THE PEOPLE

POPULATION.

ACCORDING TO THE 1961 CENSUS, THE TOTAL POPULATION OF THE DISTRICT is 12,38,070 (M. 623,681-F. 614,389), and is distributed over six tahsils. The table below furnishes the tahsil-wise statistics of population.

TABLE No. 1

AREA AND POPULATION, CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT IN 1961

Chandrapur district

(2)

Area in

Population

Sq. miles

Sq. km.

Persons

Males

Females

(1)

(3)

(4)

(3)

(6)

(7)

District

Total

10,088.3

26,128.7

1,238,070

623,681

614,389

Rural

10,061.8

26,060.1

1,142,380

573,334

562,046

Urban

26.5

68.6

95,690

50,347

45,343

Brahmapuri tahsil

Total

897.0

2,323.2

226,924

113,349

113,575

Rural

897.0

2,323.2

226,924

113,349

113,575

Urban

--

--

--

--

--

Waroda tahsil

Total

1,282.0

3,320.4

238,323

120,510

117,804

Rural

1,275.7

3,304.1

224,175

113,095

111,080

Urban

6.3

16.3

14,148

7,424

6,724

Gadhchiroli tahsil

Total

2,870.0

7,433.3

277,398

138,721

138,677

Rural

2,870.0

7,433.3

277,398

138,721

138,677

Urban

--

--

--

--

--

Candrapur tahsil

Total

1,174.0

3,040.7

296,807

151,137

145,670

Rural

1,159.5

3,003.1

224,972

113,237

111,735

Urban

14.5

37.6

71,835

37,900

33,935

Rajura tahsil

Total

776.3

2,010.6

89,624

45,315

44,309

Rural

770.6

1,995.9

79,917

40,292

39,625

Urban

5.7

14.7

9,707

5,023

4,684

Sironca tahsil

Total

3,089.0

8,000.5

108,994

54,640

54,354

Rural

3,089.0

8,000.5

108,994

54,640

54,354

Urban

--

--

--

--

--

Growth of Population.

The variation in population depends upon three factors, viz., births, deaths and migration. The salient trends in the variation and movement of population since the 1881 Census in the district are analysed below. The account of the pattern of growth of the general population as given in the Canda Gazetteer of 1909 is reproduced below.

Variation of population.-"A Census of the District has been taken on five occasions, in 1866, 1872, 1881, 1891 and 1901. There have, however, as has been explained at length in the preceding section, been considerable changes in the area of the district which vitiate comparisons between the earlier and the later returns. Making allowance for these changes, the population of the present area of the district as ascertained on the last three occasions of taking the Census is shown below: -

1881

602,936

1891

639,483

1901

554,105

The total population thus increased by 61 per cent, during the decade 1881-1891, and decreased by 14.2 during the decade 1891-1901. During the first decade the increase was almost entirely due to the natural expansion of the population, not to immigration; it was most marked in the northern zamindaris, but was there doubtless in large measure due to more accurate returns. The khalsa tract which showed the greatest increase was Waroda, where the increase was 6.1 or exactly equal to the average for the whole district. The appalling decrease in the population which took place during the next decade was of course in the main attributable to the bad years and famine immediately preceding the last census. Some of the loss was due to emigration, but much of it must be assigned to the heavy mortality of the decade. From 1895 to 1897 the number of deaths exceeded that of births by over 10,000 and although an abnormal birth rate in 1899 temporarily made good the wastage, the famine of 1900 resulted in a death rate of 96.62 per mile and the deaths of that year exceed-ed the births by nearly 37,000. It is very doubtful, too, if the mortality during the scarcity of 1897 was not a good deal heavier than was indicated by the official returns. The only part of the district which has steadily increased in population during the twenty years from 1881 to 1901 is the Sironca tahsil, where the increase during the first decade amounted to 4.8 per cent, and during the second to 22 per cent. According to Mr. Hemingway, the reason given for this locally is the immunity from dacoits under British rule, but, as he observes, this hardly seems an adequate explanation, and the true reason appears to be that this part, owing to the fertilising action of the river, never suffers an entire failure of the crops, a circumstance which has not only favoured the multiplication of the present population but has also encouraged a rapid influx of tenants from the Hyderabad side of the river. Since the last Census, matters have, thanks to rather move favourable seasons, considerably improved, and, as has been remarked in a foregoing paragraph, the vital statistics indicate that the population has once more expanded to at least 600,000.

