a state of utter confusion. With the death of Burhan Nizam Sah II the court was divided into various factions. One of the factions led by Miyan Manju invited Akbar to intervene. Akbar willingly accepted the invitation and sent Khan Khanan and prince Murii with a large force to subjugate the Deccan. Raja Ali Khan was asked to join the imperial army. His sympathies lay entirely with Ahmadnagar. He sent secret messages of encouragement to till defenders of Ahmadnagar. [It was chiefly through the persuasion of Khan Khanan that Raja Ali Khan declared his allegiance to Akbar; coins were struck and prayers read in Akbar's name. Khandesh was given as a grant to Raja Ali Khan and he was enrolled among the nobles of 5,000. Elliot and Dowson, VI, p. 241.] The siege lasted for a considerable time Peace was concluded when Ahmadnagar agreed to cede Berar to the Moghals. The peace, however, did not last long. Hostilities erupted between the Moghals and Ahmadnagar. A battle was fought on 5th February 1597, at Sonpet when on the first day both the wing of the imperial army were put to flight. In the left wing Raja. At Khan made a heroic stand. He was slain with thirty of his officers and 500 of his men. Khan Khanan made a determined stand but the imperial troops finding the left wing suddenly empty looted the Khandes camp. Victory ultimately declared itself for the imperialists. On the following day the body of Raja Ali Khan was found on the field of battle. It was taken to Burhanpur where he was buried with due honours.

Raja Ali Khan was succeeded by his son Qadr Khan under the title of Bahadur Sah. In 1599 Akbar had sent Abul Fazl from Agra to summon prince Murad. Abdul Fazl was received by Bahadur Khan near Burhanpur. The meeting was far form cordial and Bahadur Khan refused to join the imperial army in person, offering a contingent of 2,000 horse under the command of his son Kabir Khan. Prince Murad, however died on May 20, 1599 and was succeeded by prince Daniyal in command of the imperialist troops The condition of the imperial army stationed in the Deccan was unsatisfactory. Akbar left Agra for Malva to supervise the operations in the Deccan. Prince Daniyal had also proceeded to take command. He arrived at Burhanpur in January 1600. Bahadur Khan remained in the citadel and refused to come and see the prince. Akbar on hearing of this hastened to Burhanpur, and ordered Daniyal to proceed to Ahmadnagar. Akbar decided to deal with Bahadur Khan personally. It may be recalled here that the behaviour of the imperial troops in the battle of Sonpet must have embittered Bahadur Khan against Akbar. Bahadur shut himself up in the fort of Asir and commenced preparations to defend himself. Akbar who had arrived at Burhanpur on April 8, 1600 sent Khan Azam to besiege Asir. He appointed Abul Fazl as governor of Khandes. Bahadur Khan now tried to open peace talks with Akbar perhaps with the intention of playing for time, which would force Akbar to raise the siege for want of supplies. The siege of Asir, however, progressed languidly due to the sloth and venality of some of the imperial officers. On 9th December an important outwork of the fort was carried by escalade. On December 21, 1600, Bahadur appeared before Akbar in the imperial camp and made his submission. The submission of Bahadur did not mean the submission of the fortress because Bahadur had given clear instructions to Yakut, the commander of the fortress to hold it to the last. Yakut carried these orders faithfully although his son Muqarrab Khan brought orders for the surrender of the fort from Bahadur Khan, then in the imperial camp. Yakut Khan even went to the extent of placing on the throne one of the numerous princes from the royal family imprisoned in the fort. None consented to this step. The disappointed commander exclaimed "Would to God that Ye were women", took poison and died. The fort surrendered to Akbar on January 6, 1601 and Khandes was thus finally annexed to the empire. Prince Daniyal arrived in the imperial camp and was made the governor of the new province. Khandes was fancifully named by Akbar as Dandes after his son Daniyal. Akbar then reorganised the provinces of Khandes and Berar. Portions of the kingdom of Ahmadnagar which had been conquered were joined to this province. These constituted the viceroyalty of the Deccan. Akbar appointed prince Daniyal as the viceroy of the new province.

According to European travellers, Khandes of which Dhulia district formed part was about this time (1585-1601) rich and well peopled, yielding in places great abundance of grain, cotton, wool, and sugar, with great markets for dry fruits, yarn, prints, calicoes, lawns, brassware, arms and drugs [The travellers were Ralph Fitch and Newberry (1585) Jangigny's Inde, 384, and Salbank (1601) in Harris, I, 98.]. Khandes was called Dandes fondly by Akbar,, after it was transferred to the Government of Prince Daniyal, a combination perhaps of Daniyal and Khandes. [Blochmann's Ain-i-Akbari, I, 336. Copper coins called Don Paisa coined in Burhanpur were in 1818 still found in Khandesh. Mr. Crawlay-Boevey, C.S.] It formed a province 150 miles (70 kos) from east to west and 100 miles from north to south. It was bounded on the north by Malva, on the east by Berar, on the south by Galna and on the west by Malva to which the districts of Nandurbar, including Sahada and Taloda were handed over. [It has already been mentioned that in the troubled times that followed the death of Sultan Muhammad Shah of Gujarat, Nandurbar and Sultanpur were  invaded and taken by Changiz Khan of Gujarat. In the arrangements made by  Akbar about the close of the century it appears that these districts were taken  from Khandesh and made over to the province of Malwa.] It contained 32 sub-divisions yielding a yearly revenue of £ 75,885 [After the conquest of Asir, this revenue was increased by 50 per cent, if The Tankah or tungahs is reckoned at 24 dams. The total is, therefore, 455, 294,, 232 Akbari dams (Rs. 1,13,82,355-84 naye paise) Jarret, Ain-i-Akbari, II, 225.; Hamilton, Descriptions of Hindostan, II, 95.] [1, 26, 47, 602 tungahs.] [Ain-i-Akbari, II. 230. The sub-divisions were Asir, Atral, Erandol, Punet-; gong, Baryre, Purmal (to the west of Burhanpur) Purmal (to the south-easl of '. Burhanpur) *,*, Bhamer, Jamod, Jasi'r, Chandsir, Jalod, Javere, Dangri, Damn; Raver, Rattanpur, Savda, Mahil, Sakadgang, Nebad, Nasir-Shamshad, Laling, Sanderti, Edlabad, Lohara, Manjrud and Nasirabad.] [It's length from Borgaon (Poorgaon) which adjoins Hindiah to Lalangj (Lelang) which is on the borders of the territory of Ahmadnagaris 75 kos. Its, breadth from Jamod adjoining Berar to Pal which borde'rs Malwa is 50 and in some parts only 25 kos. On its east is Berar; to the north Malwa, to the south-Galnah (Galna); to the west, the southern chains of the mountains of Malwah,]

Besides these, the Nandurbar district, with seven, sub-divisions and area of 667, 203 acres (859, 604 bighas) yielded a large additional revenue of £ 125, 405 (501, 62, 250 dams) and furnished 500 cavalry and 6,000 infantry. The winter was temperate, the air delightful and the rivers and streams abundant. The 32 sub-divisions were all in high cultivation. The husbandmen, Kunbis, Bhils and Gonds were dutiful subjects and very hard workers. The chief product was Indian millet, jvarl, which in several places yielded three crops a year. Rice was excellent, the vegetables remarkably fine, betel-leaf abundant, and flowers and fruits plentiful. [Khandesh is specially mentioned as one of the best mango districts.; Blochmann's Ain-i-Akbari, 68.] Of manufactures there. were different kinds of fine and ordinary cotton cloth [Fine stuff called abastch and ordinary cotton doth known as sirtsaf and bliiraiin. See Blochmann's Ain-i-Akbari 68.]. Of cities there were: Burhanpur, a large city inhabited by people of all nations abounding in handicrafts; Asir a large city at the foot of the fort; Copda a large town well peopled; Damburm, a populous town; and Edlabad, a good town [Gladwin's Ain-i-Akbari, II, 51-54.] Thalner was for a time the capital of the Faruqi princes. The fort though situated on the plains was nevertheless of great strength. Scarcely any land was out of cultivation and many of the villages resembled towns. The peasantry was docile and industrious. The provincial force was formed of Kolis, Bhils and Gonds. Some of these could tame lions so that they would obey their commands and strange tales were told about them. [Jarret, II, 224; Gladwin, I, 342, 343.]

Salbank in 1609 also mentions Nizampur, the headquarters of a petty division and calls it Nabox, a place with exports of grain, cotton, wool and where sugar grew in great abundance.

The transfer of Nandurbar to Malva, however, does not seem to have lasted for a long time, because in 1609 Nandurbar, Netherheri, is mentioned amongst Khandes towns as dealing in brassware, suits of armour, berries drugs, pintadoes or calicoes, cotton, yarn, wool and coarse cloth. It was rich in musk-melons and grapes. [It may be mentioned here that after its capture by the Moghals, Burhanpur remained the headquarters of the Deccan provinces till in 1635 the seat of the government was moved to Khadki afterwards called Aurangabad.]


