54. The new Buldana District as constituted in 1905
has been formed of the old Buldana
District, and of two taluks of Akola
District, viz., Khamgaon and
Jalgaon. The area and population
of the District thus constituted were 3662 square miles
and 613,756 persons according to the census of 1901.
Buldhna now stands 17th in point of area, and 9th in
population among the Districts of the Central Provinces
and Berar. The District is divided into five taluks,
Chikhli lying in the centre, Mehkar to the south, Malkapur to the north, and Jalgaon and Khamgaon to the
north-east. The figures of area and population of the five taluks are as follows:—
Chikhli is thus the largest in respect of area and Malkapur in population, while Jalgaon is the smallest in both respects. The total density of population is 168 persons per square mile as against 120 persons for the Central Provinces and Berar. The density of the rural area is 145 persons. Khamgaon was the most thickly populated taluk in the District with 232 persons per sqrare mile in
1901, and Mehkar the most sparsely populated with 120 persons per square mile. Malkapur, Jalgaon and Chikhli had 219, 213 and 128 persons respectively per square mile. In 1905-06 the proportion of cropped area per head of population was 2.65 acres, this proportion being exceeded in Yeotmal and Wardha. Buldana has hardly any land available for cultivation, the percentage of land already under cultivation being 97.97 and any further increase in the agricultural population must therefore be attended by a decrease in the means of sustenance fallingto the lot of each individual. The District contains 9 towns and 1371 villages, of which 212 are uninhabited. The population of the towns in 1901 was as follows:—Khamgaon 18,341 Shegaon 15,057; Malkapur 13,112; Jalgaon 8487; Nandura 6669; Deulgaon Raja6293; Chikhli 5889; Mehkar 5330 and Buldana
4137.The total urban population is 83,315 or 13.57 per cent. of that of the District, this proportion being exceededin only six Districts of the Central Provinces andBerar. The urban population has increased since 1891by 10,896 persons or 15 per cent. Khamgaon, the second cotton mart in Berar, is progressing steadily. It shows an increase of 2743 or 17.6 per cent. during 1891— 1901. Since 1881 its population has increased by 48 percent. It has a large commercial and industrial population. Shegaon, which was in 1867 simply a large agricultural village, is now one of the chief cotton marts of Berar. It showed a low rate of increase in its population at the census of 1891; but by its rapid growth in theensuing decade it rose one step higher in the list of towns,and now stands seventh in Berar. The increase in itspopulation during the decade 1891—1901 amounted to 31.8 per cent. most of whom were immigrants attracted fay trade.Malkapur during the decade 1891—1901 in-
increasedin population from 9222 to 13,112. The increase
amounts to 42.2 per cent. and is due to the development of its cotton trade, which will, no doubt, continue to add to its population. Since 1891 Chikhli and Buldana have men to the rank of towns; the first being a centre of local trade has increased from 4674 to 5889 or by 26 per cent., and the latter the headquarters of the District has risen from 3243 to 4137 or by 27.6 per cent. Buldana has less than 5000 inhabitants, bat having a municipality it is Included in the list of towns. Jalgaon and Deulgaon
Raja both have decreased in population during the decade by 8.8 and I4.8 per cent. respectively. Nandura and Mehkar have increased in population by 3 and 4½ per cent, respectively. The nine places enumerated as towns contain 15,818 Muhammadans, 1270 Jains and 346 Christians. Besides the towns the District has 28 villages with a population of 2000 or more persons. The proportion of villages of this size to the total is 2.4 per cent. Eighty-one villages or nearly 7 per cent. of the total number contain between 1000 and 2000 persons, this proportion being exceeded only in Akola District.
Eight hundred and twenty-two inhabited villages contain leas than 500 persons. Only 189 inhabited villages contain less than 100 persons. Excluding towns the average village in 1901 contained 95 houses and 458 persons.
