EDUCATION AND CULTURE

GENERAL EDUCATION

Administration.

Prior to the formation of the Zilla Parishad, primary and secondary education in the district was under the control of the District Educational Inspector who was a Class I Officer of Maharashtra Education Service and who was directly under the control of the Director of Education, Maharashtra State, Poona. The Educational Inspector was responsible for (i) the supervision of primary education; (ii) the administrative control of all Government primary schools, secondary schools and training colleges (institutions) under the control of the Education department; and (iii) the control and inspection of all secondary schools including English teaching schools, multi-purpose schools and training institutions of primary teachers and such special schools as were under the control of the Education department.

As regards girls' schools and institutions for women, the Inspectress of Girls' Schools, Poona, performed the functions and duties in respect of (i) the inspection of girls' secondary schools and special schools in the district; and (ii) visiting girls' primary schools in the district and making suggestions for improvement.

The Educational Inspector was assisted by an inspecting staff consisting of one Deputy Educational Inspector (Maharashtra Education Service, Class II) and Assistant Deputy Educational Inspectors who were directly responsible to him for the supervision and inspection of primary schools in the district. After the formation of the Zilla Parishad in May 1962, the Educational Inspector was designated as the Parishad Education Officer of the Zilla Parishad. The primary and secondary education in the district came under the dual control of the Education department of the Zilla Parishad and the Education department of the State Government. At the head of the educational set up in the district is the Parishad Education Officer who is to discharge his duties under the guidance of the Chief Executive Officer of the Zilla Parishad. He is assisted in his work by two Deputy Educational Officers, one dealing with primary education and the other assisting the Education Officer in the inspection of secondary schools.

As the district head for education, the Parishad Education Officer has powers to supervise, control and guide the work of his subordinates. He has also powers to inspect and release grants to primary and secondary schools in the district. Being the Secretary of the Education Committee of the Zilla Parishad in the new set up, he has to guide the Committee on educational matters.

The administrative control of primary training colleges, S.T.C. institutions and special institutions has now been transferred to the Deputy Director of Education, Bombay Region. All public examinations held in the district as per the directions of the State Government are organised and conducted by the Deputy Director.

There are separate inspectors, having jurisdiction over the entire State, for physical education, visual education, drawing and craft work and commercial schools. They are responsible for organisation and inspection in their respective spheres. These inspectors are directly under the control of the Director of Education. The technical institutions in the district are controlled by the Director of Technical Education, Maharashtra State, Bombay.

Primary Education.

In 1963-64, there were 1,353 primary schools, including 27 exclusively for girls under the control of the Zilla Parishad, Dhulia. During the same period there were in all 1,17,005 pupils learning in the schools. Out of them, 77,427 were boys and 39,578 girls.

During the same period these schools employed 4,123 teachers of whom 3,681 were men and 442 women. Of the male teachers, 3,269 were trained while the trained female teachers numbered 397.

The distribution of the schools according to medium of instruction was as under:-

1. Marathi

1,301

2. Urdu

29

3. Gujarati

18

4. Sindhi

3

5. Hindi

2

These schools were housed in 1,859 buildings of which 488 were owned by the Zilla Parishad, 539 were rented and 832 were rent-free.

Of the 255 basic schools, 199 had spinning and weaving as basic craft 41 had agriculture and 15 had wood work.

During the same year, the Zilla Parishad spent Rs. 63,30,554 on the primary schools under its jurisdiction. The average cost of educating a pupil was Rs. 42 per annum of which Government share was Rs. 40.

Of the 58 primary schools in Dhulia municipal area, one was a practising school for boys directly under the control of the State Government, seven were private schools for boys (1 aided and 6 unaided) and 50 schools (30 for boys and 20 for girls) were run by the Municipal School Board, Dhulia. Of these, 42 had Marathi as a medium of instruction, 13 had Urdu while the remaining three had English, Hindi and Gujarati as medium of instruction respectively. There were in all 16,586 pupils enrolled in these schools, of whom 9,292 were boys and 7,294 were girls. During the same period these schools employed 454 teachers of whom 241 were men and 213 women. Of the male teachers 213 were trained while the trained female teachers numbered 188.

The scheme of compulsory primary education was executed in the Dhulia municipal area as under:-

Category of pupils

Age-group

Total number under compulsion

Total enrolled

Percentage of enrolment

Boys

6-11

6,924

6,320

91.3

Girls

7-11

5,283

4,793

90.7

The expenditure on the primary schools in Dhulia municipal area came to Rs. 7,31,351 during the year 1963-64. The average cost of educating a pupil was Rs. 44.09 per annum.

Secondary Education.

Secondary education is now under the general regulation of the Government which exercises control by means of conditions for receipt of grant-in-aid by the concerned educational institutions. At the end of the high school course an examination is conducted by the Secondary School Certificate Examination Board. The examination provides optional courses for pupils with varied interests and aptitudes. Each university, however, lays down the subjects which the candidates have to take for entrance to its courses.