For the first thirty years, though without much regular fighting or open opposition, the district was unsettled and declining. In April 1605 Daniyal died of delirium tremens at Burhanpur. Akbar who was deeply grieved on the death of his son died shortly afterwards on 25th-26th October 1605. He was succeeded by his son Salim under the title of Jahangir. Soon after his accession Jahangirs' attention was drawn to the events in the Deccan. Malik Ambar had set up a ruler named Murtaza Nizam Sah II as king of Ahmadnagar and put up stout resistance to the Moghals. Khan Khanan, the Moghal general, failed to subdue him and had to return to Burhanpur, the provincial capital, after effecting a compromise with Malik Ambar. In 1609 (February) the English merchant Hawkins travelling from Surat to Burhanpur, even with an escort of about sixty Pathan horse was attacked by a troops of outlaws. [Kerr's Voyages, VIII, 229. ] He reached Burhanpur on 8th February 1609 and next day saw Chan Channa (Khan Khanan), the lord general and viceroy of the Deccan. [Foster, Early Travels in India, 80, 129.] Next year (January-February 1610) the viceroy had been defeated by the people of the Deccan and the country was disturbed. The roads were not safe for bodies of less than 1,000 horses. The Deccanis made inroads to the Tapi plundering the people and sacking Raver and other towns. [Finch in Kerr's Voyages, VIII, 280.] The places mentioned are Nizampur, a large town under Pratapsah of Baglan [The province of Baglan still maintained its independence. The chief's headquarters were at Jaitapur nea'r Mulher and he levied tolls on all passing through his territory.]; Dayta, a great town in a fertile soil; Badur, a filthy town with a manufacture of moha wine; Saler and Muler, two fair cities where Mahmudis worth about 1 s. were coined. Nandurbar, a city with many tombs and houses of pleasure, a castle, and a fair pond; Lingal, a beastly town with thievish people and a dirty castle; Sindkheda, a great dirty town; Thalner, a fair town with a castle; Copda a great town; Raver, a country village; Bival, a lagre town with good castle and Burhanpur, a very large but beastly city with a fine garden, banquet house, and castle [Finch in Kerr's Voyages, VIII, 279. ] and Bahadurpur, a fair city and between Bahadurpur and Burhanpur the camp of Khan Khanan with 15,000 horse, 200 fair elephants and hundred pieces of ordnance of all sizes. [Terry mentions that adjoining to this province lived a petty prince called Pratapshah, tributary to the Moghal and that was the most southernmost part of all his territories-Terry Edward, A Voyage to East Indies, 85.]

On the other side within 20 or 30 kos. lay Amber Chapon (Malik Ambar), an Abashed (Abyssinian) and general of the king of Deccan forces with some ten thousand Decanees; in so much that the city of Burhanpur had certainly been lost had not the prince Sultan Perviz and Raja Mansing come instantly down with great forces. For at this time he had sent to Khan Khanan to yield up the city upon composition, deeming him not able to hold it against him. This city is very great but beastly, situated in a low, unwholesome air, a very sickly place caused especially by bad water. [Foster...Early Travels in India (William Finch, 1608-1611) pp. 138-139.]

Khan Khanan was recalled due to his failure against Malik Ambar. Khan Jahan was appointed in his place in 1610 under the overall command of Prince Perviz with Asaf Khan as his tutor. Khan Azam, and in 1611, Abdulla Khan were also sent to the Deccan as reinforcements. On 12th February 1610 William Finch rode to visit prince Perviz and on the 13th gave him presents. He found him courteous. The prince had 20,000 horse and 300 fair elephants and with him were Asaf Khan (Jafar Beg) with 3,000 soldiers and Mirza Rustom with some 1,000 soldiers. Raja Mansing, too had joined with 10,000 Rajputs and 1,000 elephants. [Foster, 139.] The Moghals now planned an enveloping movement in which Khan Jahan and Raja Mansing were to take the left or eastern side through Khandes and Berar while Abdulla Khan was to advance from the West. The concerted move, however, did not come off as Abdulla Khan did not keep contact with Mansing. The Maratha skirmishers harrassed him and he had to retreat to Gujarat with heavy losses.

In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe visited India as an ambassador from the king of England. He entered the kingdom of Pratapsah on 3rd November 1615. He was at Navapur on 4th, at Dhatia on 5th, at Nandurbar on 6th, at Lingull on 7th, at Sindkheda on 8th, at Thalner on 9th and at Copda, on 10th. He found the country unsettled Travellers when they stopped for the night made a ring fence of their carts and pitched their tents inside. On any suspicion of danger the local governor provided a special guard of horse.[ Terry's Voyages, 162.] The west districts were full of cattle, the east miserable and barren. The towns and villages were built of mud and even Burhanpur though with trade enough to attract an English factory, and described [Terry's Voyages, 80.] as very great, rich and full of people, was, except for the houses of the viceroy, the commander-in-chief and a few others, entirely of mud cottages. [Roe in Kerr's Voyages, IX, 256-57.] About the rural parts Terry writes, "The villages stand very thick, but the houses are generally poor and base. All these country dwellings are set close together; none stands singly and alone. Some of the houses have earth walls mixed with straw set up just after the rains and having a long season to dry, stand firm; they are built low and many of them flat. Most of the cottages are miserably poor, little and base, built with very little charge, set up with sticks rather than timber, so that if they chance to fire, they may for very little be reedified ". [Terry's Voyages, 179-80.] Sir Thomas Roe saw prince Perviz on 18th November 1615 and gave him presents. The English received a farman from prince Perviz on 30th November to establish a factory at Burhanpur. [Orme, Historical Fragments, 363-64.]

Prince Perviz was in the Deccan for well over seven years but made very little progress in his Deccan campaigns. In 1616, Jahangir replaced him by appointing prince Khurram to the viceroyalty of the Deccan. He settled the affairs of the Deccan more effectively than his brother had done. He made peace with Malik Ambar and Ibrahim Adil Sah II of Bijapur. The peace, however, was shortlived and Malik Ambar became active again. He forced the Moghals to fall back upon Burhanpur. The defeat of the Moghals was more due to quarrels among their generals than to lack of preparations. Jahangir sent reinforcements with the help of which the Maratha bands were scattered. The Moghals penetrated as far south as Khirki (1620). In this critical situation Malik Ambar sued for peace. It was readily granted. Khurram, now entitled, Sah Jahan, returned to Burhanpur and occupied himself in reorganising the administration which had been dislocated by two years of continuous warfare.

In 1623 Sah Jahan rebelled against his father. He moved to the Deccan, hotly pursued by imperial troops. Malik Ambar refused asylum to him and he could not secure substantial assistance from Qutb Sah of Golconda. Sah Jahan was forced to flee towards the eastern provinces from where by taking a circuitous route he again returned to the Deccan. Malik Ambar now offered to help him. With the assistance rendered by Malik Ambar, Sah Jahan attacked Burhanpur. He was, however, forced to fall back on Berar, with the arrival of prince Perviz and Mahabat Khan. The helpless Sah Jahan now sought the pardon of his father. It was granted on condition of his ceding the forts of Rohtas in Bihar and Asir in Khandes and on his agreeing to send his two sons Dara and Aurangzeb to the court.

Shah Jahan.

In 1626 Malik Ambar died. His death relieved to a great extent the pressure on the Moghals in the Deccan. Sah Jahan, after his submission had stayed in the Deccan. In the meanwhile Perviz had died in October 1626 and Khan Jahan was in supreme commands of the Deccan affairs. He surrendered a large portion of Moghal territory including Ahmadnagar and the southern tableland of Berar in consideration of a large gift in money from the Ahmadnagar minister Hamid Khan. In November 1627 Jahangir died and was succeeded by his son Sah Jahan. He forgave Khan Jahan for his treacherous conduct and appointing him to the viceroyalty of the Deccan, ordered him to recover Balaghat which he had surrendered in the previous reign. [It may be noted that when Shah Jahan on hearing of his father's death left for the north, Khan Jahan was opposed to him. Shah Jahan, therefore, made a detour through Gujarat. Later before Shah Jahan assumed royalty Khan jahan still believing that Shahryar or Dawar Baksh was more likely to succeed, left a small garrison at Burhanpur and marched to seize Mandu.. He, however offered submission when Shah Jahan ascended the throne. ] Soon after the beginning of Sah Jahan's reign Khandes suffered from the two-fold calamity of war and famine. Khan Jahan who did not carry out the instructions of Sah Jahan to recover Balaghat was recalled and Mahabat Khan was appointed in his place as the viceroy of the Deccan He was represented by his son Khan Zaman. Khan Jahan, suspecting that he had lost the trust of the emperor, fled from Agra with a large body of troops and made his way to the Deccan. The imperial power now held only east Khandes and part of Berar. Khan Jahan was pursued by imperial troops, but he escaped to Daulatabad. He was well received by the king and entrusted with the task of conquering the territory actually held by the Moghals. So serious was the revolt of Khan Jahan that Sah Jahan took the field in person. In 1629 a Moghal force invaded Balaghat but was defeated by Khan Jahan. Sah Jahan now thought of a concerted action against the rebel. On his way to the Deccan he halted at Burhanpur and sent three armies into the hostile territory. One forced under Khwaja Abul Hasan was sent west to Dhulia to command the route for supplies from Gujarat and to threaten Ahmadnagar from the west. The main army was concentrated at Deulganv in the south of Berar, ready when the time came to attack from the north east. A third force was sent towards Telangana. Abul Hasan had a detachment of 8,000 horse under him. He was sent to take Nasik Trimbak and Sangamner. They passed the rainy season in the villages of Dhulia near Laling fort. After the rains, they were joined by Ser Khan, governor of Gujarat, with 26,000 men who attacked Ratora near Candur, ravaged the country and returned with great spoils. While Ser Khan was engaged at Candur, Khwaja Abul Hasan at the conclusion of rains, marched from the vicinity of the fort of Laling and entered Baglan. Finding that all the people had left their villages and fled to the hills, he sent troops after them. Corn and other necessaries were collected and many of the enemy killed or taken prisoners. In the east, Darya Khan, one of the rebel nobles with a force of Afghans attempted a diversion and marched towards Candur and the ghat of Calisgahv with the intention of attacking Erandol, Dharanganv and other places. Passing into Khandes by Calisgahv, he ravaged the country. [Ball, Travels in India by Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, I, 30.]

These losses were followed by a total failure of rains over the whole country from Ahmadabad to Daulatabad, lands famed for their richness became utterly barren, life was offered for a loaf but none would buy, rank for a cake but none cared for it; the overbounteous hand was stretched out to beg and the rich wandered in search of food. Dog's flesh was sold, and the pounded bone of the dead was mixed with flour. The flesh of a son was preferred to his love. The dying blocked the roads and those who survived fled. Food houses were opened at Burhanpur. Every day soup and bread were distributed and each Monday Rs. 5,000 were given to the deserving poor. The emperor and the nobles granted remissions of revenue.

