The Collector is the head of the district administration and in so far as the need and exigencies of the district administration are concerned, he is expected to supervise the working of other departments also.

Revenue.-The Collector is the custodian of Government property in land (including trees, water wherever situated) and at the same time the guardian of the interests of members of the public in land in so far as the interests of the Government in land have been conceded to them. All land, wherever situated, whether applied to agricultural or other purpose, is liable to payment of land revenue except in so far as it may be expressly exempted by a special contract. Such land revenue is of three kinds, viz., agricultural assessment, non-agricultural assessment and miscellaneous. The Collector's duties are in respect of (1) fixation, (2) collection and (3) accounting of all such land revenue. The assessment is fixed on each piece of land roughly in proportion to its productivity. The assessment is revised every 30 years tahsil by tahsil after settlement proceedings. The revision survey and settlement is carried out by the Land Records department before a revision is made and the Collector is expected to review the settlement report with great care and caution. The assessment is usually guaranteed against increase for a period of 30 years. Government, however, grant suspensions and remissions in bad seasons and determination of the amount of these suspensions and remissions is in the hands of the Collector. As regards non-agricultural assessment, it can he altered when agriculturally assessed land is used for non-agricultural purposes. In the same way, unassessed land used for non-agricultural purposes is assessed to non-agricultural rates. All this has to be done by the Collector according to the provisions of the rules under the Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966. Miscellaneous land revenue also has to be fixed by the Collector according to the circumstances of each case when Government land is temporarily leased. It is also realised by sale of earth, stones, usufruct of trees, revenue fines, etc.

Statistics of land revenue collections.-The collection of land revenue rests with the Collector, who has to see that, the revenue dues are recovered punctually every year and with the minimum of coercion and that the collections are properly credited and accounted for in the branch of the wasul-baki-navis, both at the tahsil level and the district level.

The following are the statistics relating to the land revenue collection in Chandrapur district for the year 1966-67:-

No. of villages in the district―








Gross fixed Revenue including non-agricultural assessment and all other dues.




Assessment assigned for special and public purposes including forest.


Net alienation of total inams


Assessment of cultivable land unoccupied


Free or specially reduced


Remaining fixed revenue for Collection-




Government occupied land including specially reduced.


Alienated lands


Building and other non-agricultural assessment


Fluctuating miscellaneous revenue


Local Funds (Demand for 1966-67)










Unauthorised balance


The Collector is also responsible for the collection of fees and taxes under various other Acts such as the Bombay Irrigation Act (VII of 1879), the Indian Stamps Act (I1 of 1899), the Indian Court fees Act (VII of 1870), the Bombay Entertainment Duty Act (I of 1923), and the Bombay Prohibition Act (XXV of 1949).  There are also other revenue Acts which contain a provision that  dues under them are recoverable as arrears of land revenue.  The Collector and his office have to undertake recovery of such  dues whenever necessary.

As regards the administration of the Forest Act the ultimate responsibility for the administration of the Forest department, so far as his district is concerned, lies with the Collector, and the Divisional Forest Officer is his assistant for the administration except in matters relating- to the technique of forestry. As regards the Prohibition Act, the Collector has to issue personal permits to liquor and drug addicts. In fact, he is the agency through which the Director of Prohibition and Excise arranges to have the policy of the department carried out. The administration of the Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act and Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1950 (for Rajura tahsil only) in its proper spirit rests with the Collector. He is also an appellate authority to hear appeals under the various sections of these Acts.

Inams. -All inams have been abolished under the Land Revenue Exemption Act, 1948. and Hyderabad Abolition of Inams and Cash Grants Act, 1954, and donations or cash grants for charitable purposes, grant to religious, charitable and public institutions and to the descendants of the Ruling Chiefs under the Central Provinces and Berar Revocation of Land Revenue Exemption Act, 1948, have been sanctioned.

Public Utility.-Agriculturists' Loans Act (XII of 1884) and the Land Improvement Loans Act (XIX of 1883) regulate the grant of loans to agriculturists at cheap rates for financing their agricultural operations. The Collector has to estimate the needs of his district in accordance with the policy of Government for the time being and in the event of a bad season, to make further demands for as much money as could be usefully loaned for the purpose of tiding over the need. He has to take necessary steps for the most advantageous distribution of the amount placed at his disposal and to see that the advances so made are recovered at the proper time. After the loans arc advanced to the borrowers, it is the duty of the Prant Officers and the Tahsildars to see that the loans are not utilised for purposes other than for which the same were advanced.

Accounts.-The separation of the treasury and revenue cadres at the district level has come into force with effect from April, 1955. Before the separation of the treasury work from the Revenue department, the Treasury Officer was from Revenue department and he had to perform various important executive functions in that connection. After the separation, the Treasury Officer became a member of the cadre of Maharashtra State Accounts Service and functioned independently. The treasuries are under the administrative control of the Finance department. At the district headquarters the cash business has been taken over by the State Bank of India and at the tahsil headquarters of Sironcha and Rajura where there are non-banking treasuries, the cash business rests with the sub-treasuries managed by the Sub-Treasury Officers. All other sub-treasuries in this district are banking treasuries and the cash business is with the Bank. The accounts are submitted to the Accountant General and the instructions laid down in the Accounts Codes and Compilation of Treasury Rules are followed by the District Treasury. Before the separation of treasuries from Revenue department the Collector and the Accountant General carried out periodical inspections of treasuries. As a measure of administrative control, the Collector inspects the district treasury once in a year before the close of the financial year and the Deputy Collectors inspect the sub-treasuries similarly. The Collector does not, however, participate in the daily routine of treasury business. For that work the Treasury Officer is his delegate and representative.

