ECONOMIC TRENDS

GROUP II.

This income group was composed of small farmers, petty merchants, secondary school teachers. Government servants. mechanics, and small businessmen such as grocers, retail shop-keepers, etc. The residential accommodation of the families in this group was generally small as compared to the one enjoyed by the family in the first group and consisted of a drawing room, kitchen-room or study-room. Many of the families possessed a radio, ceiling fans and furniture and cupboards.

The annual income of each family in this group varied between Rs. 1,800 and Rs. 4,200. A survey of 50 families from this group gave the following result.

This income group was composed of families following a variety of small occupations. There were 78 earning members in 50 families. An average family was composed of 4 adults and 4 minors making six units on the whole.

Out of 50 families from this group about 22 i.e., 44 per cent had their own houses valued at about Rs. 9,668 on an average. 7 families i.e., about 14 per cent had landed property valued at Rs. 6,443 per family and 4 i.e., 8 per cent had it in some other form. Eleven families had an average income of Rs. 2,373 per year from land and six families Rs. 2,621 from house. The annual occupational income of a family amounted to Rs. 3,006. Many families formerly received substantial income from agriculture which has dwindled because of agrarian reforms and tenancy legislation undertaken by the State. As many as 14 families from this group were indebted each to the tune of  Rs.1,003. Out of these families eight had taken loan for productive purpose whereas 6 families were indebted to get over their  family difficulties. Of the families surveyed only 13 disclosed  their savings in cash to the tune of Rs. 752 on an average and  15 families disclosed their savings in the form of insurance and bank deposits amounting to Rs. 3,131 on an average.

The average total monthly expenditure of a family in this group was Rs. 190 of which Rs. 50 was spent on cereals and pulses. The people in this group staying in the urban areas spent Rs. 32 on education. Whereas their monthly expenditure on entertainment was about Rs. 10, the same was less in the rural area. The expenditure of the urban people on account of entertainment was mainly on drama, movies and other such varieties of programmes. The average monthly expenditure on oils, ghee etc., was Rs. 16.00 and that on the vegetables, mutton, eggs etc., Rs. 13.00. They spent about Rs. 7 on lighting, Rs. 26.00 on domestic services, Rs. 16.00 on milk and Rs. 20 on rent and municipal taxes. Expenses on these items in the rural areas were comparatively less. Of the 50 families surveyed 27 families stayed in rented premises.

The families belonging to this group were generally well dressed though not in as refined clothes as the families in group one. The urbanites spent more on this item than ruralites. About 32 families disclosed their possession of traditional garments such as shalu, jari turban and other costly apparel. A family spent about Rs. 322 on clothing.

The families in this group spent substantially on religious and charitable functions and ceremonies. Almost 75 per cent of these families spent about Rs. 100 per annum for this purpose. A few families spent as much as Rs. 700 per annum on this account, The expenditure on medicine and health accounted for Rs. 209 annually. Their miscellaneous and travelling expenses per family came to Rs. 144 per year. However most of the expenditure was incurred towards attending social functions among relatives and friends as well as fairs and religious functions at distant places.

With regard to the family possessions and equipment the traditional ornaments such as rings, nose-rings, vajratic, tode, putalyachi mal, garasoli, etc., were found common in many of the rural families. Very few urban families had furniture and fixtures except cots, tables and chairs. Many of the rural families possessed jhopala i.e., swing made of wood depending upon availability of space. Only 17 families out of 50 surveyed had bicycles for their daily use. Many of the families in rural areas owned buffaloes, cows and goats. The families especially in rural areas possessed agricultural tools and equipment such as cart, plough, spade, sickle etc., and rest of the tools of daily use. Their house-hold equipment including bedding was just enough to fulfill their requirements. The bedding consisted of chaddars and rough carpets. Very few families in urban areas had mattresses, bed- sheets and pillows. The literacy percentage was as good as the one in group I especially in urban areas. The percentage of secondary education as also college education was higher in urban areas than in rural areas.

As regards savings and investment habits, of this group, 16 families disclosed their savings at Rs. 751 on an average. 14 families were found indebted to the tune of Rs. 1,003 on an average. 5 families had borrowed loans for productive purpose such as land improvement, bunding etc. Rest of the families had taken loans for domestic and other purposes such as marriages, religious functions etc.

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