In 1963-64. there were 77 secondary schools including four exclusively for girls, in the district. The total number of students attending these schools stood at 24,848 of which 4,428 were girls. Of the 921 teachers employed in these schools during that period, 618 were trained and 303 were untrained.

The following statement shows the number of schools under different managements and the number of pupils in them: -

Management.

No. of Schools.

No. of pupils.

Zilla Parishad

1

602

Local Authorities

3

2,389

Private Aided

69

21,698

Unaided

4

159

Total

77

24,848

These schools received maintenance grant of Rs. 9,82,496.

Economically Backward Concession scheme.

The scheme of free-studentship to the pupils of other backward classes (i.e. economically backward) was introduced in the district in 1959-6O. Since the introduction of this scheme many private agencies in the district have taken up the work of secondary education and many economically backward students have been benefited. The following figures show the gradual increase and the progress of the scheme: -

Year

No. of beneficiaries

Total Expenditure (Rs.)

1960-61

7,371

5,11,936.95

1961-62

11,319

7,69,850.96

1962-63

14,192

10,12,801.17

1963-64

14,984

10,78,497.73

Special Schools.

The number of different types of special schools was as follows:−

 

No. of institutions

No. of pupils

(1) Nursery

2

73

(2) Commercial

5

72

(3) Agricultural

1

40

(4) Gymnasium

2

48

(5) Arts and Crafts

3

46

(6) Music and Dancing

1

13

(7) Oriental studies

3

22

(8) Reformatory

1

333

(9) Others

5

512

Physical education is controlled by the department at the State level. Under the National Discipline Scheme instructors are provided in some schools. In 1963-64 there were 50 troops for boys and 13 troops for girls in which 1,088 boy scouts and 153 girl guides participated. There were 22 Auxiliary Cadet Corps sections with 1,340 cadets working under qualified teachers.

Gata Sammelans of primary school teachers are held every month where current topics in education are discussed. The idea of community life is fully brought home through these sammelans. Sports, elocution competitions and dramas are also arranged.

The Gram Shikshan Mohim was introduced in the district in April 1961. The work of making illiterate adults literate is carried out through household classes run by pupils of upper standards and night classes run by teachers and social education workers. The literacy drive is maintained by providing free literature to all neo-literates through the students. Emphasis is also laid on social education. There are 10 social education centres and four sanskar kendras run by the Central Government.

To provide the schools with all possible amenities, the scheme of the " School Improvement Programme' has been introduced in the district. Similarly with a view to raising the standard of education in primary schools, the scheme of Shikshan Sahkar Yojana was introduced in 1964-65.

College Education.

The following colleges in the district are affiliated to the Poona University for the degree courses shown against them−

(1) Shri Shivaji Vidya Prasarak Mandals' Arts, Science and Commerce College, Dhulia-B.A., B.Sc, B.Com., and M.A.

(2) Kisan Vidya Prasarak Sanstha's Arts College, Shirpur−upto B.A.

(3) Nandurbar Education Society's Arts College, Nandurbar−P. D. Arts.

Training Institutions.

There are four training institutions in the district which prepare students for S. T. C. examination. Besides there is one Pre-Primary Training College for women situated at Dhulia having two years' course for students who have passed P. S. C. examination and one year's course for S.S.C. students and also a school for printing and drawing run by S. S. V. P. Sanstha, Dhulia.

Oriental Sanskrit Pathshala.

The Sanskrit Pathshala at Dhulia imparts instructions in Sanskrit . and Vedas. The institution aims at maintaining the traditional proficiency in dharmashastra and Sanskrit language. It provides free lodging and boarding to the students.

Samastha Vakdevata Mandir.

This institution has the collection of old manuscripts and books throwing light on the life and teachings of Ramdas Swami. It provides the research workers with the literature for research work.

Rajwade Sanshodhan Mandir.

The Rajwade Sanshodhan Mandir, Dhulia has very valuable and historical collection of manuscripts, books, monuments, etc. It provides these collections to the research workers of history.

Ashram Schools.

There are eight ashram schools at the following places in the district:−

Name of Ashram School

Year of Establishment

1. Varsus, Taluka Sakri.

1959-60

2. Sonkhamb, Taluka Nawapur

1955-56

3. Talawadi, Taluka Taloda

1958-59

4. Kochara, Taluka Shahada

1959-60

5. Holgi, Taluka Akkalkuwa

1955-56

6. Survani, Akrani Mahal

1958-59

7. Jamana, Taluka Akkalkuwa

1962-63

8. Sangvi, Taluka Shirpur

1959-60

In 1963-64, these ashram schools received Government grant to the extent of Rs. 1,88,250 and had 728 inmates.

 

 

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