AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION

SOILS

Of the various soil forming factors, topography and climate primarily influence the soil formations in the Dhulia district. The district in general, except for the central fairly flat and broad Tapi valley, presents an undulating topography with low hillocks in the southern area and the Hilar hills of the Satpuda ranges in the northern area. Rainfall in the northern area is moderate while it is low in the southern area, the southern most of which is a scarcity traet.

The soils of the district are derived from trap rock to the south of Tapi river; while to the north these are from the trap as well as sedimentary formations of the Satpuda ranges. The central Tapi valley region is a fairly recent alluvium developed on the bed of lacustrine origin. The northern part of the district has dark brown to yellowish brown soils of lighter type on the hill slopes, with clayey deep soils of the Tapi valley to its south. Between the Tapi and Panjhra river valleys comes the belt of medium deep soils mostly, with interception of medium and shallower soils in scattered patches, depending on the local conditions. Below the Panjhra valley in the southern part of the district lies the area of shallow to medium soils as per local relief conditions.

Characteristics of these soils from some representative areas and the profile description and analytical data are as follows: —

Light Soils 0.228.6 mm. (0".9").-Lighter soils are largely met with in northern and southern areas flanking on both sides of the central Tapi valley. In general these soils are partly alkaline in reaction with pH round about 8.2 with the total soluble salts moderately low (less than 0.3 per cent). Soils are light loams to clay loams in texture with sub-angular blocky to angular blocky in structure in the lower zone. The calcium carbonate contents are fair being less than 4.0 per cent. They are low in organic matter and nitrogen contents, varying from 0.2 to 0.3 per cent and less than 0.04 per cent respectively. The phosphate and potash levels are low to moderate with available phosphate varying from trace to 11.7 mgm. per cent and available potash from trace to 14.29 mgm. per cent. The exchangeable bases are calcium 23.5-32.5, magnesium 4.0-11.5, and sodium less than 2.5 m.e. per cent. In general these are low in fertility and require judicious supply of manures and fertilizers.

Medium soils 228.6-457.2 mm. (9"-18").-These soils are predominantly located in the southern and central zones of the district below,- the Tapi valley in Dhulia, Sakri, and Nawapur areas with intervening narrow belts of fairly shallow soils. The soils are dark brown to dark reddish brown in colour with fairly good drainage, granular to sub-angular, blocky in structure, loamy to clay loam in texture, alkaline in reaction with pH varying from 8.11 to 8.62. total soluble salts less than 0.3 per cent, calcium carbonate less than 4.0 per cent and the organic matter contents less than 0.3 per cent. The exchangeable calcium varies from 27.5 to 41.5 m.e. per cent while the exchangeable mg. is moderate to fairly high (4.0 to 13.5 m.e. per cent) which can be considered as undesirable when tending towards higher limit. Exchangeable sodium is less than 2.5 m.e. per cent.

As regards the fertility status, the soils are very poor in nitrogen contents with total nitrogen varying from 0.02 to 0.051 per cent, available phosphate is very low to fair varying from trace to 12.64 mgm. per cent, and available K2O content is moderate, being about 14.29 mgm. per cent. The soils in general are deficient in nitrogen, organic matter and phosphate contents and therefore require adequate doses of the same for better harvest.

Medium deep soils 457.2-914.4 mm. (18"-36")-These soils are fairly scattered in many smaller river valleys and local pockets, and largely in Tapi and Panjhra river valleys on the outer side of the valleys. The soils are clay loam to clayey in texture with dark brown to very dark gray brown in colour and sub-angular blocky to angular blocky in structure. The soils are alkaline in reaction with pH 8.03 to 8.69 and the total soluble salts are between 0.2 to 0.3 per cent. the calcium carbonate contents are low to moderate varying from 0.3 to 4.0 per cent. The organic matter contents are poor, varying from 0.1 to 0.39 per cent, exchangeable calcium varies from 35.0 to 49.0 m.e. per cent, and the exchangeable mg varies from 14.0 to 17.5 m.e. per cent which is not a desirable feature. The exchangeable Na is less than 2.5 m.e. per cent. The nitrogen contents are very low, total nitrogen being 0.039 to 0.07 per cent. Available P2O5 is low to moderately high varying from traces to 33.32 mgm. percent. Available potash content is fair to moderately high varying from traces to 24.0 mgm. per cent. In general these soils are specifically deficient in nitrogen and organic matter contents in general and phosphate in cases, with high exchangeable mg. and high pH Application of manures and fertilizers is needed for these nutrients as per local conditions for better returns.