In 1634 Khandes was made into a subha and included the present district of Khandes as far as Galna. The districts of Sultanpur and Nandurbar had formerly been joined to Malva. The country south of Khandes as far as Bhima was made into a separate subha of which Daulatabad was the head. Both governments were in 1636 united under Aurangzeb. "The country now under prince Aurangzeb contains sixty-four forts, fifty-three of which are situated on hills, the remaining eleven are in the plains. It is divided into four subhas (1) Daulatabad, with Ahmadnagar and other districts, (2) Telangana situated in the subha of Balaghat, (3) Khandes, with capital at Burhanpur, and (4) Berar with capital at Ellicpur. The whole of the third province and a part of the fourth is in the Payinghat. The jama or total revenue of the four provinces is two arb of dams equivalent to five crores of rupees" Prince Aurangzeb was now directed to subjugate Baglan, a task which he accomplished successfully in 1638. The Moghal power was now much more firmly established in Nasik and West Khandes. During the years of peace which followed, Sah Jahan introduced into Khandes Todar Mal's famous revenue settlement. The land was measured, [the produce of each bigha, ascertained and the proportion to be paid to government settled for each field. This assessment long known in Khandes as tankha, continued to be the nominal standard till the introduction of British rule. At this time and till the close of the seventeeth century, the presence of large bodies of troops and of the courts of the emperor and many of his nobles, together with the centering of trade along routes that led through Khandes to Surat, greatly enriched the province. [Ball, Travels in India by Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, I, 30.] During the second viceroyalty of prince Aurangzeb a complete reorganisation of the revenue syste of the Deccan provinces was undertaken. The work was entrusted to an officer named Mursid Quali Khan who was appointed Diwan of Daulatabad and Telangana and later placed in charge of Berar and Khandes also. The lenient assessment was accompanied by active measures to repeople and reorganise the ruined villages and capital was advanced when required with the result that prosperity was for the time being restored.

Bernier (1656-1658) mentions that Candeys (Khandes) had three Sirkars, Burhanpur as the chief town and three hundred paraganas, yielding Rs. 1,85,50,000 annually. [Francois Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire, 458; Orme, Historical Fragments, 5. ] According to Jean Baptiste Tavernier between Navapur and Burhanpur was all a good country for wheat, rice and indigo........... The government of this province was so important that it was conferred only upon a son or an uncle of the emperor. There was a considerable trade in this town (Burhanpur) and both at Burhanpur itself and in all the provinces an enormous quantity of very transparent muslins were made which were exported to Persia, Turkey, Muscovie, Poland Arabia, Grand Cairo and other places. Some of these were dyed in various colours and ornamented with flowers and women made veils and scarfs of them. They also served for the covers of bed and for handkerchieves, such as were seen in Europe with those who tools snuff. There were other fabrics which were allowed to remain white with a strip or two of gold or silver running the whole length of the piece and at each of the ends from the breadth of one india upto twelve or fifteen in some more, and in others less it is a tissue of gold, silver, and of silk with flowers and there is no reverse, one side being as beautiful as the other. There was hardly another province in the whole of India which had a greater abundance of cotton. The middle of the seventeenth century was the time of the highest posperity for this province. [Jean Baptiste Tavernier took the following course, in his travel-from Navapur to Nandurbar, 9cos; Dol Medan, l4cos; Sindkheda, 7cos; Thalner 1Ocos; Chopra, 15cos; Senquelis (Sankli), 13cos; Nabir (Raver), 10cos; Belleda 9cos; at Belkda loaded carts had to pay Burhanpur customs but the carts which carried only passengers paid nothing.]

During the period intervening between the first viceroyalty prince Aurangzeb in the Deccan and the end of his second viceroyalty there were no events of political importance to the Moghal possession of Khandes. Sah Jahan was desirous of main-taining peaceful relations with the kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda and of allowing them to exist. Aurangzeb desired other wise. If the subsequent events after the imprisonment of Sah Jahan were any indication to his attitude, it must have been the restricting attitude of Sah Jahan that prevented Aurangzeb from annexing these two kingdoms during his tenure of viceroyalty. Aurangzeb, there fore, did not interfere with these kingdoms after Sah Jahan had imposed his own arrangements upon them. This period saw the rise of the Maratha power under the leadership of Sivaji who had carved out a separate principality from the remains of the fallen kingdom of Ahmadnagar and from annexing large chunks from the Bijapur territory.

Sivaji wisely avoided measuring swords with the Moghals initially and though prince Aurangzeb recognised the potential danger from Sivaji, he did not interfere with his activities. In 1656 Aurangzeb attacked Golconda but had to withdraw under orders from Sah Jahan. In the same year, under the pretext that Ali Adil Sah who had succeeded Muhammad Adil Sah was not in the true line of succession, Aurangzeb attacked Bijapur. Aurangzeb however had to patch up a hasty compromise with Bijapur when he heard of his father's illness. He decided to proceed to the north.


Aurangzeb succeeded in the contest for the crown and assumed royalty after deposing his father. The assumption of royalty by Aurangzeb changed the entire course of the political history of the Deccan. His object was to destroy the kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda, crush the rising power of the Marathas and annex the whole of the Deccan. Though for the first twenty-five years of his reign the attention of Aurangzeb was mainly centred in the north, he ceaselessly tried to extend his hegemony over the Deccan. In this he was naturally confronted by the power of the Deccan Sultans and by that of the Marathas. From 1658 to 1660 Sivaji consolidated his gains from Bijapur. ["But the most remarkable circumstance of this expedition was the exaction of a writing from the village authorities on his route, in which they promised to pay to Sevagee or his officers, one fourth of the yearly revenue due to government. Regular receipts were promised on the part of Sivajee, which should not only exempt them from pillage but assure them protection. Hence We may date the first imposition of Mahratta Chauth on a province immediately subject to the Moghals " Dr. Balkrishna, I. part II. 282, 299.] In 1660 Aurangzeb sent Sayasta Khan against Sivaji with a strong Moghal army which occupied Poona and took the fort of Cakan. Sayasta Khan, was in Poona for over three years when in 1663 Sivaji surprised him in a night attack. He was recalled by Aurangzeb and in his place Jai Singh was appointed to punish Sivaji. In 1664 Sivaji sacked the rich city of Surat unchecked, its cowardly governor having fled away without any attempt at resistance. The Moghal forces from Khandes arrived before Surat a week after Sivaji had left that place and found it completely devastated.

Jai Singh arrived in Deccan in 1665 and by skilful strategy forced Sivaji to submit to the Moghals. Sivaji ceded 23 forts to the Moghals and promised to serve with them by sending a contingent of 5,000 horse. He paid a visit to Agra in 1666- He skilfully escaped from the detention of Aurangzeb and safely reached the Deccan. For the next three years he was quietly making preparations and regrouping his forces. In 1670 he broke out again. He plundered Berar and carried raids in Moghal territory. In the same year he appeared before Surat on 3rd October and caused the sack of that city for the second time. Then followed a period of the most daring and far ranging raids into the Moghal provinces of Baglan, Aurangabad, Khandes and Berar. Early in December he himself traversed Khandes capturing some forts of the Baglan district on the way. His general Prataprav Gujar plundered Bahadarpura, a suburb of Burhanpur and quickly passing  into Berar plundered the rich city of Karanja. [In 1660 Khandesh was regarded as one of the few rich parts of the Moghal empire. Its revenue amounted to more than Rs. 2,70,00,000. The ways were safely guarded and it was full of villages and well peopled towns. Probably  no part of India was richer in cotton, rice and indigo and in many places  were sugarcane plantations with mills and furnaces to make sugar. At Burhanpur the cloth trade was as great as in any part of India. The costly whiter clothes used by the rich as veils, scarfs, and kerchiefs were in special favours from the beautiful blending of silver and gold, Thevenots Voyages (1666), V, 212, 216. These reports of the great richness of Khandesh probably really  refer only to the well watered west and to the rich Tapi valley. Ogilby's (1676) Account (Atlas, V, 236-278). that though pleasant and fruitful near the Tapi, Khandesh was in most parts barren, unwholesome, sandy and dry, seems. more likely to be correct. Even in the rich parts, according to Bernier (Letters,  Bombay Edition, III, 71), the ground was tilled almost by force and consequently  very ill tilled, and the weavers were wretchedly poor. It was no small thing  wherewith to live and clothe themselves narrowly.] For the first time the  Marathas demanded the payment of one fourth of the revenue cauth.[" The news of the town is that Sevagee hath passed by Brampore upon  Rajah Jeswansing"s forbidding him to come there for which said Rajah hath  received two or three laks of rupees of the kings treasure there and Sevagee marched to Corringa (Karanja) a rich town further in the country; which he hath very severely plundered and carried all the men of note in it, but one of the most eminent men of all who escaped in woman's apparel. From the other towns and villages, in the country thereabout and near Nandraband he hath taken writings that they will pay him ¼ part (Chauth) of the revenues there Dr. Balkrishna 282 eft. F. R. Surat. Vol. 105, Fol., 93 from Surat, 19th December 1670.]  From this time the west was often disturbed by the Maratha-Moghal conflicts, and by the exactions of the Marathas who established themselves among the western hills.

Coronation of Shivaji.

