Agricultural economy of the district is still dependent on the live-stock. The farmers consider the cattle as their valuable asset. The live-stock can be broadly classified into bovine, ovine and poultry population. Bovine includes cattle and buffaloes, ovine covers sheep and goats, while poultry comprises ducks and fowls. Farmers keep bullocks and he buffaloes as draught and breeding animals, cows and she-buffaloes as milch cattle and poultry for flesh and eggs.

Bullocks are usually kept for carrying out heavy agricultural operations and rural transportation. Farmers who do not have enough draught animals usually come together and jointly do the heavier agricultural operations such as ploughing, sowing, harrowing, etc. The ovines on the other hand are kept along with the cattle for flesh, skins, wool and green manure. In rural areas, the milk of a she-goat is also used for domestic consumption.

Poultry keeping on the other hand provides a subsidiary occupation to the cultivators. Most of the birds, however, are of deshi and non-descript variety. They are being replaced by improved pure bred birds such as White leghorn and Rhode Island Red which are supplied at concessional rates from the government poultry farm at Dhulia. Financial assistance is also given to the poultry keepers. In 1964-65 loans to the tune of Rs. 6,750 and subsidy of Rs. 200 were distributed to the poultry keepers. Hatching eggs worth Rs. 869 and 8973 birds costing Rs. 14,223 were also distributed. Flesh and eggs, have a good demand in the market. The fanners, how-ever, do not necessarily consider poultry keeping as a subsidiary source of income. Though some farmers keep poultry they do so because they need not have to pay for their own requirements.

The following table gives taluka-wise live-stock population as per the 1961 census: -

TABLE No. 34







Horses and Ponies








































































The only important weekly cattle market is at Dhulia held on every Thursday. The animals brought to this market arc mostly local and non-descript. The prices vary from Rs. 150 to 300 for a bullock, Rs. 80 to 200 for a cow, Rs. 200 to 300 for a bull and Us. 300 to 500 for a buffalo.

Due to introduction of various cattle development schemes such as premium bull scheme, supplementary cattle breeding centres, key village centres and artificial insemination, there is improvement in local and non-descript cattle. 32 Dangi bulls and 80 Dangi caws were given to Adiwasi people of Akrani Taluka for improvement of cattle in the hilly tract. Besides these there are 100 premium bulls on active list, and 3 supplementary cattle breeding centres functioning in the district.

The information regarding the various schemes is given in what follows: -

Artificial Insemina-Centres.

These sub-centres are located at Shahada, Salvia, Akkalkuwa, Taloda. Shirpur and Nandurbar and are supplied with semen from the District tion Artificial Insemination Centre at Dhulia. The centre is housed in well built premises.

Supplementary Cattle Breeding Centres.

The supplementary cattle breeding centres are established at Shirud, Borvihir, Dahiwad, Kakani and Nawapur. Under this scheme a cost subsidy of Rs. 200 is gi.ven for each cow and Rs. 350 for each bull. In addition, the monthly maintenance charges at Rs. 30 per month are paid towards each bull. Every centre coniprisinc five villages is provided with 50 cows and 5 hulls. At present five such centres are functioning in the district.

District Premium Bull Scheme

Under this scheme 55 bulls are located in the district. A maintenance charge of Rs. 30 per month for each bull is given. Apart from this scheme, there are some bulls located in the district on 50 per cent subsidy basis. For this, half the cost of the bull limited to an amount of Rs. 500 is given to each owner of the cow bull and buffalo bull.