Deep soils more than 914.4 mm. (36").-These soils are mostly in the valleys of Tapi and Panjhra. Besides a few scattered local patches are sandy clay loam to clayey in texture with clay percentage upto 60.0 per cent at the highest and 40-55 per cent in general for most soils. Structure varies from sub-angular blocky to angular blocky with dark gray brown to very dark gray brown colour.

The special characteristic is that the sub-soil layers have diminishing clay percentage upto certain depth 1.219 to 1.524 metres (4 to 5 ft.) particularly in the Tapi valley. These soils lend onwards alkaline reaction, pH varying from 7.78 to 8.23. Total soluble salts are less than 0.35 per cent and calcium carbonate content is moderate, varying from 1.4 to 3.8 per cent.

Organic matter contents are very low varying from 0.12 to 0.37 per cent. Exchangeable calcium varies from 25.0 to 50.5 m.e. per cent; while exchangeable magnesium is from fair to moderately high, varying from 4.0 to 18.5 m.e. per cent which is not desirable when approaching upper limit. Exchangeable sodium is, however, less than 2.5 m.e. per cent.

The nitrogen contents are very poor varying from 0.035 to 0.057 per cent and the available P2O5 varies from fair to moderately high, 11.7 to 29.8 mgm. per cent. The available potash (K2O) also varies from fair to moderately high varying from 11.77 to 37.5 mgm. per cent. In general the soils are more deficient in nitrogen and organic matter contents and need more manures and fertilizers to supply the same.

The following tables show the physical and chemical analysis of the soils in the district:-

TABLE No. 3

PROFILE RESIST SHEET OF DHUELIA DISTRICT

Profile No.

Depth in inches

pH-

T.S.S.
per cent

Mech.

Analysis

Silt per cent

Clay per cent

1

2

3

4

5

6

0-117.8

(0"-7")

8.36

0.23

13.75

42.00

117.8-284.0

(7"-10")

8.28

0.24

15.25

55.00

0-228.6 mm.

(0"-9")

8.03

0.23

21.25

48.00

228.6-381.0 mm.

(9"-15")

8.11

0.25

23.00

46.75

0-228.6 mm.

(0"-9")

8.78

0.20

11.00

23.50

228.6-533.4 mm.

(9"-21")

8.66

0.20

13.75

23.75

533.4-787.4

(21--31")

8.61

0.20

22.25

23.75

0-228.6

(0"-9") surface

8.03

0.27

13.00

53.25

0-279.4 mm.

(0"-11")

8.86

0.25

21.25

61.25

279.4-67.3.1 mm.

(11"-26")

8.19

0.31

23.75

51.50

673.1-1041.4

(26"-41")

8.11

0.26

4.25

72.25

0-228.6

(0'-9") surface

8.73

0.26

18.25

51.50

0-203.2

(0"-8")

8.61

0.24

17.00

50.75

203.2-533.4

(8"-2I")

8.78

0.24

19.00

52.50

533.4-762.0

(21"-30)

8.83

0.27

17-25

53.75

762.0-965.2

(30"-38")

8.69

0.27

15.75

52.00

965.2-1270.0

(38"-50")

8.78

020

17.00

27.00

0-288.6

(0"-9") surface

8.28

0.24

14.50

24.50

0-330.2

(0"-13")

8.03

0.18

 5.00

23.00

330.2-635.0

(13'-25")

8.09

0.24

18.75

27.00

635.0-990.6

(25"-39")

8.65

0.18

15.50

32.50

990.6-1600.2

(39"-63")

8.26

0.13

 5.25

31.75

1600.2-1727.2

(63"-68")

7.74

0.26

10.25

23.50

TABLE No. 3-contd. .

PROFILE RESULT SHEET OF DHULIA DISTRICT

Profile No.

Ex. Bases, m. e. per cent

Total bases

CaCo3
per cent

Sticky point moisture Per cent

Ca. m.e. per cent

Mg. m.e. per cent

Na. K. per cent

 

7

8

9

10

11

12

0-117.8

35.00

14.50

1.00

50.50

3.6

18.0

117.8-284.8

38.50

16.00

2.00

56.50

3.4

19.0

0-228.6 mm.

36.00

18.50

1.00

55.50

3.8

20.0

228.6-381.0 mm.

38.00

14.50

2.50

45 00

3.4

17.0

0-22S.6mm.