John Trotter, an English gunner in the Moghal service in his letter to Surat from Aurangabad also informs that Sivaji taking advantage of the quarrel between Prince Muazzam and Diler Khan sent his cavalry on plundering expeditions as far as Berar. The booty of one town alone amounted to a crore of rupees, but it was still further augmented by the plunder of other rich places in the Jagir of Prince Muazzam. [Dr. Balkrishna, 283-85 cft. F. R. Surat. Vol. 105, Fol. 150, 151 Aurangabad, 20th December 1670.] When Sivaji was busy in Berar and Khandes, his Pesva, Moropant Pingle, entered Baglan wresting Trimbak and other forts from the Moghals. He then entered West Khandes via Mulher and levied contributions right up to the fort of Salher. The fort of Salher was captured by the Marathas after a stiff battle. Aurangzeb now realised the gravity of the situation and appointed his veteran general Mahabat Khan in supreme command for operations against Sivaji, He was assisted by Daud Khan, Diler Khan, Bahadur Khan, Jasvant Singh and other Moghal and Rajput officers of renown. Their concerted moves, however, failed to have any impression on Sivaji. Aurangzeb suspected a secret understanding between Mahabat Khan and Sivaji. He recalled Mahabat Khan and appointed Bahadur Khan and Diler Khan in his place. [Bhimsen Saxena in his Tarike Dilkusha states that the Marathas had twice ravaged the district of Khandesh. In order to prevent further Maratha incursions into Khandesh and Berar Bahadur Khan decided to protect the entrances through the ghats by raising ramparts thereabout. He built such ramparts at Fardapur, Tondapur, Malkapur, Bararpuri Rajder, Lakhanwada, Mauges Devgaon, Rajura and Dilerpur and appointed a Faujdar to each place.

Bhimsen further states that at this time Aurangzeb appointed Rai Makrand as the Faujdar of Nandurbar. He was, however, ordered to remain in the camp of Bahadur Khan and send a deputy to Nandurbar. Accordingly he sent Gangaram Nagar as his deputy to Nandurbar. Gangaram managed the affairs over there extremely well. He punished the rebel zamindars, forced them to pay tribute and collected the land revenue as fixed by the government. After some time Rai Makrand went over to Nandurbar and stayed there for a few days and returned. On receiving orders from his Majesty to proceed again to Nandurbar, he went therei where shortly afterwards he died. Bahadur Khan recalled Gangaram and instructed him to confiscate the estates of Rai Makrand. But not much was found as expected by Bahadur Khan. Bahadur Khan absorbed Gangaram in his service.] A Moghal force under Ikhlas Khan laid siege to Salher in 1672. Bahadur Khan and Diler Khan, came suddenly upon Poona. Pratap Rav, Anand Rav Makaji, Moropant Pihgle and other Maratha commanders played havoc in Khandes and signally defeated Ikhlas Khan in front of Salher. Bahadur Khan and Diler Khan had to hurry towards Baglan. In 1674 Sivaji was crowned king at Rayagad. In the following year Sivaji led an expedition through Baglan, Khandes and Berar plundering the Moghal territory right from Aurahgabad northward. Among other places, Sivaji pillaged and burnt the English factory at Dharangahv near Erandol. He sacked and burned the great marts of Copda and Dharangahv, two of the most flourishing places in the district. One detachment of his army pushed to the walls of Burhanpur, plundering all the opulent marts of cloth between Burhanpur and Aurangabad. [Orme, Historical Fragments, 47]


In the beginning of December 1679, Sivaji set off from Rairee (Rayagad) with a chosen body of horse and suddenly appeared in the country between Aurahgabad and Burhanpur. Dongong (Dharangahv) where the English had factors, Chupra (Copda) and other great marts were again plundered and Burhanpur shut its gates. At the same time, Morah Pundit (Moropandit) with another body of horse, plundered along the western side of the mountains. [Orme, Historical Fragments, 84-85; Dr. Balkrishna, 360 cf. F.R. Surat, Vol. IV, p. 105.]

The death of Sivaji in 1680 did little to restore peace in the region. [Orme, Historical Fragments, 84, 143.] His son Sambhaji succeeded him to the throne and declared his intention to fight out the Moghal menace. He proclaimed his support to Akbar, the rebel son of Aurangzeb, and promised to accompany him to Burhanpur with 30,000 troops and there would proclaim him emperor of the Moghals.[Orme, Historical Fragments, 106. ] Akbar had journeyed through Khandes and Baglan and descended into north Konkan arriving at Pali on 1st June 1681. Aurangzeb sent his other son Azam with a large army into the Deccan in pursuit of Akbar, and himself followed him. Early in 1681 Sambhaji fell upon Bahadurpur about three miles east of Burhanpur, a rich place with many bankers and merchants. Jewels, money and goods from all parts of the world were found there in abundance. He surrounded and attacked this place and also another town called Hafdapura which was outside the fortifications and his attack was so sudden and unexpected especially upon Bahadurpur that no one was able to save a dam or a diram of his property or a single one of his wife and children. The imperial general Makar Khan and his men saw the smoke of the town rising to the sky but he was not strong enough to attack the plunderers, so he shut himself up within Burhanpur and looked after the security of its gates and defences. Seventeen other places of note in the neighbourhood of the city all wealthy and flourishing were plundered and burnt. Aurangzeb arrived in Burhanpur on 13th November 1681. He moved to Aurangabad on 22nd March 1682. Knowing that Sambhaji and his rebel son would work their way to the north through northern Konkan and Gujarat he had sent his general Sihab-ud-din Khan with Dalpat Bundela in that direction. Nothing was achieved by the Moghals in 1682 and 1683 and he recalled his officers to his side in April 1683. Aurangzeb opened up a new offensive in 1684 and sent an army in Khandes. The Moghal army then passed to the south. No sooner were the Moghals gone than in 1685 Sambhaji overran and plundered the whole district, and retired ravaging the country along the base of the Satmala hills towards Nasik. " In January 1685 ten thousand horse set off from Rayagad under four generals and ravaged the Country as far as Burhanpur, with more than ordinary haste and devastation. The English factors at Dharanganv had but two hours to escape and every house in the town was either pillaged or burnt. The whole country was in flames. Aurangzeb sent 6,000 horse from Ahmadnagar under the command of Bahadur Khan, who never came  within six days of the pursuit. He soon after sent his son Kam Baks  with 12,000 more, to command at Brampore (Burhanpur); which was his first establishment in public business. [Orme, Historical Fragments, 143-44. ]

Capture of Sambhaji

After his daring raids into Khandes, Sambhaji returned to Panhala. Aurangzeb marched to his conquest of Bijapur and Golconda. The kingdom of Bijapur fell in 1686 and Golconda capitulated in 1687. Aurangzeb was now free to deal with Sambhaji. Sambhaji was captured on 1st February 1689 at Sarigamesvar and cruelly executed at Koreganv on 11th March 1689. The death of Sambhaji did not; dampen the spirit of the Marathi State. The people rose to the occasion and carried a ceaseless struggle against the emperor ultimately leading to his withdrawal and death in 1707. For twenty years the struggle went on. Forts were taken and retaken and from time to time the Marathas spread over the country burning and pillaging the Moghal territory.

After the death of Sambhaji in 1689 Rajaram, his brother, assumed power at Rayagad. The Moghal general Zulpikar Khan besieged Rayagad from where Rajaram made good his escape first to Panhala and then to Jinji The conflict between the Moghals and the Marathas now shifted to Jinji in the south, which was besieged by Zulpikar Khan in 1690 after the fall of Rayagad in 1689. The Marathas under the leadership of Santaji, Dhanaji Ramcandrapant and other Maratha officers inflicted crushing defeats upon the Moghals. "In 1697 Nima Sindhia (Nemaji Sinde) and other officers of Rama Raja with an army of 8,000 horse came to the district of Nandurbar and attacked and burned several villages. When he heard that Husain Ali Khan [He later became the prime minister of the Moghal empire under the title Sayyad Abdullah.] was approaching from Thalner, he suspended his operations against Nandurbar and went to meet him. Husain Khan had only seven or eight hundred horse and two or three thousand provincial musketeers and archers, but he went forth to meet Nima Sindhia. The number of Sindhia's forces enabled him to surround Husain Ali Khan about three hundred of whose men were killed. The day went against Hussain Ali. He received two or three wounds. Dripping with blood he threw himself from his elephant, but he had no strength left for fighting. He was surrounded and made prisoner. All his baggage, his men, and elephants were captured. In addition to the cash which the Marathas had got by plunder, they fixed two lakhs of rupees as the price of the ransom of the prisoners. After much exertion, nearly 1,80,000 rupees were raised from the Jagirs and from the property which had been left in the town of Thalner. To make up the balance, the sarafs and merchants of Nandurbar were importuned to raise a sum, small or great by way of loan. But they would not consent. The inhabitants of the town of Nandurbar had not paid the cauth to the Marathas and being supported by the faujdars, they had closed their gates which had greatly annoyed the Marathas. Husain Ali Khan was also greatly incensed by their refusal to assist him; so he took counsel with the Marathas and agreed that after a siege of a day or two and some exhibition of force, he would open the gates to them. He made it a condition that the rayats should not be plundered but that the great and wealthy men, the sarafs, the merchants and the mukadams might be put to the rack and tortured until the balance of the ransom due to the Marathas was discharged. The result was that a sum of 1,40,000 rupees was paid to the Marathas instead of 80,000. Husain Ali Khan himself realised 30,000 rupees. When this (the result of the action) was reported to Aurangzeb, he was very angry and said that there was no use in fighting when one was too weak to win".[Elliot-VII, 362-63.] While speaking about the Marathas, Khafi Khan says "with large armies they invaded the Subhas of Deccan and Ahmadabad and Malva for the purpose of collecting the Cauth and they plundered and ravaged wherever they went....... when the fauzdars or zaminddrs of a place refused to pay the Cauth and made no proposition, the Mahrattas attacked the place and thoroughly ravaged it. If after investing a place for some days, they found themselves unable to take it, they moved away."

In this way the towns of Nandurbar, Sultanpur and Jamud and many other well-known towns of Burhanpur, Berar and other Subhas of the Deccan were invested by 28,000 horsemen for two or three weeks who were finally beaten off. [Elliot, VII, 464-65, Tarikhe Rahatafza states that in 1703 Nemaji Shinde and Parsoji Bhosle with 30,000 troops besieged Burhanpur. They burned all the suburbs. After some time for a period of two or three years the conditions in Burhanpur grew so worse that dead people could be found in the streets. Parents were willing to sell their children for a loaf of bread (Marathe va Nizam, p. 27).]