Effect of recent bad years on the population.-The eqect of the cycle of bad years upon the population is summarised by Mr. Hemingway thus: The decrease over the rest of the district (i.e., excluding Sironca) varies very largely from group to group. A succession of poor rice years has encouraged the small tenants of rice tracts to seek their fortunes elsewhere in the open tracts where a greater variety of cropping is possible, and the probability of all crops failing utterly is very small. The Waroda tahsil, for instance, has larger areas of open-field crops: the total drop in that tahsil was 6 per cent. only, the best of the open field groups showing a good increase: in the khalsa portion of Candrapur tahsil the drop was 12 per cent., in the corresponding portion of Brahmapuri tahsil it was 19 per cent. If the open tract at the extreme north of Brahmapuri tahsil is excepted, the tract is purely rice-growing; and there are a large number of small villages interspersed between the large stable villages, where the area secured by irrigation is comparatively small and tenants had a succession of really unpropitious years for their rice. In the Candrapur tahsil the Ghatkul group returned a large increase in the population: this is an open-field tract, somewhat remote, and for that reason not fully occupied until poor rice years brought its soil into high favour. The increase here is mainly due to immigration from the poorer rice tracts. To what extent, the decrease in the population is a permanent loss or merely a temporary exodus in search of work must be largely a matter of conjecture. In certain tracts it has always been customary for the village labourers to repair to Berar after the rice harvest is over, in order to find employment on cotton-picking: and the census is taken at the exact time when most of the labourers who make a practice of going to Berar have already gone. It may be said with some certainty that the drop in the figures of open tracts adjoining Berar was caused entirely by this temporary exodus, since there is now no marked want of labour for agricultural work in these open tracts. But it is equally certain that the loss in some of the rice groups is more permanent; to prove this, there are large areas of second rate rice land unoccupied, which in normal years were occupied by the village labourers and small tenants: and also a rough census was taken at attestation of a few villages which seemed to be very short of labour for the reaping of their rice: this rough census, though its figures are of little use in that they concern a very small area showed that a very large proportion of the regular labourers of certain villages had been absent for three years from their villages, and it might safely he assumed that they would not return as permanent inhabitants until the rice crops were giving sufficient outturn to induce them to return. This want of labour was very marked two years ago (i.e., 1903-04) when there was a bumper rice crop, but not enough labour to cut it in time: also the survey parties in railway employ could get no labour; and at the present moment the railway construction, and tank construction as well, is proceeding very slowly indeed, because there is not sufficient labour in the district. It may safely be said that the population of the Poorer rice tracts will continue to be very short indeed, until a succession of good rice years has been enjoyed." [Chanda District Gazetteer published in 1909,pp. 67-70.]

The following table gives the variation in population and the percentage of decade variation in Candrapur district from 1901 to 1961.

TABLE No. 2

VARIATION IN POPULATION DURING SIXTY YEARS,
CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT

(1)

