AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION

FIBRES

The fibre crops grown in the district are cotton, ambadi and sann or Bombay hemp. Of these cotton is the most important fibre crop. Its various requirements such as rainfall, climate, etc., its method of cultivation and the various improved varieties evoked at the cotton  research centres are described in detail in the following account. The other minor fibre crops produced in the district include ambadi and sann.

Cotton.

The total area under cotton in the then West Khandesh district was 1.24,172.233 hectares (3,06,836 acres) in 1955-56 which was about 3 per cent of the total area under cotton in the State, viz., 43,98,532.134 hectares (1,08,69,000 acres). The area under cotton in this district was about 16 per cent of the total cultivated area of the district. The cultivation of fliis sufficiently important cash crop there-fore deserves special mention. Out of the ten talukas in the district three talukas were growing herbaceum cotton while the rest of the talukas were producing arboreum cotton. The area under cotton and its production during the years between 1947-48 and 1955-56 is  given below: -

Year

Area in hectares*

Production in bales of 392 lb. each

Year

Area in hectares.*

Production in bales of 392 lb. each

1947-48

26,101.842

14,260

1952-53

62,977-235

14,300

(64,499)

(1,55,620)

1948-49

25,369.765

8,038

1953-54

1.03.400-510

6 1,700

(62,690)

(2.55.S08

1949-50

I9.335.087

10,000

1954-55

1,15,110.100

4,700

(47,778)

(2,84,443)

1950-51

44.910-434

26,100

1955-56

1,24,172.233

40,500

(1,10,976)

(3,06,836)

1951-52

57,471.078

16,800

    

(1.42.014)

*Figures in brackets are in acre.

The average area under cotton from 1931 to 1940 was 1,80,158.923 hectares (445,182 acres) which reduced to 33,026.829 hectares (81,611 acres) during the period between 1945-46 and 1950-51. This decrease in area under cotton is due to the enforcement of the Grow Mote Food Campaign during the period, when considerable area under cotton was diverted to the cultivation of food crops. It was also partly due to increase in area under other important cash crops like groundnut which gave very good monetary return to the farmers due to higher prices realised during that period. After the withdrawal of the campaign, area under cotton came up gradually to normal and this rise in area under cotton was particularly noticed from 1950-51 onwards. [ The account of cotton is based on the information supplied by the Cotton Specialist, Agriculture Department, Maharashtra State. ]

The following two tables give taluka-wise area under different fibres including cotton and the outturn of cotton from 1952-53 to J961-62, respectively: -

TABLE No. 27

TALUKA-WISE AREA UNDER FIBRES IN DHULIA DISTRICT (1952-53 to 1961-62)

(In hectare)*

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

Dhulia

1952-53

10077. 490

6.475

27.923

(24902)

(16)

(69)

1953-54

17331.892

2.428

31.566

(42828)

(6)

(78)

1954-55

22648.656

2.833

58.275

(55966)

(7)

(144)

1955-56

24177.155

8.498

53.823

(59743)

(21)

(133)

1956-57

18701.349

5.666

45.730

(46212)

(14)

(113)

1957-58

11774.339

7.284

21.853

(29095)

(18)

(54)

1958-59

10507.267

3.237

26. 305

(25964)

(8)

(65)

1959-60

12495. 085

6.070

21.044

(30876)

(1 5)

(52)

1960-61

17134.810

26.305

28.733

(42341)

(65)

(71)

1961-62

19309.997

14.164

27.923

(47716)

(35)

(69)

Sindkheda

1952-53

11048.737

--

--

(27302)

--

--

1953-54

21957.858

--

46.944

(54259)

--

(116)

1954-55

22677.794

--

77.295

(56038]

--

(191)

1955-56

20336.685

--

80.937

(50253)

--

     (200)

1956-57

19408.740

--

65.964

(47960)

--

(163)

1957-58

13722.902

7.689

46.539

(33910)

(19)

(115)

1958-59

13542.007

21.448

28.733

(33463)

(53)