Towards the end of the reign of Aurangzeb, Rani Tarabai widow of Rajaram kept up the struggle with the emperor till the latter's death.

Munim Khan Aurangabad in his work Savaneh Dakkan gives the following details of the province of Khandes under the Moghals. It consisted of six districts or Sirkas as they were known then. (1) Asir, (2) Baglan, (3) Bijagarh, (4) Handia, (5) Nandurbar and (6) Gajna. The district of Asir with headquarters at Burhanpur covered the major part of Khandes. Under the Moghals, Nandurbar was a separate district. The province of Khandes, excluding the districts of Bijagarh and Handia, now in Madhya Prades, was composed of 74 Mahals with Asir (excluding Asir and Burhanpur now in Madhya Prades), 31 Mahals, Baglan 30 Mahals, Galna, 7 Mahals and Nandurbar 6 Mahals. Munim Khan only gives the number of villages in Asir district which was 3,079. The figures of revenue given by Munim Khan for the three districts of Khandes, viz., Baglan, Galna and Nandurbar were Rs. 3,90,701, Rs. 2,14,179 and Rs. 6,59,039 respectively.

Bahadur Shah.

In 1707 Aurangzeb died leaving behind him the fields of these provinces devoid of trees and bare of crops, their places being taken by the bones of men and beasts. Instead of verdure all was black and barren. There have died in his armies over a hundred thousand souls yearly and of animals pack-oxen, camels and elephants etc. over three hundred thousand. In the Deccan provinces from 1702 to 1704 plague and famine prevailed. In these two years there expired over two million souls. After Aurangzeb's death the disorders increased still further. The province of Khandes had been totally desolated. Aurangzeb's son Azam Sah who was in the Deccan proceeded to the north to contest his claim to the throne against his elder brother Muazzam alias Sah Alam Sahu, the son of Sambhaji who was in confinement quitted the Moghal camp at Doraha and proceeded towards the Deccan to claim the Maratha Kingship. With fifty or sixty men he went off to Mohan Singh Raval, a rebellious ruler in the difficult mountain country of Bijagarh, Sultanpur and Nandurbar. He supplied Sahu with some necessary equipment. Sahu then went on to a Maratha named Ambu but more famous under the name of Pand (probably Amrtrav Kadam Bande) who was an active rebel against the Moghals. He held the fort of Kokarmanda in Sultanpur and ravaged the whole country from Surat to Burhanpur. He furnished Sahu with a body of men and sent him to his native country. Sahu succeeded in claiming royalty by defeating Tarabai, the wife of his uncle, Rajaram. In the Moghal war of succession for the throne Sah Alam succeeded against his brother in the battle fought at Jajau and ascended the throne under the title of Bahadur Sah. Though one of the conditions of Sahu's release from the Moghal confinement was the recognition of the right of the Marathas to collect cauth and sardesmukhi from the six Moghal provinces of the Deccan, the formal deeds were yet to be obtained.

Episode of Tulsi bai

In the year 1709-1710 Tulsi Bai, widow of the Maratha chief Nimbalkar with fifteen or sixteen thousand horse came demanding payment of the Cauth to the town of Ramvir seven kos from Burhanpur. Having surrounded the sarai of Ramvir, in which a great number of travellers and villagers had taken refuge, she sent a message to Mir Ahmad Khan subhedar demanding payment of eleven lakhs as Cauth to save the town and the men who were besieged in the sarai. Mir Ahmad in his contempt for a female warrior, having got together a force of eight or nine thousand horse, part his own and part obtained from the faujdars of the vicinity and with all the officials of Burhanpur, marched out of that place on the 9th of Muharram.

The enemy (Tulsi Bai) having got intelligence of his approach, left three or four thousand men in charge of their baggage and marched to meet Mir Ahmad Khan with four or five thousand veteran horse. The remainder of the Maratha force was sent to invest and plunder the suburbs of Burhanpur. Mir Ahmad Khan was severely wounded in the sharp encounter which he had with the enemy in the course of two or three days; but hearing of the investment of Burhanpur he turned to succour the besieged. Wherever he went, the enemy hovered round him and kept up a continuous fight. Zafar Khan was wounded fighting bravely, and finding that the enemy's force was increasing he deemed it necessary for saving his life to take a son of Ahmad Khan with him and go to the city. The men of his rearguard were nearly all killed and his remaining men endeavoured to save their lives by flight. Many were made prisoners. Mir Ahmad Khan, who was left alone fighting with the enemy, received several wounds, and fell from his horse; but he dragged himself half dead under a tree where he breathed his last.

Jahandar Shah.

In 1712 Bahadur Sah died and after a short reign by Jahandar Sah, Farrukhsiyar ascended the throne on 17th January 1713. The new emperor conferred the viceroyalty of the six provinces of the Deccan upon Cinkilic Khan (the son of Gaziuddin Firoz Jung, a nobleman of Aurangzeb's time) with his headquarters at Aurangabad and deputies in each of the component provinces. The title of Nizam-ul-mulk Khan-i-Khanan was also conferred upon him. The viceroyalty of Nizam-ul-mulk was, however, short-lived. He was recalled to Farmkhsiyir Delhi and in his place Amir-ul-umra Sayyad Husain Ali Khan was appointed in 1715.[During his short viceroyalty of two years, Nizam-ul-mulk tried to settle the country but could not do much against the Maratha Officers who had stretched everywhere for the collection of chauth. In 1713 the Marathas looted a caravan going from Surat and Ahmadabad to Aurangabad and killed Muhammad Ibrahim Khan Tabrizi, Bakhshi and Kakinigar of Baglan. (18th Century Deccan p. 51). Lala Mansaram in his biography of Nizam-ul-mulk, Masire Nizami, says that Amboji, the zamindar of Sinnar had a rift with Khandoji Dabhade. He arrived at the Nizam's camp with 1,000 horsemen and represented to the Nizam that " Khandoji Dabhade has constructed a fort at the village of Mahur in the taluka of Baglan". The parganas of Sultanpur and Nandurbar were within the jurisdiction of the Nizam. Amboji further submitted that "Khandoji; has fixed Mahur as his place of residence. He plundered merchandise coming from Surat and Ahmadabad. He has spread devastation in the whole area. If the Nizam were to appoint a small force_ Khandoji could be put down successfully". The Nizam appointed Umar Khan with 1,000 horsemen to this campaign. Umar Khan penetrated into the enemy territory and dismantled the gadhis of Khandoji. He captured a number of his dependents and brought them to the presence of the Nizam (18th Century Deccan, p. 54).] At the same time Najabat Khan was appointed subheddr of Burhanpur for civil affairs and Haider Quli Khan his diwan for revenue matters. Nizam-ul-mulk accordingly left Aurangabad with the intention of proceeding to court and got as far as Burhanpur. There he found two or three Maratha leaders who were making threatening demonstrations; so he took horse and went forth to attack them. The Marathas were unable to make any resistance and after chastising and pursuing them for forty kos, he returned to Burhanpur and resumed his journey to the court.

Moghals Farrukhsiyar.

Husain Ali Khan who was on his journey from Delhi towards the Deccan passed within one or two kos of Nizam-ul-mulk. At the fort of Akbarpur, on the Narmada, Husain Ali heard that Daud Khan Panni, subheddr of Ahmadabad, was appointed to the Subhedari of Khandes and in pursuance of these orders had come to Burhanpur. Intelligence also reached him that Daud Khan had received, secret orders to do away with him (Husain Ali Khan) and the emperor had also held a promise to Daud Khan of his being appointed to the subhedari of the Deccan. Daud Khan, under these circumstances refused to make his submission to Husain Ali Khan, and a conflict between the two seemed inevitable. Daud Khan relied upon his close alliance with numerous Maratha chiefs including Nemaji Sinde [Farrukhsiyar had sent orders to Shahu to resist Hussain Ali Khan. ] who had already accepted service with the Moghals. He had come with several other chiefs and had encamped near Burhanpur, so that at the proper time he might join the stronger party. The dispute came to the test of battle. Husain Ali Khan had 15,000 horse with him while Daud Khan had not more than three to four thousand Afghan horse. A great battle was fought in the plain of the Lal Bagh of Burhanpur. Victory seemed imminent for Daud Khan when he defeated Mir Musrif, his opposite number in the field of battle and confusion seemed to prevail in Husain Ali's ranks. But a chance musket ball struck Daud Khan at this moment and killed him. Victory thus declared for, the Amir-ul-umra Husain Ali Khan. Nemaji Sinde and the other Maratha chiefs who had joined Husain Ali Khan offered their congratulations to him on his victory.

After the defeat of Daud Khan, Husain Ali Khan went to Aurangabad and busied himself in settling the country. Sahu had appointed in each of the two subhas of the Deccan, a Maratha chief as subhedar for the collection of Maratha cauth in the same way as imperial subhedars were appointed. Khanderav Dabhade held the sabha of Khandesh On the road to the port of Surat he had built a mud fort and placed a garrison in it. All caravans that passed were required to pay the cauth. If they agreed to pay, they passed safe; if not they were plundered, the men were made prisoners and were not released until a ransom was paid for. Husain Ali sent his Bakhsi, Zulfikar Beg with three or four thousand horse and five or six thousand musketeers to chastise Khanderav. After Zulfikar Beg had passed through the pass between Aurangabad and Khandes he learnt that Khanderav was near the confines of Baglan and Galna. Zulfikar Beg attacked Khanderav but Khanderav withdrew with a view to drawing the enemy in pursuit. His plan succeeded and Zulfikar Beg along with his contingent was killed. The rest of his army surrendered and were made prisoners. Not one bullock, camel or horse belonging to that army was saved. [The details given by Khafi Khan in his Muntakhab-ul-lubab and by Lala Mansaram in his Masire Nizami are substantially the same.]