Year

Persons

Decade variation

Percentage decade variation

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

DISTRICT TOTAL

1901

574,323

--

--

1911

729,347

+ 155,024

+ 26.99

1921

715,365

- 13,982

- 1.92

1931

823,321

+ 107,956

+15.09

1941

942,053

+ 118,732

+ 14.42

1951

1,052,975

+ 1 10,922

+11.77

1961

1,238,070

+185,095

+ 17.58

Brahmapuri Tahsil

1951

195,486

--

--

1961

226,924

+ 31,438

+ 16.08

Waroda Tahsil

1951

210,128

--

--

1961

238,323

+ 28,195

+13.42

Gadhciroli Tahsil

1951

231,236

--

--

1961

277,398

+46,162

+ 19.96

Candrapur Tahsil

1951

247,042

--

--

1961

296,807

+ 49,765

+ 20.14

Rajura Tahsil

1951

75,357

--

--

1961

89,624

+ 14,267

+ 18.93

Sironca Tahsil

1951

93,726

--

--

1961

108,994

+ 15,268

+ 16.29

The population of the district increased by about 27 per cent. during the decade 1901-11. This percentage of growth was not surpassed in the last sixty years. The influenza epidemic decreased the population of the district by about 2 per cent, in the decade which followed. In the subsequent decades the total population increased at moderate rates among which the growth rate of 17.58 per cent, in the decade 1951-61 ranks the highest. The population of the district has more than doubled during the last sixty years.

The percentage variation for the district and tahsils during 1951-61 is given below:

Percentage variation during 1951-61

Candrapur district

+ 17.58

1. Brahmapuri tahsil

+ 16.08

2. Waroda tahsil

+ 13.42

3. Gadhciroli tahsil

+ 19.96

4. Candrapur tahsil

+ 20.14

5. Rajura tahsil

+ 18.93

6. Sironca tahsil

+ 16.29

The high percentage rate of variation in Candrapur tahsil may be attributed to the inclusion of towns, viz., Candrapur and Ballarpur, the population of which increased considerably during the last decade.

The Census Report [Vol. XI, Part I, 1921.] for Central Provinces and Berar for 1921 throws an important light on the population growth of this district:

"The district has the lowest density in the province, 71 per square mile: and in the tahsil of Sironca, it is as low as 20. The vital statistics show a steady increase of population until the year 1918, when in the influenza epidemic the deaths exceeded the births by 3,800, and in the following year the low birth-rate caused a further decrease of nearly 10,000. The deduced population shows an increase of 32,000 during the decade, whereas actually there was a decrease of 17,000. It is obvious that in the influenza epidemic the inaccuracy in the vital statistics was greater than elsewhere - a result which is to be expected in so large a district. The factor of migration is a much less important one than in the rest of the division, but the balance of population has moved against the district, the inhabitants of which appear to be attracted to the more prosperous cotton industry".

The 1931 Census Report [Vol. XII, Part I, 1931.] analyses the density and growth of population in Canda district in the following words:

"It will he observed that in the wild Sironca tahsil which borders on Bastar State the aboriginal population is almost as scattered as in the State itself, but has grown enormously since the last Census when the density was only 20 per square mile. Conditions in the forest areas of the Gadhciroli tahsil resemble those in Sironca., the home of the Maria and the haunt of the man-eating tiger.

The development of population was normal throughout the decade except in the year 1921 when cholera was responsible for an unusual number of deaths. There was an another outbreak in 1924. but vital statistics were not seriously affected, and for the ten years the excess of births over deaths was 69,742.

Tahsil

No. of persons per sq. mile

Increase per cent since 1921

Increase of persons per sq. mile since 1921

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Candrapur

160

17.77

24

Waroda

136

11.79

15

Brahmapuri

173

10.97

17

Gadhciroli

59

17.71

9

Sironca

41

15.13

8

The increase of population according to the Census figures was 99,065, and there was rise of about 11,000 in the number of immigrants recorded over the 1921 figure. Two collieries opened at Mahakali and Lalpeth are said to have attracted a certain number of immigrants, and to have encouraged the increase in population in Canda town, which as shown in Provincial Table I rose by 22.44 per cent. Waroda, a town with 9,811 inhabitants, has also gained about 1,000 during the decade, being the centre of the cotton business of the district and the rail-head for the rich taluq of Wun in Yavatmal district."

Density of Population.