Poultry Schemes

Poultry distribution centres also are being run at Nandurbar. Taloda, Akkalkuwa, Shirpur, Sindkheda, Mulgi and Shahada to meet the requirements of the pure bred birds and hatching eggs in the surrounding areas. In addition, every year 150 pure bred cocks and 65 dozens of hatching eggs are supplied free to Adiwasis in the scheduled areas of the district. Besides there are three types of poultry schemes under which loans amounting to Rs. 750 (without any subsidy), Rs. 1,000 (with subsidy @ Rs. 250 to each loanee) and Rs. 5,000, respectively are advanced to individuals fulfilling certain conditions. A loan of Rs. 750 without any subsidy is granted to a person who is specially trained in poultry keeping. A loan of Rs. 1,000 with subsidy of Rs. 250 is available for any person having a stock of 50 birds of improved variety. A loan of Rs. 5,000 on the other hand is made available to a person having a foundation stock of 200 birds of improved variety.

Sheep Development

There are schemes for the development of sheep also. Bennur breed hsd been introduced for mutton purpose. Two such centres of sheep breeding are functioning one each at Boradi and Nyahalod. These centres are under State control. Two villages or a group of contiguous villages are selected for each such centre. About ten cultivators are selected who could contribute 100 sheep of local breed. Government supplies them equal number of pure bred Bennur sheep.

Pig Development.

A piggery unit has been started at the School of Agriculture at Dhulia. The improved breed of Yorkshire pigs is made; available at the above centre.


There are two panjarpols in the district. Every year a grant-in-aid of Rs. 1,000 is paid to each panjarpol.

In addition to these activities of the Animal Husbandry department of the Zilla Parishad, veterinary aid is also promptly made available. For this 12 full fledged veterinary dispensaries have been established at Dhulia, Sakri, Nandurbar, Akkalkuwa, Dhadgaon, Shahada, Taloda, Shirpur, Nawapur, Sindkheda, Dondaicha and Mulgi. Besides, there are 30 veterinary aid centres in the district.


This project is envisaged mainly with a view to ensure progressive improvement of the live-stock for qualitative and efficient production of milk in the district. In fact, the object of this project is to increase milk yield by 30 per cent at the end of the Fourth Five-Year Plan. To achieve this object two methods have been adopted. One is posting of breeding bulls at the sub-centres, and thus upgrading the local cattle. For this, cow bulls of Tharparkar breed and buffalo bulls of Murrah and Surti breed have been introduced in the irrigated and non-irrigated areas, respectively. The other method followed is to provide high milk yielding cows of Tharparkar breed on loan to deserving dairy societies.

The milk shed area of the project includes Shirpur, Shahada and Dhulia talukas of Dhulia district and Chalisgaon taluka of Jalgaon district comprising 456 villages. The project started functioning on 1st November 1965.

The programme of the project envisages cattle development, disease control and fodder development. Under the cattle development pro-gramme adequate breeding facilities, both artificial insemination and natural service, have been provided for the breedable bovine popula-tion. For this purpose, till the end of March 1967, 82 Tharparkar cow bulls, 50 Murrah and 32 Surti buffalo bulls were purchased and located at the centres where they rendered services to 548 cows and 4865 buffaloes. In addition, four regional artificial insemination centres have been established at Shahada, Shirpur, Nakana and Chalisgaon. They are managed by Veterinary Officers. Under each regional artificial insemination centre, 15 such sub-centres have also been established. They are in charge of the trained Live-stock Supervisor. The Centralised Semen Collection Centre is located in the District Artificial Insemination Centre at Dhulia. All the regional artificial insemination centres are equipped with laboratory and other required appliances. Four cow and four buffalo bulls are located at each regional artificial insemination centre and 6 cow and 6 buffalo bulls are located at the Centralised Semen Collection Centre at Dhulia. These bulls are utilised for collection of semen and its further supply to the sub-centres.

Under the dairy extension programme 535 cows of Tharparkar breed have been supplied on loan to dairy and joint farming co-operative societies. So far the total quantity of milk supplied to the Government milk scheme amounts to 30,000 litres and the daily average supply of milk comes to about 2,000 litres of cows' milk. For the remunerative market for milk the project is linked with the Government dairy scheme already operating in the areas. The total number of dairy societies that fall under the project is 250.