Husain Ali now sent Raja Muhakkim Singh, his divan with a suitable force against Khanderav. He also directed his own brother Saif-ud-din Ali Khan, the subhedar of Khandes to support the Raja. Saif-ud-din had gone out of Burhanpur towards Sultanpur and Nandurbar for settling the country. These two pursued Khanderav in the hope of retaliating upon him or of removing his posts so that they might no longer trouble the country and the people of Khandes. But they accomplished nothing. His garrisons which were posted in various places held their ground.

Two or three years of Husain Ali Khan's government passed in quarrels with the emperor. Although he raised a large army he could not show the vigour that was necessary nor effect such a settlement as he himself desired. Neither could he put down the Maratha encroachment in the six subhas of Deccan and in the provinces of Malva and Gujarat. Ultimately Husain Ali Khan acting upon the advice of Anvar Khan, one of the Saikh Zadas of Burhanpur and other trusted nobles availed himself of the services of a Brahman named Sankaraji Malhar Nargundkar. Negotiations were opened through him with Raja Sahu and a treaty was made on the following terms among others with the Marathas:

(1) That all territories known as Sivaji Svarajya together with the forts therein should be delivered to Sahu in full possession;

(2) That such territories as had been recently conquered by the Marathas in Khandes, Berar, Gondvana, Hyderabad and Karnatak as described in the annexure to the treaty should also be ceded to them as part of the Maratha kingdom;

(3) That the Marathas should be allowed to collect cauth and sardesmukhi from all the six Moghal subhas of the south; in return for the cauth the Marathas were to serve the emperor with a contingent of 15,000 troops for his protection and in return for the sardesmukhi the Marathas were to be responsible for maintaining order by preventing roberry and rebellions. [Shahu after his return from the Moghal captivity conferred the rights of collecting chauthai and sardeshmukhi {Mokasa) in the Moghal Deccan upon his numerous officers. There is a mention in Maratha historical documents that, the Mokasa of Berar, Khandesh, Nemad, Handia, Malwa and Bhaganagar was conferred on Kanhoji Bhosle by Shahu on 24th January 1717. With the incursions of the Peshwas in Khandesh, it appears that Kanhoji never did actually execute his rights of collecting chauth and sardeshmukhi in Khandesh.]

Besides this there were in many places villages which had been laid waste by the Marathas and which had been again brought into cultivation under special agreements, such as the districts about Nandurbar in Khandes, in Berar and in other places. The Marathas paid no heed to special contracts made by Husain Ali Khan but conceding the third share belonging to the Jagirdar they made the following arrangement. They recognised three shares, one was for the Jagirdar, one they took for themselves and the third they left to the rayats.

Muhammad Shah,

Farrukhsiyar refused to agree and ratify the terms of this treaty. He appointed his own nominees to several important offices in the Deccan. They were, however, put down by Husain Ali Khan. Farrukhsiyar, in apprehension of his powerful minister now recalled Nizam ul-mulk from Moradabad, Sarbulandkhan from Patna and Ajit Singh from Gujarat. Husain All's brother Sayyad Abdullah also sent urgent calls to his brother to repair to Delhi. Husain Ali pro-ceeded towards north accompanied by Balaji Visvanath, Sahu's Pesva and a Maratha contingent of 15,000 horse. The arrival of Husain Ali with the Marathas rendered the situation in Delhi more critical. The Sayyad brothers, however, soon assumed supremacy, deposed Farrukhsiyar and after successively putting on the throne two princes, one after the other, finally installed Muhammad Sah as the emperor. As soon as the palace revolution was over the Sayyad brothers, prepared the formal grants for Svarajya, cauthai and sardeshmukhi and delivered them to Balaji duly ratified under the imperial seal. Husain Ali, in the meanwhile, had appointed his nephew, Alain Ali Khan as his deputy in the subhedari of the Deccan. Nizam-ul mulk was appointed to the subhedari of Malva. The new emperor soon became tired of the high handedness of the Sayyad brothers and wrote to Nizam-ul-mulk about it. When the Sayyad brothers came to know of it, they decided to reduce the power of Nizam-ul-mulk, cancelled his appointment to the subhedari of Malva and asked him his choice for the subhedari of any of the subhas of Agra, Allahabad, Multan or Burhanpur. Nizam-ul-mulk disregarded these orders and proceeded to the Deccan at the head of 12,000 troops. When he crossed the Narmada he was joined by Rustam Beg Khan, Faujdar of Bijagarh. An envoy from Usman Khan, an officer from the fort of Asir, also met him and proposed to surrender the fortress. On the 16th Rajab he took possession of this important stronghold. Nizam-ul-mulk then sent Muhammad Ghiyas Khan to reduce Burhanpur. Alam Ali Khan sent Muhammad Anvar Khan to defend Burhanpur. This man was, however, wanting in courage and gave up in despair. At Burhanpur Nizam-ul-mulk was joined by Ivaj Khan, the Governor of Berar. Nizam-ulmulk remained there for some time to get his artillery in order. Alarmed at this development the Sayyad brothers sent their trusted and spirited partisan Dilavar Ali Khan to put down Nizam-ul-mulk. They at the same time instructed Alam Ali Khan to obstruct the southward march of the Nizam. But Nizam-ul-mulk defeated and killed both of them in the battles fought at Khandva on 19th June 1720 and at Balapur on 10th August 1720 respectively. The victory of Nizam-ul-mulk threw the Sayyad brothers in consternation. The Emperor Muhammad sah shortly afterwards brought about their downfall. Confrontation between the Marathas and Nizam-ul-mulk seemed inevitable now, because Nizam-ul-mulk refused to uphold the claims of Shau to the cauthan and sardesmukhi of the six subhas of the Moghal Deccan. The new Pesva of Sahu, Bajlrav had two meetings with Nizam-ul-mulk but no compromise was effected. Nizam-ul-mulk was absent from the Deccan for two years from 1721 to 1723 when he was called upon by the emperor to take charge of the office of the Wazir. [Nizam-ul-mulk left the Deccan after appointing as his deputy his aunt's husband, Iwaj Khan Azduddowlah. During the Wazirship of Nizam-ul-mulk Abdurrahim Khan Nasiruddowlah was the gove'rnor of Khandesh. He was the step brother of Shahbuddin Firoz Jung, the father of Nizam-ul-mulk. He continued in his post till 1729.] He was,however, soon disgusted of the fickleness of the emperor and the court intrigues and refusing to obey the order of the emperor appointing him to the charge of Oudh he straightaway marched to the Deccan. The emperor wrote to Sahu and Mubariz Khan to put down the rebel Nizam-ul-mulk. Sahu, however, did not take an immediate decision but dispatched Bajirav with orders to act as circumstances would permit. Bajirav welcomed this opportunity. He left Satara in January 1724 and passing some time in north Khandes crossed the Narmada on May 8, 1724. He arrived in close proximity to the Nizam's camp al Sihore. Mubariz Khan was in two minds but ultimately decided lo oppose Nizam-ul-mulk when he received orders confirming him to the viceroyalty of the Deccan. The issue was fought in the field of battle at Sakharkhedla on 30th The Nizams of Hyderabad. September 1724 in which Nizam-ul-mulk emerged victorious. The Hyderabad. Marathas fought on the side of Nizam-ul-mulk. [Eighteenth Century Deccan, p. 24.] Nizam-ul-mulk now became supreme in the Deccan. The sabha of the Deccan alongwith the province of Khandes now passed under Nizam-ul-mulk who maintained only a formal pretence of relationship with the Delhi emperor. [In 1720 Anwa'r Khan Qutubuddowlah was the governer of Khandesh. He was replaced after the battle by Nizam-ul-mulk with Dilawar Khan. Marahmat Khan (1720-1722) was appointed in his place. Ali Akbar Khan was appointed as the diwan and Muhammad Muali Khan as the Bakhshi of Burhanpur. Marahmat Khan was made a mansabdur of 5,000 with the title of Gaznafar  Jung. Later due to complaints received against him, he was transferred by Nizam-ul-mulk as the Faujdar of Baglan.]