36.00

4.00

2.50

42.50

3.0

20.0

228.6-533.4 mm.

35.00

6.00

1.00

42.00

1.0

18.0

533.4-787.4

28.00

7.50

2.00

37.00

18.0

17.0

0-228.6

35.00

20.00

0.50

63.00

3.6

18.0

0-279.4 mm.

49.00

16 50

2.00

67.50

3.8

16.0

279.4-673.1 mm.

49.00

21.50

1.00

71.50

3.5

19.0

673.1-1041.4

49.50

19.50

1.00

13.0

17 0

0-228.6

47.00

10.00

2.00

59.00

3.0

18.0

0-203.2

47.50

9.50

2.50

59.50

3.2

19.0

203.2-533.4

47.00

9.00

2.50

59.00

3.6

16.0

533.4-762.0

75.50

9.00

2.50

56.50

3.2

18.0

762.0-965.2

42.50

13.50

1.50

57.50

3.2

19.0

965.2-1270.0

27.00

11.50

3.50

40.00

4.2

17.0

0.228.6

47.00

12.00

1.00

60.00

2.8

17.0

0-330.2

34.00

13.50

0.50

48.00

3.0

17.0

330.2-635.0

39.00

11.50

1.00

51.50

3.8

19.0

635.0-990.6

39.50

9.50

0.50

49.50

3.6

20.0

990.6-1600.2

33.00

10.00

0.50

44.50

3.2

19.0

1600.2-1727.2

33.50

11.00

1.00

45.50

18.0

TABLE No. 3-contd. .

Humus

Org. Carban
 percent

Av. P205 mgm
 percent

Nitrogen percent

C/N.

A.K2O mgm.
percent.

13

14

15

16

17

18

0.4015

33.32

0.070

24.0

0.24S5

0.2772

0.351

13.56

0042

8.6

Tr.

0.2294

0.3537

0.039

2.68

0.057

6.8

Tr.

0.1388

0.066

0.2390

0.351

5.98

0.052

6.8

19.73

0.2007

0.0816

0.1529

0.086

0.351

Tr.

0.036

9.8

37.03

0.065

0.6309

0.439

0.3341

0. 2868

0.096

0. 576

19.72

0.043

8.7

37.55

0.2581

0.2103

0.1720

0.1338

0.1816

TABLL No. 4

PROFILE EXAMINATION - NANDURBAR

Locality S. No.:-187

Relief:-Sloping

Drainage:-Well drained.

Profile No.:-1

Slope:-1 to 3 per cent.

Sub-soil water table:-N.A.

 

Erosion:-Severe.

Vegetation:-Nim, Babul.

Land-use:-Fallow after jowar.

Surface Condition:- Full of lime nodules and Murum exposed.

General Remark:-Profile is on ridge.

Horizon

Thick-ness

Colour

Texture

Structure

Consis-tency

Misc-ellaneous concretions, roots, moisture-ness, etc.

Sample depth

Remarks

I

177-8 mm.(7")

Light brown

Loam

Sub-angular blocky

Dry and loose

Full of lime nodules

0-177.8 mm.(0"-7")

 

II

76.2 mm. (3")

Brown

Clay loam

Blocky

Moist and friable

Do.

177.8-254. 0 mm. (7"-10")

254 0 mm. Below (10 ") is Murum.

TABLE No. 5

PROFILE EXAMINATION—NANDURBAR

Locality S. No.:-189

Relief:-Sloping

Drainage:-Well drained.

Profile No.:-2

Slope:-1 to 3 per cent.

Sub-soil water table:-N.A.

 

Erosion:-Moderate.

Vegetation:-Nim, Babul

Land-use:-Fallow after Groundnut mixed with Tur.

Surface Condition:-Murum exposed.

General Remark;-

Hori-zon

Thickness

 Colour

Texture

Structure

Consist-ency

Misc-ellaneous concretions, roots, moisture-ness, etc.

Sample depth

Remarks

I

215.9 mm.(8")

 Brown

Clay loam

Sub-angular blocky

Dry and loose

Few lime nodules

0-215.9 mm. (0" -8")

 

II

165.1 mm.(6")

 Dark brown

Clay loam

Sub-angular blocky

Moist and friable.

Moderate cracks

215.9-381.0 mm. (8-"15")

381.0 mm. Below (15") Murum.

TABLE No. 6

PROFILE EXAMINATION-DHULIA

Locality S. No.:-302

Relief:-Sloping

Drainage:-Well drained.