The breeding programme alone will not, however, solve the problem unless feeds and fodder resources are increased. Whatever fodder is locally available is not only inadequate but is not upto the nutritive standard. To provide balance feed to the milch cattle the scheme called Feed Mixing Unit has been envisaged. Under the fodder development programme, as an incentive to the cattle owners, subsidies have been granted for fodder crop cultivation, construction of silo pits, purchase of chaff cutters, etc. The grampanchayats also have been given grant-in-aid for the development of pastures. Till the end a March 1967, the amount spent on these items was Rs. 47,560 and the total expenditure incurred on the whole project during the same period was Rs. 8.72,592.89.

Under the disease control programme intensive work was taken up for preventing contagious diseases, such as H.S., R.P., B.P. in the project area. In addition, first aid equipment is also provided to the tanners as well as to the co-operative societies. So far 26,332 cases were treated and 1,56, 150 cattle were vaccinated.

The proper implementation of this comprehensive programme of intensive cattle development and increased milk production as envisaged in the project would necessarily require a well knit organisation. For this, a class I Officer, viz., Project Officer, who is under the direct control of the Director of Animal Husbandrv and assisted by various other technical officers, is appointed.

Dairy Conditions.

Dhulia district is known for production of good quality ghee since the past. Crops like jowar, wheat, cotton, groundnut, availability of grazing area and anjan leaves in the hilly portions, and availability of ample water have provided good natural potentialities for the establishment of dairy industry in this district. Naturally the most valuable cattle feeds like jowar -kabdi, wheat bran, cotton seed and groundnut cake are available in abundance. Grazing areas are exten-sive and have spread mostly in the hilly portions.

The anjan trees are mostly found in the hilly parts of Dliulia. Sakri, Sindkheda and Shirpur talukas. The leaves of these trees mixed with chaff, and bran are fed to buffaloes. These provide very nutritive and succulent feed to the animals.

There is no special and pure breed of cows or bull aloes in this tract. The milch animals are mostly buffaloes. The buffaloes aie hardv and of medium type, locally known as Malvis. The breed is said to have originated in the Malwa tract of Madhya Pradesh. The milk yield of Mahi breed is 5 to 6 lbs per day. Besides Malvi buffaloes another mixed breed of bulfaloes known as Ahmedabadi is also found. These buffaloes give 7 to 8 lbs. of milk per day.

Some farmers kept milch animals for their own requirements while the professional dairy men who are called Gawalis maintain large herds of cows and buffaloes and sell the milk and milk products.

A number of private dairies have been started for supplying milk to nearby towns and also for exporting by rail to Bombay after pasteurisation. These dairies usually buy milk on butter fat basis pitying 5 paise to 9 paise for each percentage of fat. The higher rate of 9 paise per percentage of fat prevails during summer. All the dairies have their own arrangements such as cold storage, etc.

The West Khandesh district co-operative milk producers federation started its activities of milk collection from the villages and distribu-tion of the same in Dhulia town, from 1959. There are 25 dairy societies which supply milk to the union at present. The Dhulia union collects about 7.000 litres of milk daily and supplies the same to Government milk scheme, Dhulia. Government advanced a loan of lis. 96.000 in 1962.63 and Rs. 4,26,000 in 1963-64 to the union for purchase of milch animals and transport vehicles.

With a view to increasing milk production in this area and supplying the same to Bombay, Government has started a dairy project at Dhulia. This project was included in the Third Five-Year Plan and an amount of Rs. 31.25 lakhs was provided for the same. About 16.187 hectares (40 acres) of land was acquired for the construction of dairy buildings near Dhulia station.

In 1962 a pilot milk supply scheme was started at Dhulia. Milk is supplied by the Dhulia Union to this project. The milk alter pasteurisation is sent to Bombay by rail daily. Part of the milk is also given to the union for local distribution. This project handles about 7,000 litres of milk daily.