GENERAL

CLIMATE

[The section on 'Climate' is contributed by the Meteorological Department of the Government of India, Poona.]

Seasons

The climate of this district is characterised by a hot summer, well distributed rainfall during the south-west monsoon season and general dryness except in the rainy season. The cold season is from December to February. This is followed by the hot season from March to May. The south-west monsoon season is from June to September October and November constitute the post-monsoon season.

Rainfall.

Records of rainfall in the district arc available for 18 stations for periods ranging from 12 to 94 years. The details of the rainfall at these stations and for the district as a whole are given in tables 1 and 2. The average annual rainfall in the district is 1,420.2 mm. (55.91 inches). The rainfall in the district generally increases from the west towards the east and varies from 1,184.8 mm (46.65 inches) at Warora to 1,826.5 mm. (71.92 inches) at Murumgaon. The rainfall during the south-west monsoon months, June to September, constitutes about 89 per cent of the annual rainfall. July is the rainiest month. The variation in the rainfall from year to year is not large. During the fifty year period 1901 to 1950, the highest annual rainfall amounting to 136 per cent of the normal occurred in 1938. 1920 was the year with the lowest annual rainfall which was only 50 per cent of the normal. In the same 50 year period the annual rainfall was less than 80 per cent of the normal in 9 years, two of which were consecutive. Considering the rainfall at the individual stations it is found that two consecutive years of such low rainfall occurred once each at 7 out of 18 stations and three consecutive years of such low rainfall occurred once at Chimur during the same fifty year period. It will be seen from table 2 that the annual rainfall in the district was between 1,000 and 1,600 mm (39.37 and 62.99 inches) in 36 years out of 50.

On an average there are 63 rainy days (i.e; days with rainfall of 2.5 mm-10 cents or more) in a year in the district. This number, varies from 59 at Warora and Ghorajheri to 72 at Murumgaon.

The heaviest rainfall in 24 hours recorded at any station in the district was 337.3 mm (13.28 inches) at Armori on September 5, 1910.

Temperature.

There are three meteorological observatories in the district, one each at Brahmapuri, Chandrapur and Sironcha. While the records at Chandrapur extend to a long period of years, Brahmapuri observatory was started only recently and the observatory at Sironcha has about 10 years of data. The data of Chandrapur and Sironcha may be taken as representative of the northern and southern parts of the district, respectively. After October both day and night temperatures decrease progressively till December which is the coldest month. In the northern parts of the district, the mean daily maximum temperature in December is 28.2 C (82.8 F) and the mean daily minimum 11.6 C (52.9 F). The mean daily maximum in the southern half of the district is 29.6 C (85.3 F) and the mean daily minimum 14.6 C (58.3 F). During the cold season, cold spells affect the district in association with the passage of western disturbances across north India. The minimum temperature on such occasions may go down occasionally to about 3 C (37.4 F) in the northern parts of the district and to about 8 C (46.4 F) in the southern parts of the district. Temperatures rise rapidly after February till May which is the hottest month of the year. The mean daily maximum temperature in May is about 43.0 C (109.4 F) and the mean daily minimum is about 28 or 29 C (82.4 or 84.2 F). The heat in summer is intense during the day especially in the northern parts of the district. Occasionally the day temperature rises up to 47 or 48 C (116.6 or 118.4 F). The afternoon heat is sometimes relieved by thundershowers. With the onset of the south-west monsoon in the district by about the middle of June the temperatures decrease appreciably and the weather becomes more pleasant. Early in October when the south-west monsoon withdraws from the district the day temperatures increase a little and a secondary maximum is reached in October. Later both day and night temperatures decrease progressively. The decrease in night temperatures is rapid. The highest maximum temperature recorded at Chandrapur was 48.3 C (118.9 F) on May 16, 1912. It was 46.7 C (116.1 F) at Sironcha on May 27, 1954 and June 8, 1953. The lowest minimum temperature recorded at Chandrapur was 2.8 C (37.0 F) on January 10, 1899 and 7.8 C (46.0 F) at Sironcha on January 3, 1951.

Humidity.

The air is generally dry over the district except during the south-west monsoon season when the humidity exceeds 70 per cent. The summer months are the driest when the relative humidity in the afternoons is between 20 and 25 per cent.

Cloudiness.

The skies are heavily clouded to overcast during the south-west monsoon season. In the rest of the year skies are lightly clouded or mostly clear.

Winds.