(71)

1959-60

12835.830

174.015

26.709

(31718)

(430)

(66)

1960-61

12082.710

19.830

55.037

(29857)

(49)

(136)

1961-62

17106.886

--

42.087

(42272)

--

(104)

Sbirpur

1952-53

11677.214

44.920

74.867

(28855)

(111)

(185)

1953-54

17831.079

12.545

23.877

(44063)

(31)

(59)

1954-55

18795 236

14.164

29.542

(46444)

(35)

(73)

1955-56

20077.282

14.973

67.178

(49612)

(37)

(166)

1956-57

16087.482

18.616

53.419

(39753)

(46)

(132)

1957-58

15276.087

16.187

38.041

(37748)

(40)

(94)

* Figures in brackets are in acres.

TABLE No. 27-contd.

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

Shirpur- contd.

1958-59

15,107.738

31.566

48.562

(37,332)

(78)

(120)

1959-60

14,089.952

25.900

38.041

(34,817)

(64)

(94)

1960-61

13,860.101

55.037

36.422

(34,249)

(136)

(90)

1961-62

14,587.312

42.897

46.944

(36,048)

(106)

(116)

Sakri

1952-53

5,259.704

--

31.161

(12,997)

--

(77)

1953-54

7,687.010

24.281

69.201

(18,995)

(60)

(171)

1954-55

8,519.450

13. 759

47.348

(21,052)

(34)

(117)

1955-56

1,0799.450

19.425

40.873

(26,686)

(48)

(101)

1956-57

8,137.831

36.017

16.997

(20,109)

(89)

(42)

1957-58

3,738.489

44.920

7.284

(9,238)

(111)

(18)

1958-59

3,332.994

41.683

5. 666

(8,263)

(103)

(14)

1959-60

2,895.124

28. 328

20.234

(7,154)

(70)

(50)

1960-61

4,520.343

34.398

14.973

(11,170)

(85)

(37)

1961-62

5,564.028

56.251

19.020

(13,749)

(139)

(47)

Nandurbar

1952-53

3,432.546

81.342

170.77

(8.482)

(201)

(422)

1953-54

3,095.848

18.211

!07.646

(7,650)

(45)

(266)

1954-55

5,421.578

100.767

45.730

(13,397)

(249)

(113)

1955-56

6,875.210

55.847

28.328

(16,989)

(138)

(70)

1956-57

5,938. 362

29.542

74.867

(14,674)

(73)

(185)

1957-58

3,788.266

53.419

80.128

(9,361)

(132)

(198)

1958-59

3,140. 363

--

27.114

(6,760)

--

(67)

1959-60

1,146.880

40.875

1 7.806

(2,834)

(101)

(44)

1960-61

1,113.291

28.328

38.850

(2,751)

(70)

(96)

1961-62

2,36.818

59.084

21.044

(5,851)

(146)

(52)

Nawapur

1952-53

7,721.814

378.786

473.887

(19,081)

(936)

(1.171)

1953-54

9,028.949

416.827

487.242

(22.311)

(1,030)

(1,204)

1954-55

11,971.826

479.958

56.656

(29,583)

(1,186)

(140)

1956-56

13,149.462

515.975

433.823

(32,493)

(1,275)

(1,072)

1956-57

14,251.827

345.602

395.578

(35,217)

(854)

(977)

1957-58

13,686.480

444.345

317.678

(33,820)

(1,098)

(785)

1958-59

12,576. 022

606.624

281.661

(31,076)

(1,499)

(696)

TABLE No. 27-contd.

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

Nawapur- contd.