In proportion to its area, Candrapur is the most sparsely populated district in the State, a fact which is attributable to the large areas under forest lands inhabited by an insignificant number of aborigines. The incidence of population by tahsils shows this clearly enough. Candrapur, Waroda and Brahmapuri, which did not contain Zamindari lands, all have a fairly good density of 253, 186 and 253 per square mile, respectively, whereas Sironca, which contained the Ahiri Zamindari with its huge area of 2,600 square miles almost entirely abandoned to the jungle, has a very poor incidence of population. In Sironca almost the whole of the population is confined to a narrow strip along the bank of the Godavari whereas inland the country is pure jungle and almost entirely uninhabited. The population is quite dense in the rice tracts, a fact which is reflected in the figures for the Brahmapuri and Candrapur tahsils. This is because rice gives a far heavier outturn than any other crop, and so there are smaller holdings and the pressure of population is greater.

A glance at the spatial distribution of population reveals that the tahsils with higher density also share relatively higher proportions of the district population. Gadhciroli tahsil is, however, an exception.

According to the 1961 Census the density of population in the district is returned to be 123 per square mile. The following statement gives the density in the various tahsils in the district in 1951 and 1961:-

(1)

Density per square mile

Percentage of district population in 1961

1951

1961

(2)

(3)

(4)

Candrapur district

104

123

100

1. Brahmapuri tahsil

218

253

18.33

2. Waroda tahsil

164

186

19.25

3. Gadhciroli tahsil

81

97

22.41

4. Candrapur tahsil

210

253

23.97

5. Rajura tahsil

97

115

7.24

6. Sironca tahsil

30

35

8.80

Urban Population.

Urban population is defined as the population returned from towns which have a municipality, a cantonment, or a population of over 5,0.00 and at least of the male population dependent on non-agricultural occupations.

Candrapur with only 7.73 per cent, of the population in urban areas is the least urbanised district in Maharastra State. This becomes evident from the Census statistics in the following table which gives the urban population, the decade variation in population, the percentage of decade variation and the number of towns from 1901 to 1961.

TABLE No. 3

VARIATION IN URBAN POPULATION FROM 1901 TO 1961, CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT

Year

Area

No. of towns

Persons

Males

Females

Decade variation

Percentage decade variation

Sq. miles

Sq. km.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

1901

--

--

2

28,429

14,441

13,988

--

--

1911

--

--

5

41,704

20,813

20,891

+ 13,275

+ 46.70

1921

--

--

6

50,363

25,369

24,994

+ 8,659

+ 20.76

1931

--

--

7

62,833

31,934

30,899

+ 12,470

+ 24.76

1941

--

--

7

79,396

40,517

38,879

+ 16,563

+ 26.36

1951

--

--

8

96,435

48,731

47,704

+ 17,039

+ 21.46

1961

26.5

68.6

5

95,690

50,347

45,343

-745

-0.77

The urban population in the district increased by 236.59 per cent, since 1901. The percentage of urban to total population increased gradually from 4.95 per cent, in 1901 to 9.16 per cent, in 1951. The last decade witnessed a decline to 7.73 per cent. This decline is attributable to the revised definition of urban areas in the 1961 Census, as a result of which the four towns of Brahmapuri. Navarganv, Cimur and Armori have been declassified as rural and only one. viz., Sasti has been newly added to the list.

The towns are classified on the basis of population. The table which follows gives the statistics of population and area of the classified towns in 1951 and 1961: -

TABLE No. 4

TOWNS CLASSIFIED BY POPULATION WITH VARIATION DURING 1951 AND 1961, CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT

Class
(1)

Name of town (2)

Year

(3)

Area

Population

Sq. miles

(4)

Sq. km.

