PLACES

WARODA.

Waroda the headquarters town of the Waroda tahsil is a colliery town in Candrapur district with in 1961 a population of 14,148. It is situated in 20 14' north latitude and 79 1' east longitude and lies 45 km. (28 miles) north-west of Candrapur on the Candrapur-Nagpur road. It is also connected with Candrapur by a broad gauge railway line of the Central Railway which further runs to Madras. Prior to 1908 this road was the only connecting link with Canda and Waroda derived much importance from its position as the terminus of the Wardha-Waroda rail extension, the merchandise of the western half of this district as also a large part of Edlabad district of the present Andhra Prades State passing through Waroda to and from the outside regions. Most of the traffic was then naturally with Bombay via Wardha. Later the extension of the railway to Candrapur, Ballarpur, otherwise known as Ballarsah, and beyond linking Madras affected the position and importance of Waroda, but it nevertheless continues to be an important trading centre. Waroda tahsil as a whole has over 12,545.26 hectares (31,000 acres) of land under cotton crop and before the establishment of the market committee at Waroda, practically the entire produce used to be carried either to the important cotton market of Hinganghat or Warn. In 1960 was established the Waroda agriculture market committee which started functioning in 1963 and since then no cotton or grain is taken to the outside market. It now handles large quantities of cotton, rice and jovar. In fact it is the only significant cotton market of the district. There was also the inadequacy of gins and presses in spite of a few factories. This difficulty was overcome with the establishment of a large ginning and pressing factory in 1964 on cooperative basis. An oil mill has also been established on the same line. In order to provide improved variety of seeds and seedlings to the agriculturists after carrying out scientific research and experiments, a seed growing farm covering an area of 33.82 hectares (83.57 acres) and named as Ekarjuna seed and seedling growing centre has been established along Canda road, about two miles (3.21 km.) from Waroda. It produces improved seeds of cotton, jovar, wheat, paddy, sesamum, Lacquer and javas. Research and experiments are also carried out to produce better strains. An artificial tank for conserving water has also been built. Besides providing improved seeds, a Dhan Vikas Yojna for the propagation of Japanese method of paddy cultivation, which yields more rice per acre, has also been started. Through the efforts of this centre large areas have already been brought under the Japanese method with excellent results. Primarily the town owed its importance to the colliery which was formerly worked here and it was simply the existence of the colliery which initially led to the construction of the Wardha-Waroda rail extension. The colliery was stopped in 1906. Recently new deposits of coal seams covering an area of 5.18 km.2 (two square miles) and estimated to be 90 lakh tons have been struck. To finance the agriculturists and other small scale industries the Waroda Central Co-operative Bank was established in 1912 and a year earlier that of Brahmapuri. These two were amalgamated in 1963 and the headquarters were fixed at Candrapur. A district industrial society has been set up and under its programme two handloom units have been opened at Waroda.

Municipality.

Waroda was constituted a municipality in 1867 and has an area of 9.73 km.2 (3.76 square miles) under its jurisdiction. The municipal committee headed by the president, elected by the councillors from among themselves, consists of 16 councillors. Aided by the necessary ministerial staff an elected president looks after the municipal administration.

Finance.-In 1964-65 the total municipal income derived from various sources like taxes, municipal property, realizations under special acts, miscellaneous, etc., amounted to Rs. 7,28,608. Correspondingly, during the same year, an expenditure of Rs. 8,48,849 was incurred on account of general administration, public safety, health, convenience and instruction, and other miscellaneous heads. The excess of expenditure seems to have been made up from the reserves or the balance or the previous years.

Health, Sanitation and Water supply.-Medical aid is rendered by a civil dispensary conducted by the municipality. Besides, special arrangements are made from time to time as the need arises to vaccinate and inoculate the people. A veterinary dispensary is also maintained by the municipality. The malaria eradication centre working under the Zilla Parisad has largely succeeded in wiping out malaria from this area. The town has only stone-lined open drains. Water works supplying tap water to the inhabitants was constructed in 1963 at an approximate cost of Rs. 2.50 lakhs. However, during the latter part of summer scarcity of water is intensely felt.

Education.-Primary education is compulsory in the town. It is implemented by the town municipality. Besides primary schools, Waroda has four privately conducted high schools. The Zilla Parisad also maintains a high school. For higher education there is a college with the faculties of arts, commerce, agriculture and science. Thus it can be seen that Waroda has good educational facilities. The public library of the town makes newspapers, magazines and periodicals available to the general public.

The municipality has provided three markets, one each for vegetables, meat and cloth. Of the three cremation and burial grounds in the town only one is maintained by the municipality. A garden covering nearly seven acres of land is maintained by the municipality.

Being the headquarters of a tahsil, the town besides the mamlatdar's office has civil and criminal courts, a police station, a block development office and various other government offices. There is a post and telegraph office and a rest house too. But yet the town itself is very congested and the whole appearance it wears is unattractive. However, in recent times a few modern buildings have come up here and there and these are the only bright spots amongst a whole crowd of old and shabby dwellings Every year, however, something new is done to improve the appearance of the town by the construction of new roads and drains as the funds permit. Of the buildings presenting any antiquarian or artistic interest there are none whatever. On Waroda-Cimur road about two miles from Waroda a large colony of leprosy affected persons has sprung up. It was started and is conducted by one Sri Amte. Various types of small scale enterprises are run by the recovered patients. Yet, in spite of water difficulties, Waroda to-day is one of the healthiest places in the district.

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