1959-60

8,170.610

360.980

264.664

(20,190)

(892)

(654)

1960-61

9,084.796

305.133

263.855

(22,449)

(754)

(652)

1961-62

8,748.906

428.563

308.370

(21,619)

(1,059)

(762)

Shahada

1952-53

10,673.998

5.666

91.459

(26,376)

(14)

(226)

1953-54

20,650.317

10.117

244.025

(51.028)

(25)

(603)

1954-55

18,414.832

8.498

145.282

(45,504)

(21)

(359)

1955-56

19,647.100

8.903

205.985

(48,549)

(22)

(509)

1956-57

16,167.610

16.187

202.343

(39,951)

(40)

(500)

1957-58

11,584.137

--

145.687

(28,625)

--

(360)

1958-59

11,238.130

42.087

101.576

(27,730)

(104)

(251)

1959-60

7,372.569

--

45.729

(19,218)

--

(113)

1960-61

5,766.371

--

29.947

(14,249)

--

(74)

1961-62

11,457.470

--

68.797

(28,312)

--

(170)

Taloda.

1952-53

2,021.406

19.830

42.087

(4,995)

(49)

(104)

1953-54

4,345.113

28.328

77.295

(10,737)

(70)

(191)

1954-55

1,864.388

27.519

60.298

(4,607)

(68)

(149)

1955-56

4,920.982

9.713

64.750

(12,160)

(24)

(160)

1956-57

3,098.680

10. 522

31.566

(7,657)

(26)

(78)

1957-58

2,100.320

10.927

27.519

(5,190)

(27)

(68)

1958-59

1,688. 755

16.187

40.064

(4,173)

(40)

(99)

1959-60

564.537

8.903

11.756

(1,395)

(22)

(29)

1960-61

806.944

23.877

17.806

(1,994)

(59)

(44)

1961-62

1,623.196

21.853

21.044

(4,011)

(54)

(52)

Akkalkuwa

1952-53

1,065.133

67.987

83.770

(2,632)

(168)

(207)

1953-54

1,469.819

63.536

129.095

(3,632)

(157)

(319)

1954-55

3,177.594

42.492

100.767

(7,852)

(105)

(249)

1955-56

4,169.884

30.756

73.653

(10,304)

(76)

(182)

1956-57

5,280.748

29.542

46.134

(13,049)

(73)

(114)

1957-58

5,588.713

55.847

44.111

(13,810)

(138)

(109)

1958-59

5,747.755

83.770

72.843

(14,203)

(207)

(180)

TABLE No. 27-contd.

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

Akkalkuwa- could.

1959-60

2,228.606

--

55.847

(5,507)

--

(138)

1960-61

3,745.774

--

36.422

(9,256)

--

(90)

1961-62

3,468.159

--

63.940

(8,570)

--

(158)

Akrani

1952-53

--

2.833

26.305

--

(7)

(65)

1953-54

2. 023

23.067

45.325

(5)

(57)

(112)

1954-55

--

19.020

65.154

--

(47)

(161)

1955-56

19.020

22.662

81.746

(47)

(56)

(202)

1956-57

19.020

34.398

65.964

(47)

(85)

(163)

.1957-58

--

13.759

85.795

--

(34)

(212)

1958-59

--

17.402

63.131

--

(43)

(156)

1959-60

--

--

37.636

--

--

(93)

1960-61

0. 809

6.880

23.067

(2)

(17)

(57)

1961-62

2.833

6.070

27.519

(7)

(15)

(68)

TABLE No. 28

TALUKA-WISE- OUTTURN OF FIBRES IN DHULIA DISTRICT (1952-53 TO 1961-62)

(Figures in bales)*

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

Dhulia

1952-53

88

--

--

1953-54

2485

--

--

1954-55

11422

--

--

1955-56

6018

--

--

1956-57

4716

--

--

1957-58

4816

--

--

1958-59

4511

--

--

1959-60

4665

--

--

1960-61

4665

--

--

1961-62

4890

--

--

Sindkheda

1952-53

914

--

--

1953-54

2422

--

--

1954-55

9037

--

--

1955-56

8332

--

--

1956-57

7583

--

--

1957-58

9201

--

--

1958-59

8827

--

--

1959-60

6025

--

--

1960-61

5548

--

--

1961-62

5325

--

--

*One bale -392 lbs.

TABLE No. 28-contd.