 (5)

Persons

(6)

Class II
50,000 to 99,999

Candrapur

1951

--

--

40,744

1961

11.02

28.54

51,484

Class III
20,000 to49,999

Ballarpur

1951

--

--

12,471

1961

3.50

9.07

20,351

Class IV
 10,000 to19,999

Waroda

1951

--

--

11,517

1961

6.27

16.24

14,148

Class V
 5,000 to 9,999

(a) Rajura

1951

--

--

3,957

1961

0.30

078

4,376

(b) Sasti

1961

5.38

1393

5,331

Class

Name of town

Year

Population

Males

Females

Decade variation

Percentage decade variation

(1)

(2)

(3)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Class II 50,000 to 99,999

Candrapur

1951

20,608

20,136

+ 5,014

+14.03

1961

27,042

24,442

+10,740

+ 26.36

Class III 20,000to49,999

Ballarpur

1951

6,356

6,115

+ 3,759

+ 43.15

1961

10,858

9,493

+ 7,880

+ 63.19

Class IV 10,000 to 19,999

Waroda

1951

5,822

5,695

+ 1,975

+ 20.70

1961

7,424

6,724

+ 2,631

+ 22.84

Class V 5,000to 9,999

(a) Rajura

1951

2,067

1,890

--

--

1961

2,266

2,110

+419

+10.59

(b) Sasti

1961

2,757

2,574

--

--

Of the five towns in the district, Candrapur, with a population of 51,484, is a class II town. Ballarpur, with a population of 20,351, is a Class III town, while Waroda, with a population of 14,148 is a Class IV town. Rajura and Sasti are grouped under Class V. The decade variation of population in Ballarpur and Candrapur shows a percentage increase of 63.19 and 26.36, respectively, over the decade 1951-61.

Most of the towns in the district, except Candrapur, exhibit semi-urban characteristics. In fact they present a spectacle of the old order in the midst of a developing urbanisation. In the absence of industrialisation and white collared occupations, a majority of the urban population is engaged in agriculture, crafts and allied occupations. The well educated and able bodied hasten to find better jobs and avenues of better life in Nagpur city. The people in general seem to be coming under the influence of modern civilization.

Rural Population.

Candrapur district is more rural in character than any other district in Maharastra. The rural population in the district (1,142,380) which is inhabited in 2,755 villages forms about 92.27 per cent, of the total population. The following table gives the tahsil-wise distribution of rural population in 1961, while Table No. 6 gives the rates of growth and percentage of rural population to total population in the district since 1901 to 1961: -

TABLE No. 5

 RURAL POPULATION IN CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT IN 1961

Tahsil

(1)

No. of inhabited villages

(2)

Total rural population

Persons

(3)

Males

(4)

Females

(5)

District Total

2,755

1,142,380

573,334

569,046

1. Brahmapuri

335

226,924

113,349

113,575

2. Waroda

442

224,175

113,095

1 11,080

3. Gadhciroli

843

277,398

138,721

138,677

4. Candrapur

376

224,972

113,237

111,735

5. Rajura

229

79,917

40,292

39,625

6. Sironcha

530

108,994

54,640

54,354

TABLE No. 6

VARIATION IN RURAL POPULATION SINCE 1901

Year

 (1)

Rate of variation in rural population
(2)

Percentage of rural to total population
 (3)

1901

--

95.05

1911

+25.97

94.28

1921

 -3.29 92.96

1931

+14.36

92.37

1941

+13.43

91.57

1951

+10.88

90.84

1961

+19.43

92.27

The rural population of the district increased by 109.27 per cent, over that of 1901 and by 71.79 per cent, over that of 1921, The 1921 Census recorded a heavy reduction in rural population because of the devastating epidemics in the decade. The Census statistics show that the net increase in rural population in this district has been higher than that for Maharastra.

The Canda District Gazetteer of 1909 gave a very vivid account of the attitude of the rural population towards the Census operation [Chanda District Gazetteer, 1909, pp. 76-77.] which is quoted below:

" The people in Canda, a large proportion of whom consists of the scheduled tribes, have now learnt to look upon the Census as one of the harmless eccentricities of the Government, but it was not so a few decades ago. Some stories recorded in the report of the Census held in 1881 originating in this district may, therefore, be reproduced as worth while. The counting operation was held to bring ill luck which was generally expected among the women of the lower classes to take the form of illness or death among their children. In Sironca, a story was current that the Government had found a goldmine and it was intended to select one young man and one young woman from each household and to march them off to the diggings. In the Ahiri Zamindari, the numberboards supplied to each house were carefully stowed away underground in rice stores and similar places of concealment, because a story had been circulated to the effect that it was a settled plan on the part of the police to have these boards stolen and then to get every householder fined Rs. 25. who failed to produce his number board on the night of the Census. The most ingenious rumour was that which went round in Canda itself. Here some waggish person circulated a report that on the night of the Census a brass measure would be applied to the breasts of women and that those too abundantly endowed by Nature were to be deprived of their superfluity by a surgical operation. A little timely ridicule however, scotched this canard. "