Profile No.:-3

Slope:-1 to 3 per cent

Sub-soil water table:-N.A.

 

Erosion:-Moderate.

Vegetation:—Nim, Babul.

Surface Condition: -Few lime nodules.

Land-use:-Groundnut harvested. General Remark:-

Hori-zon

Thickness

Colour

Texture

Structure 

Consis-tency

Misc-ellaneous concretions, roots, moisture-ness, etc.

Sample

Remarks

I

228.6 mm. (9")

Yellowish brown

Loam

Granular

Dry and loose

Few lime, nodules mixed with small stones.

0-228.6 mm. (0'-9")

 

II

558.8 mm.(22")

Do.

Do.

Indefinite

Moist and friable.

Few lime nodules.

228.6-533.4 mm. (9"-21") 533.4-787.4 mm. (21"-31")

 

TABLE-: No 7

PROFILE EXAMINATION-NAWAPUR

Locality S. No:-

Relief:-Sloping

Drainage:-Well drained.

Profile No.:-4

Slope:-1 to 3 per cent

Sub-soil water table:-N.A.

 

Erosion:-Moderate

Vegetation:—Nim, Babul.

Surface Condition:-No Stones.

Land-use:-

General Remarks,:-

Hori-zon

Thick-ness

Colour

Texture

Structure

Consist-ency

Miscellaneous concretions, roots, moistur-eness, etc.

Sample depth

Remarks

I

279.4 mm. (11")

Very dark gray brown.

Clay loam

Sub-angular blocky

Dry and loose

Full of lime nodules, Moderate cracking roots are seen throughout the profile.

0-279.4 mm. 0 "-11 "

 

II

774.7 mm. (30")

Do

Do.

Do.

Most and sticky

Do.

279.4-660.4 mm. (11 "-26 ") 660.4-1054.1 mm. (26'-41")

 

TABLE No. 8

PROFILE EXAMINATION-SINDKHEDA

Locality S. No.:-590

Relief:-Sloping

Drainage:-Well drained.

Profile No.:-5

Slope:-0.5 to 1 per cent

Sub-soil water table:-N. A.

 

Erosion:-Slight

Vegetation:-Nim, Babul.

Land-use:-

Surface Condition:-Lime nodules and small stones

General Remark:-

Hori-zon

Thickness

Colour

Texture

Structure

Consis-tency

Misce-llaneous concretions, roots, Moisture-ness, etc.

Sample depth

Remarks

I

203.2 mm. (8")

Dark gray brown

Clay loam

Sub-angular blocky

Dry and hard

Few lime nodules

0-203.2 mm. (0"-8")

 

II

330.2 mm. (13 ")

Dark brown

Clayey

Blocky

Moist and sticky.

Do.

203.2-533.4 mm. (8"-21")

 

III

431.8 mm. (17 ") 203.2 mm. (8")

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

533.4-762.0 mm.(21 "-30") (30"-38") 762.0-965.2 mm.

 

IV

304. 8 mm. (12 ")

Dark Yellowish brown

Sandy clay

Structure-less

Moist and friable

Do.

965.2-1270.0 mm. (38 "-50 ")

 

TABLE No. 9

PROFILE EXAMINATION-TALODA.

Locality S. No.:-37/2

Relief:-Sloping.

Drainage: -Well drained.

Profile No.:-6

Slope:-0.5 to 1 per cent.

Sub-soil water table:-N. A.

 

Erosion:- Slight.

Vegetation:-Nim, Babul

Land-use:-Rabi jowar harvested.

Surface Condition: Full of lime nodules.

General Remark:-

Hori-zon

Thic-kness

Colour

Texture

Structure

Cons-istency

Misce-llaneous concretions, roots, moisture-ness, etc.

Sample
 depth

Remarks

I

635.0 mm. (25 ")

Very dark brown

Clay loam

Blocky

Moist and friable

Sand particles and full of lime nodules

0-330.2 mm. (0 "-13 ") (13 "-25")

330. 2-635.0 mm. 1727.2 mm.

II

355.6 mm. (14")

Dark brown

Sandy clay

Sub-angular blocky

Do.

Do.

635.0-990.6 mm. (25 "-39 ")

Below (68 ") same layer continued.

III

609.6 mm. (24 ")

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

Do.

990.6-1600.2 mm. (39 "-63 ")

 

IV

127.0 mm. (5 ")

Dark yellowish brown

Sandy loam.

Structure-less.

Do.

Do.

1600.2-1727.2 mm. (63 "-68 ")

 

 

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