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

Shirpur

1952-53

272

--

--

1953-54

11815

--

--

1954-55

12835

--

--

1955-56

16537

--

--

1956-57

1932

--

--

1957-58

1449

--

--

1958-59

1669

--

--

1959-60

2015

--

--

1960-61

2001

--

--

1961-62

4670

--

--

Sakri

1952-53

4635

6

--

1953-54

5009

80

15

1954-55

4001

--

--

1955-56

5156

--

--

1956-57

4445

--

--

1957-58

4445

---

--

1958-59

1033

--

--

1959-60

894

--

--

1960-61

1396

--

--

1961-62

1718

--

--

Nandurbar

1952-53

500

20

--

1953-54

1878

--

--

1954-55

1875

--

--

1955-56

7785

--

--

1956-57

5541

--

--

1957-58

1243

--

--

1958-59

3374

--

--

1959-60

4074

--

--

1960-61

4074

--

--

1961-62

4175

--

--

Nawapur

1952-53

3500

33

40

1953-54

6198

--

--

1954-55

9810

--

--

1955-56

15162

--

--

1956-57

1362

--

--

1957-58

1405

--

--

1958-59

1302

--

--

1959-60

6057

--

--

1960-61

9525

--

--

1961-62

5201

--

--

Shahada

1952-53

3291

1

20

1953-54

5412

4

89

1954-55

7545

3

50

1955-56

14117

--

75

1956-57

5510

6

94

1957-58

4057

4

84

1958-59

4034

--

39

1959-60

4593

--

35

1960-61

4593

--

35

1961-62

4593

--

35

Taloda

1952-53

200

--

--

1953-54

2374

--

--

1954-55

--

--

--

1955-56

324

--

--

1956-57

289

--

--

1957-58

1341

--

--

1958-59

162

--

--

1959-60

--

--

--

1960-61

--

--

--

1961-62

283

--

--

TABLE No. 28-contd.

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sana-Hemp

Ambadi

Akkalkuwa

1952-53

--

--

--

1953-54

1853

--

--

1954-55

3706

--

--

1955-56

8800

--

--

1956-57

11440

--

--

I957-58

12330

--

--

1958-59

12681

--

--

1959-60

118O

--

--

1960-61

1983

--

--

1961-62

1980

--

--

Akrani

1952-53

--

--

 4

1953-54

--

2

10

1954-55

--

6

23

1955-56

--

7

28

1956-57

--

5

25

1957-58

--

--

  9

1958-59

--

--

--

1959-60

--

--

--

1960-61

--

--

--

1961-62

2

--

10

Rainfall and Temperature.

The crop in the district is grown in the tract with an average rain- fall of 642.1 mm. (25.28 inches), the normal varying from 284.2 mm. to 976.L nmi. (11.19 to 38.43 inches). The heavy rains in the last week of September or in October cause shedding of buds and immature bolls and affect the yield considerably. In the district, the average maximum and minimum temperature during the crop growth period viz., June to October is 36.7C (98F) in June and 21.7C (71F) in October respectively. The range of maximum temperature during the crop growth period is 32.8C to 36.7C (91F to 98F) and that for minimum is 21.7C to 25-6C (71F to 78F).

Soil.

The soil and climate are suitable for growing an early variety of cotton as the soil cracks, heavily after the cessation of the monsoon in the month of October. Cotton is mainly grown on medium black, deep black and river silt soils in the district. These types of soils are mainly found in Dhulia, Nandurbar, Nawapur, Shirpur, Sind-kheda. Taloda. Sakri and Shahada talukas. Thus it can be seen that for the peculiar type of rainfall distribution and the types of soils available, a variety which matures within four to five and a half months would be suitable for the tract, except for the three talukas viz., Akkalkuwa, Nawapur and Akrani where the late maturing Surti type G. hcrbaceum is found to be more suitable.

Cotton is generally cultivated in this district under natural precipitation i.e. as a rain-fed crop. Irrigated cotton is grown on a very small area and part of this irrigated cotton is grown with the varieties Devi Raj or H-4 hybrid. The usual rotation followed is a two years rotation of cotton and jowar or three years rotation of cotton, jowar and groundnut, cotton following groundnut.