Quasi-judicial functions in revenue matters.-Among these functions of the Collector on the revenue side apart from hearing appeals from the decisions of the Sub-Divisional Officers under the Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966, and various other Acts may be mentioned: (1) the revisional powers exercised under section 23 of the Bombay Mamlatdar's Courts Act (II of 1906) in respect of Tahsildar's orders under the Act. (This power is delegated to the Deputy Collectors); (ii) appellate powers under sections 53 and 57 of the Bombay Irrigation Act (VII of 1879); (iii) the work which the Collector does in connection with the execution of civil court decrees; and (iv) proceedings and awards under section 11 of the Land Acquisition Act (I of 1894).

Local Self-Government.-With the passing of the Bombay Village Panchayats Act, vital changes were effected in the village panchayat administration. It is now looked after by village panchayats constituted for the villages. The Collector is empowered to hold elections and bye-elections to the municipalities and the village panchayats. The various Acts governing local bodies have conferred upon the Collector as the chief representative of government authority to supervise the actions of the local bodies and to give them advice.

Officers, of other departments.-The officers of other departments stationed at district headquarters are: (I) Commandant, District Sailors', Soldiers' and Airmen's Board, (2) District Superintendent of Police, (3) District Commandant, Home Guards, (4) Superintendent, District Jail, (5) Director, Relief and Rehabilitation, (6) Superintending Engineer, Defence Project, Chandrapur, (7) Executive Engineer, Buildings and Communications, (8) Executive Engineer, Minor Irrigation Division, (8) Executive Engineer, Organisation and Method Division, Electricity Board, (9) Divisional Forest Officers, (10) Civil Surgeon,

(11) Executive Engineer, Public Health Works Division, (12) District Publicity Officer, (13) District Industries Officer, (14) Superintendent of Fisheries, (15) District Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies, (16) District Employment Officer, (17) District Statistical Officer, (18) Divisional Soil Conservation Officer, (19) Sales Tax Officer, (20) Superintendent of Prohibition and Excise, (21) Treasury Officer, (22) Consolidation Officer and (23) Town Planner.

The services of the officers at the district level in their particular sphere can be requisitioned by the Collector either directly or through their official superiors. These officers of the district have more or less intimate contacts with the Collector in matters relating to their departments and have to carry out his general instructions pertaining to the development schemes under Five-Year Plans.

District Magistrate.-The Collector's duties as District Magistrate are mostly executive. He is at the head of all other executive magistrates in the district. He exercises the powers under the Criminal Procedure Code and the Indian Penal Code.

When authorised by the State Government the District Magistrate may invest any magistrate subordinate to him with the necessary powers. Besides being in control of the police in the district, the District Magistrate has extensive powers under the Criminal Procedure Code and the Bombay Police Act (XXII of 1951) and other Acts for the maintenance of law and order. It is his duty to examine the records of police stations in order that he may gain insight into the state of crimes in the limits of the police stations and satisfy himself that cases are being promptly disposed of.

In his executive capacity, the District Magistrate is concerned with the issue of licences and permits under the Arms Act (II of 1878). the Petroleum Act (VIII of 1899), the Explosives Act (IV of 1884) and the Poisons Act (I of 1904). He has also to supervise the general administration of these Acts and functions laid down thereunder.

Sanitation and Public Health.-The duties of the Collector in the matter of sanitation are (a) to see that ordinary and special sanitary measures are initiated in cases of outbreaks of epidemic diseases: (b) to watch and stimulate the efficiency of the daily sanitary administration of municipal committees and other sanitary authorities: and (c) to advise and encourage local bodies to improve the permanent sanitary condition of the areas under them so far as the funds at their disposal will allow. He can freely requisition the advice and technical assistance of the District Health Officer, Chandrapur.

The- District Soldiers', Sailors' and Airmen's Board The Collector acts as the President of the District Soldiers', Sailors' and Airmen's Board. His duties relating to the Board are to promote and maintain a feeling of good-will between civil and military classes, to look after the family interests of serving soldiers, and to implement in detail the policies of the State Soldiers', Sailors' and Airmen's Board.

Control of essential articles.-There were 337 fair price shops functioning in the district for the sale of rice, wheat etc. and 998 shops for the sale of sugar as on 15th March 1968, under orders from the Collector. The periodical inspection of these shops is done by the inspecting staff to ensure efficiency in their working and prevent malpractices.

Collector's Office.--The Collector's office is divided into four branches as under:-

(1) Establishment branch, (2) General branch. (3) Land revenue branch, (4) Registry and typing branch. The Deputy Collectors at the headquarters are kept in charge of these branches.