Winds are generally light with some increase in wind force during the latter part of the summer season and in the south-west monsoon season. In the post-monsoon and cold seasons winds blow mostly from directions between north and east. In the first half of the summer season winds gradually change over to direction between east and south and by May winds from directions between south-west and north-west become more common. During the south-west monsoon season the winds are mainly from the south-west or west.

Special weather phenomena.

In association with monsoon depressions which originate in the Bay of Bengal and move westwards the district experiences strong winds and widespread heavy rain. Less frequently storms and depressions from the Bay of Bengal during the post-monsoon months also affect the weather over the district. Thunderstorms occur in all the months, their incidence being the highest during the monsoon season and lowest during the cold season.

Tables 3, 4 and 5 give the temperature and humidity, mean wind speed and special weather phenomena, respectively for. Chandrapur and tables 3 (a), 4 (a) and 5 (a) give similar data for Sironcha,

Rainfall.

TABLE No. 1

NORMALS AND EXTREMES OF RAINFALL

Station

No. of
years of data

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

Chandrapur

50

 a
b

7.6
0.6

24.9
1.6

14. 7 1.2

19. 6 1.7

31.7
1.3

194.6
9.6

392.9 17.1

308.1 14.5

215.4 10.5

Warora

50

a
b

8.6
0.7

23.1
1.5

15.2
1.2

15.2
1.3

11.2
1.2

185.7
9.6

377.9 16.9

283.7 13.5

187.5 9.5

Mul

50

a
b

10.2
0.7

24.6
1.6

14.0
1.2

16.3
1.7

13.7
1.4

183.4
9.4

398.8 17.9

300.5 14.9

181.6 10.1

Brahmapuri

50

a
b

14.2
0.9

24.1
1.7

12.7
1.4

17.3
1.6

14.0
1.4

215.4
9.2

498.6 18.3

398.5 15.7

207.8 10.1

Armori

50

a
b

10.7
0.8

23.4
1.6

13.2
1.2

14.5
1.4

12.2
1.5

204.0
8.7

490.0 18.1

406.4 16.1

202.9 10.6

Sironcha

50

a
b

9.9
0.7

17.0
1.2

14.0
1.0

24.4
1.5

26.4
1.7

170.7
8.5

377.9 17.0

304.5 14.4

200.9 10.8

Chimur

50

a
b

10.4
0.7

21.6 1.4

16.5
1.4

14.5
1.4

16.3 1.4

202.2 9.2

414.3 17.0

302.8 14.1

195.6 10.0

Gadhchiroli

46

a
b

11.7
0.8

21.3
1.4

14.7
1.2

15.0

1.6

11.4
1.1

231.4
9.2

525.3 18.9

413.3 16.7

218.7 10.7

Aheri

37

a
b

9.4
0.7

21.6 1.2

18.3
1.4

24.6
1.8

19.6 1.3

199.6 9.0

494.0 17.9

387.3 16.6

218.9 11.4

Asola

45

a
b

10.7
0.8

21.3
1.3

12.7
1.1

13.7
1.4

13.5 1.3

205.5 9.1

483.6 18.0

366.0 15.2

196.3 10.3

Ghorajheri

45

a
b

10.4
0.5

23.1
1.2

12.5
1.0

12.5
1.2

7.9
0.7

213.4 9.1

456.9 17.4

344.2 14.4

208.8 9.6

Khairee.

45

a
b

16.0
0.8

24.9
1.6

11.9
1.1

14.7
1.4

9.4
0.9

200.7 9.0

456.9 17.1

361.2 15.0

199.6 10.0

Kunghari

45

a
b

9.1
0.7

18.5 1.1

8.9
0.6

10.9

0.8

9.1
0.8

204.7 8.8

519.4 18.3

381.3 15.3

205.5 10.1

Dhanora

30

a
b

11.4
0.6

22.9 1.3

13.2
1.2

9.9
0.8

7.9
0.7

226.3 9.1

630.9 21.1

463.0 18.3

264.9 13.0

Nalesar

24

a
b

9.1
0.8

30.7 1.8

14.2
1.0

17.8
1.4

8.6

0.8

190.7 9.2

453.6 18.1

339.6 14.1

196.1 10.0

Garmusi

24

a
b

8.6
0.6

28.7 1.7

12.5
1.2

14.2
1.3

8.1
0.7

195.6 9.6

435.4 18.5

392.7 15.3

206.8 10.4

Ghat

25

a
b

8.4
0.6

27.9 1.3

9.4
0.8

8.9
0.8

12.2 1.0

228.9 9.4

476.5 17.2

399.5 15.0

242.8 11.0

Murumgaon

12

a
b

7.1
0.5

20.3 1.1

6.9
0.4

24.6
1.4

15.7 1.7

285.2 9.7

569.5 19.2

567.9 20.4

256.5 13.1

Chandrapur (District).