Method of cultivation.

Preparation of the land is done in heavy soils by giving lour or five harrowings and in light soils by giving light ploughing and three harrowings. The crop is manured at the rate of 7 to 15 cart loads of farm yard manure per acre. Some farmers now-a-davs apply 90.718 kg. (200 lb.) of powdered groundnut cake prior to -sowing. they also apply ammonium sulphate in two doses one at the time of sowing and the other five to six weeks after sowing. The cotton crop is sown with the outbreak of monsoon in the third week of June. The crops sown after the first week of July give very low yield. The seed is prepared for sowing by pasting with cowduiig and mud to facilitate easy dropping from seed chill.  It is drilled 457.2 mm. (18 inches) apart with a seed rate of 7.258 kg. (16 lb.), per acre. The crop is thinned out by most of the farmers one month alter sowing, maintaining approximately a distance of 228-6 mm. (9 inches) between plants in a row. Three to four intcrculturings are given during the growth period with a blade hoe and two to three hmd weedings are done as and when required. The picking starts by the end of October or from the beginning of November. Generally three pickings are done. The harvesting is over by the end of December. In years when unusually heavy rains are received in October, some times an additional yield is available which is picked up at the end of January.

The cost of cultivation of cotton has increased due to the increase in the wages to labour, cost of manures and seeds, hire charges of implements, land rent and interest on capital.

As a result of experiments conducted on the farm and on the fields of cultivators, the following improved methods of cotton cultivation are recommended:—

(1) Treating the seed with organic mercurial uutgicide like agrosan to protect against the disease, antliracnosc, which causes seedling blight and

(2) Sowing 457.2 (18'') apart with 6.801 kg. (15 lb.) seed rate per acre and then thinning out.

Diseases.

The cotton wilt disease (fusarium vasinfectum) which causes death of young seedlings and also adult plants is common in the tract. The disease is caused by a soil borne fungus and the only remedy is to grow a disease resistant variety. The present variety Virnar is found to be resistant. The other diseases which have been causing con-siderable damage in years of heavy rainfall during the months of September and October are the anthracnosc disease caused by fungus collectorichum indicum Dast. It attacks the seedlings causing seed-lings blight and affects mature bolls also. The bolls turn black and open prematurely. The lock remains intact i.e. without flowering out and this symptom is locally known as Kavdi. Such damaged bolls have yellowish tinge which reduces the quality of the crop. The extent of damage due to this disease is estimated to be nearly about 10 per cent. The disease is controlled by seed treatments with mercurial fungicide or by delinting the seed with concentrated sulphuric acid as the disease is generally carried by the seed. Blackarm is another disease observed, in the tract which is of minor importance. It generally affects the seedlings and also the bolls resulting in premature opening. Other disease of minor importance is grey mildew caused by the fungus remuleria.

The fourth disease is the cotton root-rot. It is caused by the fungus macrophomina phaseoli and in certain seasons when the environ-mental conditions are favourable for its spread causes good deal of damage when the seedlings are about a month old causing death of seedlings. No control measures are yet known.

Pests.

The most important pest is the cotton bollworm. The .spotted bollworm Earias species is a very serious pest of cotton in this region. In the earlier stages it bores the top tender shoots and with the onset of buds it causes shedding of buds and bolls. The other bollworm is pink bollworm which is also a serious pest of cotton and is reported to cause a good deal of damage. There are no remedial measures for this pest except the preventive measures like clean cultivation, discouraging of ratooning of cotton crop and cultivation of cotton in the successive years on the same land, prevention of cultivation of summer bhendi and keeping the fields clean of weeds like abutilon, wild bhendi. etc., which serve as alternative hosts for the pest.

Varieties grown.