Nizam- ul-Mulk Asaf jah

The period that followed the battle of Sakharkhedla witnessed the mounting struggle between the Marathas who tried to enforce the rights received by them in 1719 and Nizam-ul-mulk who opposed the enforcement of these rights. To sustain his attitude Nizam-ul-mulk set up Sambhaji of Kolhapur against Chatrapati Sahu. Sambhaji left Kolhapur in September 1726 and joined Nizam-ul-mulk. Nizam-ul-mulk had won over many of Sahu's officers and instigated them to create trouble in the Maratha State. He also prepared a vast army to invade the Maratha. territory. Sahu, who had first thought of reaching a compromise with Nizam-ul-mulk accepted the challenge and ordered Bajirav to deal with Nizam-ul-mulk. Nizam-ul-mulk made the Poona district his main objective. Bajirav decided to attacks the outlying provinces of the Deccan Subha. He crossed the Godavari near Puntambe and plundered Jalna and Sindkhed defeating Ivaj Khan who opposed him on November 5, 1727. Bajirav then proceeded through Berar and then suddenly directing his course to the north-west entered Khandes, crossed the Tapi at Kokarmunda and with lightning speed entered eastern Gujarat. Here he learnt, of the ravages of Nizam-ul-mulk in the environs of Poona. To draw away the Nizam from Poona, Bajirav gave out that he would devastate Burhanpur and reached Betavad in Khandes on February, 14, 1728. Bajirav's calculations proved correct and Nizam-ul-mulk moved northwards and crossed Godavari to find himself suddenly  trapped on February 28 in difficult terrain near Palkhed. Nizam-ul-mulk wasleft with no alternative but to surrender on the terms dictated by the Marathas. Of the principal terms of agreement, the following were important viz., all administrative or diplomatic measures for the government of the six Moghal subhas should be executed through the agency of the Marathas, who would fully guard the imperial interests. The previous grants of Svarajya and Sardes mukhi should be confirmed,[ The details of this conflict are as under: when war was declared between Nizam-ul-mulk and the Marathas on 6th November 1727, an action took place between Bajirao and Nizam-ul-mulk near Jalna. From Jalna Bajirao marched towards Khandesh. Previous to that, in the month of October the Marathas had invaded Khandesh with 12,000 troops and had besieged Burhanpur. Nasir-uddowlah, the Governor of Khandesh dispatched his Bakhshi Abdul Vahab Kashmiri to oppose the Marathas. He was defeated and his entire camp equipage was looted. He fled into the town. In the action Sadat Khan Jamdar was killed. Subsequently Khanderao Dabhade twice or thrice attacked Burhanpur and burned its suburbs. In the meanwhile Bajirao reached Burhanpur. From Burhanpur he marched toward Nasirabad. Iwaj, Khan closely pursued the Marathas upto 44 miles to the north of Burhanpur. Nizam-ul-mulk also reached Burhanpur and halted there for two days. He appointed Mir Ali Akbar as the diwan of Khandesh in place of Muhammad Akil Khan. Bajirao then moved towards Gujarat. Nizam-ul-mulk followed him upto Surat but turned backwards with a view to ravage the country of Poona district. Bajirao also turned back and invaded the Vaijapu'r pargana of Aurangabad district. The Nizam also moved towards Vaijapur and was caught at Palkhed (Maharashtra Ani Marathe, pp. 129-130). The account of the episode in the Tarikhe Rahatafza does not differ substantially (Marathe va Nizam, pp. 27-28). Also see Itihasik Tipne, 2-35; P. D. 18. 35.]

Battle of Palkhed.

Thus Nizam-ul-mulk acknowledged the Maratha claims long ago ratified by the Moghal emperor during the time of the Sayyads. Sahu's collectors were restored to all their former places. The treaty, however, could not bring lasting peace to the Deccan as Nizam-ul-mulk could not tolerate the growing power of the Marathas, either in the south or in the north. In 1728 Bajirav and his brother Cimaji Appa planned an invasion of Malva. Cimaji took the western route through Baglan and Khandes and Bajirav took the eastern route through Ahmadnagar, Berar, Candrapur and Devgad. Cimaji won a decisive victory over Giridhar Bahadur, the Governor of Malva, on 29th November 1728 at Amjhera. In the following year Bajirav rescued Chatrasal of Bundelkhand from the clutches of Muhammad Baiigas, the Moghal Governor of Allahabad. These events greatly perturbed Nizam-ul-mulk. In 1729, Khanderav Dabhade, to whom Gujarat and parts of Khandes were assigned by Sahu, died. In 1730 Cimaji entered the province of Gujarat and wrested from Sarbuland Khan, the governor, the Maratha claims of chauthdi and sardesmukhi- Trimbakrav, the son of Khanderav lodged a complaint against the Pesva with Sahu. Sahu could not give a quick decision and Trimbakrav prepared Kanthaji Kadam, his brother Raghuji, Trimbakrav and Pilaji Gaikvad for an armed conflict. They carried out raids in the territory of Khandes for which they were severaly reprimanded by Sahu. [Shahu Rojnishi, 49, 218.] Bajirav now seduced many powerful local chiefs of Baglan, Khandes and east Gujarat.

Battle of Dabhai.

 They were Bhausinh Thoke of Mudane, Dalpatrav Thoke of Appone, Kuvar Bahadur Desmukh of Sinnar, Laksadhir Dalpatrav of Peth, Bajaji Atole, Avaji Kavade and others. Trimbakrav and his mother Umabal now approached Nizam-ul-mulk for help. Nizam-ul-mulk welcomed the opportunity and proceeded towards Baglan Khandes and East Gujarat with his artillery to suppress the above chiefs who had sided with Bajirav. Bajirav and his brother Cimaji zmarched towards Khandes. Cimaji remained behind to watch the movements of Nizam-ul-mulk but the danger to the Maratha State was two fold, coming as it did not only from the Dabhade and Nizam-ul-mulk but from the possible combination of Nizam-ul-mulk and Muhammad Bangas, the new governor of Malva. Both carried consultations on the Narmada where they met in March 1731. But before the powerful artillery of Nizam-ul-mulk could come to the succour of the Dabhade, Bajirav had destroyed his power in the battle fought at Dabhai on 1st April 1731. After the battle Bajirav hastened to Satara. In this letters to the Emperor, Nizam-ul-mulk boasts of having given a chase to Bajirav during the latter's return from Gujarat via Nandurbar, Surat and Baglan. Bajirav easily brushed the opposition from Nizam-ul-mulk and reached Satara on 29th May 1731. Unsuccessful in his efforts Nizam-ul-mulk adopted an apolegetic attitude towards the Marathas. In 1732 he wrote to Sahu requesting a meeting with Bajirav. Accordingly Bajirav and Nizam-ul-mulk met on 27th December at Rohe Ramesvar. Nothing useful seems to have resulted from the meeting. Maratha invasions of the north continued year after year. Hoping that the central Government would be kept busy dealing with the Marathas and yet keeping up an appearance of loyalty to the Emperor, Nizam-ul-mulk constantly conspired with the Portuguese, the Siddis of Janjira and other adversaries of the Marathas. The Nizam used to move out in the provinces every winter and return to Aurangabad or Burhanpur for cantoning during the rainy season. He attended to the normal administration following his usual practice of changing the local officers every two years. These years were, however, momentous to the Marathas in regard to their northward expansion. The Marathas had already staked their claims over Majva. Bajirav in July 1732 effected a division of Malva between Sinde, Holkar and Pavar. In February 1733 Holkar overcame Jaysinh, the new governor of Malva, near Mandsor. Maratha rule was now firmly planted in Malva and Bundelkhand by Pilaji Jadhav, Sinde and Holkar by early 1734. The Maratha gains created a deep concern in the Delhi court and in 1735 Khan Dauran and Qamruddin Khan opened an offensive against the Marathas. On February 13, 1735, Sinde and Holkar defeated the Moghals near Ranpura. On 2nd March Following, Pilaji Jadhav routed Qamruddin Khan in Bundelkhand. Jaysinh now realised the futility of opposing the Maratha claims and suggested to the emperor a meeting with Bajirav. An invitation was sent to Bajirav. Bajirav obtained Sahu's consent for such a venture and proceeded towards north through Nandurbar and Sultanpur. He reached Udaipur on February 1736 and met Jaysinh. The emperor now refused to fulfil the pledge he had given to Jaysinh of meeting Bajirav. Bajirav. stationed his troops in Malva and returned to Poona determined to visit Delhi again and wrest from the emperor by force what he failed to secure by diplomacy. Accordingly in November 1736 Bajirav left Poona for the north. [It may be noted that till 1730 Nasiruddowlah was the governor of Khandesh. In that year he was transferred to Aurangabad and Hafiz-uddin Khan was appointed in his place with Abul Khair Khan to assist him. This arrangement continued till 1736 when Hafiz-uddin Khan was transferred to the faujdari of Baglan and Nandurbar and Nasiruddowlah was reappointed to the subhedari of Khandesh.] He was near Gwalior in March 1737. The Moghals were encamped at Mathura. Bajirav decided to surprise Delhi by a sudden attack. He reached Delhi on 28th March. A contingent sent to oppose him was routed by him on the outskirts of Delhi. Thinking that this chastisement was enough for the emperor, he retraced his steps towards the Deccan. The march of Bajirav towards Delhi had greatly perturbed the Nizam who feared that once the Marathas gained a dominant position in Delhi, his own position  in the south would be threatened.

Bajirav's attack on Delhi.

When Bajirav left for the north in November 1736 he moved from Aurangabad and encamped at Burhanpur. When Bajirav was in the north, his brother Cimaji with Avji Kavade, Raghuji Bhosle, Vyankatrav Ghorpade and others had kept a watch over the situation in the south. At Burhanpur, Nizam-ul-mulk received permission from the emperor to repair to Delhi. Nizam-ul-mulk immediately proceeded north leaving his son Nasir Jung in charge.[When Nizam-ul-mulk left for Delhi, he put 5,000 troops under the command of Nasiruddowlah to keep a watch over the movement of the Marathas. To prevent any help reaching Nizam-ul-mulk from the south, Chimaji Appa also entered Khandesh with 10,000 troops. He camped in front of Burhanpur. Nasiruddowlah fearing an attack took heavy precautions. After the freaty of Bhopal, Chimaji retired from Burhanpur.] He reached Sironj on 10th May 1737 and found Bajirav returning to the south. Customary greetings were exchanged. Nizam-ul-mulk reached Delhi in April. He manoeuvred the emperor to grant him the subhas of Agra and Malva for his son and those of Allahabad, Ajmer and Gujarat to his nominees on the promise of destroying the Marathas. Bajirav accepted the challenge and proceeded to the north on 15th October 1737 to meet Nizam-ul-mulk. In the meanwhile Nasir Jung had in the beginning of 1737 dispatched Sayyad Jamaluddin towards Khandes to counter the activities of Avji Kavade. He was also making frantic preparations to crush the Marathas by planning to join his father in the north. To prevent the movement of Nasir Jung's troops towards north Bajirav stationed Cimaji Appa at Varanganv on the banks of the Tapi. He himself marched towards Nizam-ul-mulk who had encamped at Bhopal. By masterful tactics of guerilla warfare, Bajirav besieged Nizam-ul-mulk at Bhopal on 14th December 1937.

Battle of Bhopal.