The pattern of rural population is revealed in the frequency distribution of villages on the basis of population. The Table No. 7 which follows gives the number of villages with various groups of population. Table No. 8 gives the distribution of population by size of villages for the district.

TABLE No. 7

VILLAGES CLASSIFIED BY POPULATION (TAHSIL-WISE), CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT, 1961

Tahsil

Total No. of inhabited villages

Villages with less than 2,000

Villages with

2,000 to 9,999

Less than 200

200-499

500-999

1.000-1,999

2,000-4,999

5.000-9,999

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

District Total

2,755

1,261

783

482

173

45

11

Brahmapuri Tahsil

335

92

92

90

45

12

4

Waroda Tahsil

442

115

172

116

31

4

4

Gadhciroli Tahsil

843

471

219

108

32

11

2

Candrapur Tahsil

376

105

118

88

50

14

1

Rajura Tahsil

229

98

71

50

10

--

--

Sironca Tahsil

530

380

111

30

5

4

--

TABLE No. 8

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY SIZE OF VILLAGES, 1961

Size Class

Percentage of the No. of villages to total No. of villages

Percentage of population to total rural population

(1)

(2)

(3)

Less than 500

74.19

32.61

500-999

17.50

29.75

1000-1999

6.28

20.05

2000-4999

1.63

11.12

5000 and over

0.40

6.47

The extremely rural character of the district population is revealed by the fact that 62.36 per cent, of the rural population lives in villages with population less than 1,000 as compared to 40.73 per cent, for the State. The proportion of villages with less than 500 people is as high as 74.19 per cent. Among the various size classes of villages, the greatest number of villages have a population less than 200. Gadhciroli tahsil has the greatest number of small villages, while Sironca tahsil comes next.

It is also interesting to note that the average population per village is as low as 415 in this district whereas the corresponding figure for the State is 792. The average population per village is the lowest (206) in Sironca tahsil, whereas the corresponding figure for Brahmapuri tahsil is 677. Gadhciroli, Rajura and Sironca tahsils have very small villages. The number of villages per 100 square miles of rural area is 27 for this district.

Sex Ratio.

The sex ratio is very important from the point of view of sociological studies. The following statement gives the sex ratios (number of females per 1,000 males) for this district since 1901:

Year
(1)

Total
(2)

Rural
 (3)

Urban
(4)

1901

1,023

1,026

969

1911

1,005

1,005

1,004

1921

1,004

1,005

985

1931

990

992

968

1941

989

992

960

1951

996

997

979

1961

985

993

901

The sex ratio of population of the district fluctuated between 985 and 1,023 since 1901. The ratio decreased gradually from 1,023 in 1901 to 989 in 1941, improved in the decade 1941-51 to 996 and  decreased again to 985 in 1961. The Census returns show that the sex ratio of the rural population in Candrapur district has always been higher than that of urban population.

The sex ratios for different age groups of population are given in the following statement:

Age groups

(1)

Total
(2)

Rural

(3)

Urban

(4)

0-14

981

985

935

15-34

1,019

1,035

858

35-59

914

919

857

60 and above-

1,107

1,102

1,157

All ages

985

993

901

The following table gives the Census statistics of the marital Marital Status, status of population belonging to various age groups:

Marital Status.

TABLE No. 9.