In this district out of 10 talukas, 7 talukas grow the variety commercially known as Khandesh Omras which is botanically classified as G. arboreum race bengalcnsis. The remaining three talukas viz. Akkalkuva, Nawapur and Akrani grow the Surti type of cotton classified botanically as G. herbaceum acrifolium.

The area under the two varieties from 1947-48 to 1956-57 is given below:—

(In hectares*)

Year

Area under

Total

G. arboreum

G. herbaceum

1947-48

23,148.848

2,952.994

26,101.842

(57,202)

(7,297)

(64,499)

1948-49

21,618.560

3,731.205

25,369.765

(53,470)

(9,220)

(62,690)

(In hectares*)

Year

Area under

Total

G. artoreum

G. herbaceum

1949-50

15,672.679

3,662.408

19,335.087

(38,728)

(9,050)

(47,778)

1950-51

33,352.601

11,557.832

44,910.433

(82,416)

(28,560)

(1,10,976)

1951-52

45,5 I8. 272

11,952.806

57,471.078

(1,12.478)

(29,536)

(1,42,014)

1952-53

54,312.503

8,664.732

62,977.235

(1,34,209)

(21.411)

(1,55,620)

1953-54

92,599.718

10,500.792

1,03,400.510

(2,29,560)

(25.948)

(2,55,508)

I954-55

99,960.679

15.149.420

1,15,110.099

(2,47,008)

(37,435)

(2,84,443)

1955-56

1,06,833.866

17,338.367

1,24,172.233

(2,63,992)

(42.,844)

(3,06,836)

1955-57

87,540.057

19,552.404

1,07,092.461

(2,16,316)

(48,315)

(2,64,631)

* Figures in brackets arc in acres.

In addition the variety Jarila evolved at Jalgaon was also grown in the above mentioned seven talukas in 1943-44. As this variety sntfered from late rains and anthracnose disease the Cotton Control Act was withdrawn (hiring 1950-52. People then grew any non-deseript seed. The variety Virnar evolved from the cross Jarilax.N.R.S. was also given out for cultivation in the year 1949-50 and as this variety was vcrv popular with the farmers and fetched high prices it covered the entire area by 1954. The Cotton Control Act was again applied in 1954-55. The variety is being grown over the entire area in the 7 talukas of this district where cotton is grown.

In the remaining three talukas viz., Akkalkuva. Nawapur and Akrani which grew Surti type of cotton, the improved variety 1027 A.L.F. evolved at Surat was given out for general cultivation and covered the major portion of the area. From 1952-53 the improved variety 237 is being given out for general cultivation in this area and has covered the entire area under cotton in these three talukas.

Cotton improvement 1830 to 1880

During the last fifty years the Government tried to introduce foreign cotton and grow them is East and west Khandesh. Attempts were made to introduce Dharwar American cotton as well as American, Egyptian. Bourbon, and Pernambuco, which were being grown at the experimental farm at Broach. None of these grew well. In 1837 the Bombay Chamber of Commerce opined on the sample of Dhulia Bourbon cotton that it was much better than the samples sent during the two previous seasons. Attempts were also made to introduce Broach as well as Hinganghat cotton. In the beginning these types grew well but did not give sufficient good yield. By 1870 it was observed that the short staple local cotton grew quite well here than the other introduced types.

Cotton lmprovement, 1880 to 1900.

During this period no special attempts were made by government to improve cotton except studying the local varieties of cotton grown in Khandesh by growing them at Kirkee by the Cotton Specialist. describing them and classifying the same.

1900 onwards.

Further attempts were made in improvement of Khandesh cotton at the Agricultural Experimental Station, Dhulia which was established in 1906. The composition of the local Khandcsh cotton was studied in 1906 and it was found to have following composition:

Variety

Plants per acre

Percentage composition

Gossypium neglectum

(a) Var* Vera

1,190

3.5

(b) Var. Vera malvensis

200

0.6

(e) Var. Vera Kathiuwurensis

5,190

15.2

(d) Var. Rosea

12,850

37.8

(e) Var. Rosea cuthica

14,320

42.1

Gossypium indicum (Bani)

190

0.6

*Var.—Variety.