Within a fortnight  of the beginning of the siege Nizam-ul-mulk, was reduced to miserable straits. He sued for peace. He agreed to secure the province of Malva to the Marathas under the imperial seal and deliver over to them all the territory between the Narmada and the Yamuna. Nizam-ul-mulk then repaired to Delhi. Delhi was subsequently rocked by the invasion of Nadir Sah who made the Emperor, Nizam-ul-mulk and Sadat Khan, the Wazir, his captives. It was a frustrated Nizam -ul-mulk who was to return to the Deccan in November 1740. In the meanwhile Raghuji Bhosle had secured Devgad, and Candrapur, and was effectively collecting cauth from the mahals of Berar. Cimaji Bhosle also raided the environs of Burhanpur. In April 1739 Bajirav began to confiscate grants near the capital of Khandes. Nasir Jung invaded the domains of the Pesva in retailiation. On hearing of the action of Nasir Jung, Bajirav and Cimaji moved against Nasir Jung and surrounded him near Aurangabad. Nasir Jung sued for peace which Bajirav granted after Nasir Jung agreed to cede the districts of Handia and Kharganv. [These two districts then belonged to the subha of Khandesh.] Bajirav did not live long to consolidate the fruits of his gains and expired suddenly at Raver on the southern bank of the Narmada on 28th April 1740. It has already been stated that Nizam-ul-mulk had left his son Nasir Jung as his deputy in the Deccan.

Peshva Balaji Bajirav.

The discomfiture of his father at Delhi encouraged Nasir Jung to rebel and declare his independence. Nizam-ul-mulk suddenly left Delhi in August 1740 to suppress the rebellion of his son. [Nizam-ul-mulk reached Burhanpur in August 1740 and immediately left) for Aurangabad taking Nasiruddowlah with him.]. The new Pesva Balaji Bajirav was proceeding northward to take the possession of Malva by force if necessary. When he was in Khandes he learnt of the move ments of Nizam-ul-mulk. The Pesva was approached by Nizam-ul-mulk for help. Balaji and Nizam-ul-mulk both met at Edlabad on, the Purna in Khandes on 7th January 1741. Balaji then proceeded to the north. In the battle fought between Nizam-ul-mulk and Nasir Jung, the latter was defeated and captured. [During the campaign against Nasir Jung, Nasiruddowlah was given the title of Mubariz Jung. He was then transferred (1742) to Aurangabad where; he shortly afterwards died. Till the death of Nasiruddowlah, Mujahid Khan his son worked as deputy to his father in the subha of Khandesh. After the death of Nasiruddowlah, Nizam-ul-mulk appointed Mir Ali Akbar Khan, as governor of Khandesh. In 1743, for some days, Mujahid Khan was appointed governor of Khandesh with Ali Akbar Khan as his deputy. However as the two of them could not get along well, Akbar Khan was confirmed in the posy and Mujahid Khan was recalled by Nizam-ul-mulk. In 1746 after the death of Ali Akbar Khan, Abul Khair Khan was appointed as subhedar of Khandesh, In the following year (1747) Khaja Momin Khan, the son of Iwaj Khan Ijduj dowlah, was appointed as governor of Khandesh in place of Abul Khair Khan

It may be mentioned here that Nasir Jung regained his father's favour and was sent to Karnatak to collect tributes from the various Zamindars. After his return to Aurangabad he was entrusted with the task of putting down the Marathas. In this he was assisted among others by Abul Khair Khan, the governor of Khandesh.]

Death of Shahu.

Balaji had decided to; remain neutral and had already proceeded north towards Malva. The appearance of the Pesva in Malva forced the emperor to concede the demand of the Marathas for the cession of Malva (7th September 1741). The next few years saw the expansion of the Maratha sphere of influence in the north. Nizam-ul-mulk, during this time, wall engaged in exacting tribute from refractory dependents in the Deccan and consolidating his power in the Karnatak. In 1747 a terrible famine broke out in Gujarat and the Deccan desolating the country, Grain was sold at 1½ seers a rupee. The ageing Nizam-ul-mulk had now grown weaker since his return from the Karnatak expedition He died at the Mahan Nala outside Burhanpur on 1st June 1748. [After the death of Nizam-ul-mulk Nasir Jung who succeeded him appointed Ahmad Mir Khan to the subhedari of Khandesh.] A year after, on December 15, 1749 died Chatrapati Sahu. The death of these two personalities changed the entire course of politics in the Deccan. With the death of Nizam-ul-mulk, the Deccan lost one of the most shrewd and cunning politicians of the time. Though the confrontation between the Marathas and the successors of Nizam-ul-mulk did not come to an end with the death of Nizam-ul-mulk, it lost its original verve and sting because the successors of Nizam-ul-mulk lacked the qualities he possessed. On the other hand with the death of Sahu, the Maratha royalty became weak. The Pesvas as the representatives of the State were left free to deal with the enemies of the State in a manner they considesred to be in the best interests of the State. After the death of Sahu, Ramraja was installed on the throne.

Nasir Jung.

Nizam-ul-mulk was succeeded by his son Nasir Jung to the viceroyalty of the Deccan. He was however, Naxir Jung. murdered by his Pathan allies on December 5, 1750 and Muzaffar Jung, his sister's son, was raised to the office. He met with a similar fate on January 31, 1751 when Salabat Jung, another son of Nizam ul-mulk, was proclaimed Nizam by Bussy, the French general, and the partisan of Salabat Jung. [During this time when these events were taking place Khajam Kuli Khan acted as the governor of Khandesh. He, however, could not get along well with Ahmad Amir Khan.

Salabat Jung.

After the death of Nasir Jung, the Peshwa Balaji Bajirao confiscated many paraganus of Khandesh. Khajam Kuli Khan tried to resist the Maratha incursions but could not do so successfully due to lack of support from Ahmad Amir Khan. At this time Muzaffar Jung appointed Abul Khair Khan Samsher Jung as governor of Khandesh. Many actions were fought between the Marathas and the troops of Khandesh. The Maratha Officers Manaji Nikam, Hari Pandit and others defeated the Khandesh troops. Muhammad Khurram, Giovindram Peshkar and other officers of the Khandesh army were killed and the troops of Khandesh fled to Burhanpur pursued by the Marathas. The Marathas took control of Mandi Shahganj, Jahanabad and Bahadarpura adjacent to Burhanpur.] The Pesva was watching with interest these developments and decided to make the best use of them for the advantage of the Maratha power. He issued orders for occupying the Khandes territory of Nizam-ul-mulk between Aurarangabad and Burhanpur. The Pesva, however, did not desire a direct confrontation with the well trained artillery of Bussy, as he was deeply concerned with the happenings in the environs of Satara and Poona. Tarabai (the wife of Rajaram), who was still living did not approve of the assumption of power by the Pesva and she instigated Damaji Gaikvad and Dabhade against the Pesva. She also secretly corresponded with the Nizam and the Portuguese. Damaji Gaikvad, with 15,000 troops, attacked Dhulia and devastated it. He then proceeded to Thalner. Bapuji Bajirav Rotharekar was at Bahadarpura in Khandes. On hearing of the predatory raids of Damaji Gaikvad, Hari Damodar Nevalkar, Balvantrav Mehandale and Mahipatrav Kavade hurried into Khandes from Poona. On 18th February 1751 an action was fought at Bahadarpura about 10 miles from Amalner between the forces of Gaikvad and those of Pesva. The latter's forces were routed. Damaji moved on towards Poona devastating the terri tory on the way. He then marched to Satara. The Pesva therefore hurriedly entered into a settlement with Salabat Jung who agreed to pay a sum of 17 lakhs. The Pesva also agreed to cancel his previous orders of occupying Khandes on receiving a sum of three lakhs more and returned to Satara to deal with the recalcitrant Damaji Gaikvad. He attacked Damaji Gaikvad and defeating him, made him a captive. The affairs at Satara were settled to the satisfaction of the Pesva who now turned towards subjugating the forts in Nasik belonging to the Nizam. He instigated Gaziuddin, the eldest son of the late Nizam-ul-mulk to come to the Deccan and assert his claim to his fathers dominion. [The Marathas agreed to extend their support to Gaziuddin in his claims to the subhedari of the Deccan but in return demanded the cession of the subha of Khandesh. Gaziuddin agreed and when he reached Burhanpur in August 1752 gave a sanad to that effect in writing to Holkar and other Maratha chiefs. He proceeded from thence to Aurangabad with a considerable number of Maratha troops. Gaziuddin, however, died of poisoning before the whole plan could be executed. ] The treaty of friendship between the Marathas and Salabat Jung was thus not destined to last long and the latter made preparations for an eventual conflict with the former. Actual hostilities broke out between the two in November 1751. [Salabat Jung put Abul Khair Khan, the subhedar of Khandesh in charge of the campaign against the Marathas.]  For two months a sort of desultory warfare continued leading to a temporary truce under the treaty of Singva. Hostilties, however, soon erupted and the Marathas surrounded Salabat Jung at Bhaiki. Salabat Jung sued for peace and a treaty was concluded. Under this treaty Salabat Jung agreed to the cession of the whole of Khandes, Baglan, Galna; and Sarigamner. Nasik, Trimbak and other important forts in that region thus passed into Maratha hands and were soon put in an efficient state of management and government. [ Shahanawaz Khan, the Diwan of Salabat Jung strongly opposed the cession of the subha of Khandesh to the Marathas. He requested with great earnestness to reconsider the terms of the treaty. He wanted to move away from the scene of battle one or two stages so as to estract a more facourable treaty. The efforts of Shahanawaz Khan came to naught due to the duplicity of Sayyad Lashkar Khan, the chief minister of Salabat Jung. He approached the Marathas on behalf of Salabat Jung to secure their help against Gaziudding but in reality sought service with Gaziuddin through the help of the Peshwa. Salabat Jung in the absence of Sayyad Lashkar Khan acted against the advice of Shahanawaz Khan and signed the convention of Bhalki ceding the province of Khandesh and the district of Galna and Sangamner to the Marathas, ( 18th Century Deccan ).]