--

a
b

10.2
0.7

23.3 1.4

13.1
1.1

16.0
1.4

12.8 1.2

207.7 9.2

472.4 18.0

373.4
15.5

211.5 10.6

TABLE No. 1-contd.

Station

No. of years of data

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

Highest annual rainfall as percent of normal and year**

Lowest annual rainfall as percent of normal and year**

Heaviest
rainfall in
24 hours*

Amount (mm)

Date

(1)

(2)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

(19)

Chandrapur

50

a

56.7

15.7

3.8

1,267.4

167

59

254.0

1884 July 12

b

2.8

1.1

0.5

62.5

(1936)

(1902)

 

 

Warora

50 

 

a

54.1

16.8

5.8

1,184.8

154

49

228.1

1913 July 18

b

2.6

1.2

0.3

59.5

(1933)

(1920)

 

 

Mul

50

 

a

60.2

15.0

3.6

1,221.9

154

49

275.1

1903 October 5

b

2.9

1.1

0.4

63.3

(1949)

(1920)

 

 

Brahmapuri

50

a

51.6

11.7

6.1

1,472.0

154

49

323.6

1938 August 31

b

2.5

0.8

0.5

64.1

(1938)

(1904)

 

 

Armori

50

a

56.4

13.2

4.3

1,451.2

146

50

337.3

1910 September 5

b

2.7

0.8

0.4

63.9

(1938)

(1920)

 

 

Sironcha

50

 

a

62.5

17.0

5.6

1,230.8

144

48

247.4

1953 August 14

b

3.5

1.1

0.4

61.8

(1938)

(1939)

 

 

Chimur

50

 

a

52.6

13.7

7.9

1,268.4

155

56

335.5

1927 August 9

b

2.8

1.0

0.5

60.9

(1936)

(1918)

 

 

Gadhchiroli

46

 

a

65.8

16.3

6.9

1,551.8

162

52

320.3

1908 August 2

b

3.2

1.0

0.5

66.3

(1938)

(1920)

 

 

Aheri

37

 

a

64.0

14.7

2.3

1,474.3

160

49

319.0

1953 August  14

b

3.8

1.0

0.3

66.4

(1938)

(1920)

 

 

Asola

45

 

a

57.7

17.5

7.1

1,405.6

151

47

226.1

1911 September 25

b

2.8

0.8

0.4

62.5

(1938)

(1920)

 

 

Ghorajheri

45

 

a

45.2

15.5

5.6

1,356.0

149

53

 

292.1

1944 August 21

b

2.4

0.9

0.4

58.8

(1936)

(1920)

 

 

Khairee

45

 

a

61.7

18.0

6.1

1,381.1

137

46

242.6

1949 August 13

b

2.5

0.9

0.5

60.8

(1949)

(1920)

 

 

Kunghari

45

 

a

57.4

13.2

2.5

1,440.5

152

49

287.0

1911 September 24

b

2.6

0.9

0.2

60.2

(1949)

(1920)

 

 

Dhanora

30

 

a

60.7

20.1

4.8

1,736.0

137

59

286.3

1951  July 31

b

3.3

0.9

0.1

70.4

(1940)

(1928)

 

 

Nalesar

 

24

 

a

75.4

18.3

2.8

1,356.9

152

57

267.7

1949 August 13

b

3.1

1.0

0.3

61.6

(1949)

(1941)

 

 

Garmusi

24

 

a

66.0

15.2

3.6

1,437.4

149

57

312.2

1949 August 13

b

3.0

1.0

0.2

63.5

(1936)

(1941)

 

 

Ghat

25

 

a

65.3

18.5

2.5

1,500.8

128

45

227.6

1911 September 24

b

3.5

1.0

0.2

61.8

(1919)

(1913)

 

 

Murumgaon             

 

12

 

a

52.8

14.7

5.3

1,826.5

118

81

330.2

1912 August 4

b

3.5

1.1

0.0

72.1

(1910)

(1909)

 

 

Chandrapur
(District)

 

--

a

59.2

15.8

4.8

1,420.2

136

50

 

 

b

3.0

1.0

0.3

63.4

(1938)

(1920)

 

 

a) Normal rainfall in mm. 

(b) Average number of rainy days (days with rain of 2.5 mm. or more).

*Based on all available data up to 1958.

**Years given in brackets.

TABLE No. 2

FREQUENCY OF ANNUAL RAINFALL IN THE DISTRICT

CLIMATE RAINFALL. (Data 1901-1950)

Range in mm.