In 1908 attempts were made again to grow exotic cotton and about 34 types were tried at the Agricultural Research Station, Dhulia. These types did not come up well and were not likely to be suitable for cultivation.

From 1908 to 1910 bazar samples of cotton seed were obtained from every taluka in Khandesh and the composition was determined. The average proportion in the mixture was found as under:-

Variety

Percentage composition

Gossypium negleetum

(a) all vera types

25.8

(b) Var. Rosea

40.6

(c) Var. Rosea cutchica

27 6

It was observed that the proportion of white flower plants was more in talukas of East Khandesh district and even in east Khandcsh it was more in the north than in the south. The proportion of the white flower variety viz.. Rosea was lowest in Chalisgaon. Pachora Bhadgaon and Erandol and was highest in Amalner and Bhusawal. Different constituents were tried at the Agricultural Research Station. Dhulia from 1906 to 1914 and it was observed that the varicty Rsea N.R. gave higher yield. In 1913 an experimental farm was opened at Jalgaon to multiply pure seed of N.R. for supplving the opened to farmers. From 1908 various crosses were grown and studied at Dhulia. One cross Bani X Comila was found to be superior to other crosses. The three varieties were tried at Jalgaon in 1918-19 and the average result showed that the Rosea N.R. gave the higher yield and had higher ginning outturn. It was, however valued lower than the other two types. It was, therefore, concluded that the variety N. R. gives the higher outturn consistently as compared to other varieties. Substantial advantages in ginning outturn secured a higher price for the seed cotton in the market. The net profit per acre was very high in the case of variety Rosea. It was looiid to be drought resistant; its bolls opened well, matured uniformly and earlier than the yellow flowered varieties. The Agriculture department of the then Bombay Province was itself distributing pure seed for about 30 thousand acres a year. But in the meantime it was feared that its wider extension may mean a further lowering of the standard of Khandesh cotton, for the staple of the Rosea variety (N.R.) was not more than half an inch. Further the lint was considered to be extremely coarse and its spinning capacity only reached to 8 H.S.W. Cs. The only recourse was to attempt the improvement by selection or by hybridisation to obtain a type with superior staple and equal to N.R. in other qualities.

In 1921 cotton breeding work was taken up for both Hast Khandesh and West Khandesh at Dhulia and a post of Cotton Breeder in Bombay Agricultural Service Class II was created. From the local mixture on hand various bio-types were isolated and studied. One type N.R. 6 was found to be superior to all and given out for general cultivation in 1926. From the synthetic material created in 1908 from the cross of Bani X Comila, three cultures were isolated and studied. They were not uniform and were found to be segregating. From these, three types were isolated viz., Dh. 1. Dh.2 and B IX 150. Dh. 1 was tried at Jalgaon for three seasons and was found to be equal in yielding capacity to N.R. It was superior to N.R. cotton in ginning outturn and in staple length. It was valued at Rs. 371 per candy against Rs. 335 to Rs..340 per candy for N.R. Cotton, it was given out for general cultivation in 1931 in East Khandesh under the popular name of Banila. It was, however, found to be susceptible to wilt disease caused by Fusarium vasinfectum and therefore had to be withdrawn. Its distribution was stopped and as it was considered necessary to breed a wilt resistant type, the cotton breeding work was shifted to Jalgaon in East Khandesh in 1931. As a result of work done at Jalgaon. from the bulk seed obtained from Vidarbha of Virum-262 from a farmer's field, a selection N.V. 56-3 was isolated in 1934. It was found to be outstandingly superior to N.R. and Banila in quality and was given out for general cultivation in the year 1937.

Cotton improvement 1910 onwards.