AGE AND MARITAL STATUS, CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT, 1961

Age-group

Marital Status

Never Married

Married

Widowed

Divorced or Separated

Unspecified Status

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

All ages

312,781

240,843

286,230

293,282

21,010

76,106

3,453

3,772

207

386

0-9

180,369

181,354

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

10-14

65,281

48,321

1,612

12,735

34

141

18

126

44

53

15-19

37,636

8,393

8,448

37,309

102

380

95

543

33

77

20-24

18,421

1,362

31,354

57,582

547

876

494

738

17

39

25-29

7,097

436

48,747

53,545

1,064

1,810

776

613

28

45

30-34

1,406

182

44,173

38,717

1,331

3,135

568

470

16

34

35-39

706

104

37,322

30,231

1,476

4,752

418

365

11

32

40-44

547

96

29,842

23,119

1,935

7,426

330

292

12

26

45-49

340

74

25,768

16,554

2,129

8,916

244

232

6

17

50-54

196

28

20,855

11,002

2,524

11,796

199

163

9

25

55-59

121

16

13,735

5,717

2,094

8,309

87

87

9

14

60-64

86

25

11,724

3,735

2,585

11,366

96

74

8

7

65-69

34

15

5,334

1,556

1,525

5,997

39

26

3

2

70+

80

14

7,279

1,371

3,663

13,796

89

42

4

8

Age not stated

461

423

37

59

1

6

--

1

7

7

The Census returns for 1961 show that the percentage of never married males increased while that of females decreased during the decade. However, the percentage or married males witnessed a decrease while that or married females witnessed a slight increase. The proportion of widowed males and females registered a decrease. The percentage of divorced or separated witnessed an increase, but the difference is not very significant. The distribution of marital status by age groups reveals that the marriageable age has increased in the district. The percentage of never married in the age group 0-14 increased by 2.35 in the case of males and by 4.84 in the case of females during the decade. It is also noteworthy that the proportion of never married among the male population is larger in 1961 than in 19.51. In the case of female population, however, that proportion decreased from 11.93 per cent, in 1951 to 5.03 per cent, in 1961.

Migration.

With growing industrialisation and education, the incidence of migration has been on the increase. The educated are naturally attracted towards towns and cities which provide wide avenues of employment. A number of economic and social factors, such as education, employment, occupational pattern and cross. marriages are responsible for the increase in the rate of migration. A number of persons from this district are found to have migrated to Nagpur, Amravati. Hyderabad and Bombay. Nagpur is, however, the principal destination of the migrants from this district.

The 1961 Census returns regarding migration of population are given in the following table:

TABLE No. 10

PROPORTION OF POPULATION BY PLACES OF BIRTH IN CHANDRAPUR DISTRICT, IN 1961

(1)

Total population

(2)

In place of enumeration

(3)

Elsewhere in the district

(4)

Outside the district but in Maharastra

(5)

Outside Maharastra

(6)

Persons

1,238,070

734,507

388,738

65,148

47,778

Males

623,681

445,312

128,493

25,641

23,272

Females.

614,389

288,995

260,245

39,507

24,506

Percentage to total population:

Persons

100

59.42

31.45

5.27

3.86

Males

100

71.52

20.63

4.12

3.73

Females

100

47.12

42.44

6.44

4.00

Thus, the 1961 Census enumerated 59.42 per cent persons at their places of birth, while 40.58 per cent are enumerated to have been born elsewhere. About two-thirds of this migrant population is that of females most of whom migrate on account of their marriage. As much as 80 per cent, of the female migration on account of marriage is within the district.

" The proportion of non-workers is lower among the migrants. The entire movement within the district or from outside the district is not, therefore, by families. Surprisingly the proportion of cultivators is larger among the migrants from within the district than that of the population at birth place. It indicates that a part of the migration within the district may be of cultivators or others for taking lands under ownership or tenancy cultivation and not exclusively to work as agricultural labourers. The proportions of migrants from outside the district engaged in household industry, manufacturing industry, construction, trade, transport and other services are considerably larger than those of the population enumerated at the place of birth. It means that these non-agricultural sectors are attracting and absorbing more migrants from outside the district." [District Census Handbook, 1961, p. 16.]

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