No. of years

Range in mm.

No. of years

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

701-800

2

1301-1400

8

801-900

2

1401-1500

9

901 - 1000

1

1501-1600

8

1001-1100

4

1601-1700

3

1101-1200

3

1701-1800

3

1201 - 1300

4

1801-1900

1

--

--

1901-2000

2

TABLE No. 3

NORMALS OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY (CHANDRAPUR)

Month

Mean Daily Maximun temperature

Mean Daily Minimun temperature

Highest Maximum ever recorded

Lowest Minimum ever recorded

Relative Humidity*

0830

1730

C

C

C

Date

C

 

percent

percent

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

January

29.6

13.2

35.6

1900 January

29

2.8

1899 January

10

69

41

February

32.3

15.3

39.4

1951 February

26

3.9

1905 February

2

60

33

March

37.1

19.5

44.4

1892 March

27

7.2

1896 March

5

43

23

April

40.7

24.4

46.1

1942 April

30

11.7

1905 April

1

39

22

May

43.0

27.9

48.3

1912 May

16

18.9

1919 May

9

35

21

June

37.6

26.6

47.2

1931 June

10

20.0

1919 June

18

61

51

July

31.2

24.3

40.6

1897 July

4

17.8

1954 July

31

79

75

August

30.7

24.0

37.2

1954 August

3

18.3

1954 August

26

81

74

September

31.6

23.6

37.2

1899 September

22

18.3

1904 September

28

81

72

October

32.1

20.1

37.8

1899 October

9

11.7

1882 October

27

73

60

November

29.6

15.1

36.1

1950 November

9

7.2

1950 November

27

71

52

December

28.2

11.6

33.9

1933 December

22

3.9

1883 December

19

74

46

Annual

33.6

20.5

--

--

--

--

64

47

*Hours I. S.T.

TABLE No. 3 (a)

NORMALS OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY (SIRONCHA)

Month

Mean Daily Maximun temperature

Mean Daily Minimun temperature

Highest Maximum ever recorded

Lowest Minimum ever recorded

Relative Humidity*

0830

1730

C

C

C

Date

C

 

percent

percent

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

January

30.3

15.5

33.3

1955 January

31

7.8

1951 January

3

75

39

February

33.9

18.1

37.8

1953 February

28

10.6

1957 February

14

65

27

March

37.4

22.2

41.7

1959 March

25

13.9

1952 March

4

57

23

April

39.9

26.7

44.7

1959 April

30

20.8

1960 April

12

53

25

May

42.1

29.3

46.7

1954 May

27

21.1

1955 May

8

51

25

June

37.9

27.6

46.7

1953 June

8

22.2

1960 June

22

65

46

July

31.5

24.9

38.9

1951 July

5

21.1

1957 July

5

85

72

August

30.7

24.5

36.1

1950 August

25

8.9

1954 August

3

87

75

September

31.6

24.5

35.2

1957 September

26

21.7

1951 September

18

85

74

October

32.1

22.9

36.9

1957 October

12

14.4

1954 October

29

81

63

November

30.4

17.3

33.9

1957 November

16

10.6

1950 November

4

77

51

December

29.6

14.6

33.0

1960 December

26

9.7

1961 December

29

78

47

Annual

33.9

22.3

--

--

--

--

72

47

*Hours I. S. T.

TABLE No. 4

MEAN WIND SPEED IN KM/HR. (CHANDRAPUR)

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

 (12)

(13)

2.7

3.5

4.0

4.7

6.6

8.7

8.5

7.4

5.1

2.9

2.4

2.3

4.9

TABLE No. 4(a)

MEAN WIND SPEED IN KM/HR. (SIRONCHA)

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

3.7

4.5

5.5

6.3

7.1

7.1

5.7

5.6

4.5

4.0

3.2

2.6

5.0

TABLE No. 5

SPECIAL WEATHER PHENOMENA (CHANDRAPUR)

Mean No. of days with

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

Thunder

0.2

2.7

4.0

3.3

3.8

7.8

2.6

3.5

6.2

2.3

0.9

0.2

37.5

Hail

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Dust-Storm

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

Squall

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Fog

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.2

TABLE No. 5 (a)

SPECIAL WEATHER PHENOMENA

(SIRONCHA)

Mean No. of days with

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

Thunder

0.2

0.5

2.4

3.2

4.0

9.4

7.3

6.2

7.2

3.7

0.4

0.0

44.5

Hail

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Dust-Storm

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.4

Squall

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

Fog

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.4

TOP