It was estimated that by growing Jarila the farmer would get about Rs. 15 more per acre than by growing Banila. It was well received by the fanners and covered the entire area by 1943. It was taken as the basis or cotton contracts. As the ginning percentage of Jarila was low, further research work was taken up to combine high ginning and fibre qualities of Jarila, Jarila in latter years suffered very badlyfrom late rains and antliracnose and hence there was a move to replace the variety by a new one. from the cross of jarila X  N.R.5 one segregate 197-3 was isolated in 1943 and given out for general cultivation under the popular name 'Virnar' in 1949. It was estimated that by growing Virnar in place of Jarila the farmer would get an extra income of about Rs. 40. It covered the entire area of the Khandcsh tract in 1953-54. Further research work was in progress to isolate the type which was superior to Virnar in fibre qualities and resistant to wilt. In 1952-53 a research station was started at Agri cultural Research Station, Dliulia as sub-station of the main station at Julgaon for cotton improvement work. At present, a variety of Virnar viz.. Dokras 9-2-8-3, is undergoing trials on the farm and also in the district on the cultivators' fields. The Deviraj variety 170-Co-2 as also the H-4 hybrid variety are cultivated on irrigated land.

As a result of cotton research work undertaken for the Khandcsh tract the following improved varieties were evolved from time to time and given out for general cultivation to the farmers. The economic characteristics of the new varieties in comparison with the local are given below: -

TABLE No. 29

INFORMATION REGARDING NEW VARIETIES OF COTTON GROWN IN DHULIA DISTRICT

Variety

How evolved

Flower colour

Year of release

Yield per acre in lbs. (kapas or seed cotton)

Ginn-ing %

Yield of lint per acre in lbs

Staple length in

Fibre weight per inch (10-60Z)

Spinning Value (H.S.W.C.)

Remarks

     

Kg.*

 

Kg.*

mm.**

   

local

--

White

--

226.796

36.0

79.379

12.7

--

6—8

Susceptible to wilt.

(500)

 

(175)

(0.50)

  

N.R.

Selection from Local

Do.

1914

226.796

40.0

70.718

12.7

0.277

6—8

Do.

(500)

 

(200)

(0.50)

  

banila

Hybridisation between Bani and Comila

Pale yellow

1926

226.796

38.5

87.203

17.8

0.180

16—18

Do.

(500)

 

(192.5)

(0.70)

  

jarila

Selection from Veium from Berar

Deep yellow

1937

204.117

25.0

71.348

21.3

0. 165

25—30

 

(450)

 

(157.51

(0.84)

  

Vimar

Hybridisation between Jarila and N. R. 5

White

1949

226-796

30. 0

88.45!

21.8

0.183

23—30

 

(500)

 

(195)

(0.86)

  

* Figures in kg. end those in bracket in lb.

** Figures in mm. and those in brackets in inches

Deccan hemp.

Deccan hemp (ambadi) occupied 644-688 hectares (1.598 acres in 1961-62. It is mainly grown in Nawapur, Shahada, Sindklieda, Taloda and Akkalkuwa talnkas and in Akrani mahal. Ambadi is usually produced in kharif season more or less as a mixed crop along with Jowai\ bajri or pulses. Its method of cultivation is the same as that given to the other crops with which it is cultivated. The plants are uprooted in October and November when the stalks be-come dry and the pods arc ripe. The leaves and seed are removed by beating with a stick. The stalks tied in big bundles are Tien kept in water for about 15 days. The bark is then peeled off and fibre is obtained by beating it on a stone.

Bombay Hemp.

Bombay hemp (sann) was grown on 628.882 hectares (1554 acres in 1961-62. Of the total acreage under sann in 1961-62. Nawapur taluka alone had 428-563 hectares (1059 acres). The crop requires moderate rainfall and can be grown in a variety of soils, e.g. heavy types, clayey loams, black and lateritic soils. Generally it is grown in kharif season, and is widely used as a green manure. When it is grown for green manure it is sown thick. After about two month the crop is levelled by a heavy roller and then ploughed in. Within six weeks the sann decays and as a result nitrogen is added to the soil. The sann stalks when used for fibres are cut close to the ground at the commencement of pod setting. The fibre is obtainded be adopting more or less the same method as followed in the case of ambadi.

 

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