55. A census of the District has been taken on four occasions in 1867, 1881, 1891, and
1901. The first census was a provincial one. In 1881 the population of the District as it stands at present was 642,074 persons. In 1891 the population was 670,604 persons showing an increase of 36,530 persons or 5.7 per cent, on 1881. The population of Chikhll, Mehkar, Khamgaon and Malkapur taluks increased by 7.2,
16.6, 3.7 and 5.6 per cent, respectively, while that of Jalgaon
taluk decreased by 7.9 per cent. In 1901, the population was 613,756 persons, having decreased by 64,848 persons or 9.6 per cent. during the decade 1891—1901. The results of the census were, however, different in the five taluks, Chikhli showing a decrease of
13.7 per cent., Mehkar of 21.07, Jalgaon of 10.8 and Malkapur of 2.6 per cent., while the population of Khamgaon gained by 3.2 per cent. In the Malkapur, Chikhll and Mehkar taluks which formed the old Buldana District, the census decrease was 57,405 persons or 11.9 per cent., while the natural decrease deduced from vital statistics was only 20,169 persons or 4.2 per cent. The difference is to be attributed partly to the deficient reporting of deaths in the famine years and partly to emigration, the number of persons born in Buldana and enumerated elsewhere being 27,907. The decrease of 32,254 persons in the Mehkar taluk is the largest in the Province, and is partly
due to the fact that in the early stage of the famine of 1900 people in large numbers left their homes for Nimar in
the hope of obtaining land there. The District was very severely affected by both the famines during the decade. Birth-rates fell off most abnormally in 1898 and 1900. In four out of ten years, the deaths exceeded the births. The excess of deaths in 1900 alone in the old Buldana District amounted to 32,721 persons. The increment of
3163 persons in the Khamgaon taluk is entirely doe to the growth of the population of the towns of Khamgaon and Shegaon, amounting to 6378, the rural
population of the taluk having diminished by 3215 persons. the decrease in the Jalgaon taluk was as large as 10,606, and was noticeable in its rural as well as its urban
population. The decrease was to some extent due to the absence of a fair on the last census night at Dhanora, a village in this taluk, where on the night of the previous census 2352 persons had assembled.
56. The following statement shows the number of
births and deaths during the last
Ratio per mille of population.
Ratio per mille of population.
For the seven years 1902-1908 the total excess of births over deaths has been 37,439. This is not a very satisfactory increase. Epidemics of plague and cholera have impeded progress. Khamgaon and Shegaon are chronic plague centres, though it is not yet certain whether the epidemic breaks out spontaneously or is introduced from outside. The Civil Surgeon thinks that improved communications are partly responsible for the introduction of the disease. The death-rate was normal up to 1904, but in the next three years it rose to a large extent, and in 1906 and 1907 the number of deaths actually exceeded the number of births. The high mortality is due to plague which broke out in all these three years. In 1906 there was also a severe outbreak of cholera. Had it not been for the epidemic diseases the ratio of
deaths and births would have been well on the right side
[A noteon diseases was supplied by Mr. R. T. Rodgers, Civil pargeon, Buldana.]
57. The District has suffered greatly from cholera,
no less than eleven severe epidemics
having occurred since 1869. In
1878, a year of distress, 7414 deaths were recorded. For
three consecutive years, 1895, 1896 and 1897, cholera
raged and in 1906 a very severe epidemic took place,
5277 deaths or a rate of 8.59 per mille of the population
being returned. The infection is said to be introduced
generally from some sacred centre of pilgrimage, especially
Pandharpur in the Sholapur District of the Bombay
Presidency. During the epidemic of 1906 efforts were
made to purify the water-supply by permanganate of
potash, and 8358 wells were thus disinfected. At first
the attitude of the people towards the measure was
distinctly suspicious, but underwent a marked change
when it was seen what benefits resulted in villages where
the wells were properly treated. Plague appeared in the
District in 1902, and has prevailed every year since, the
total number of deaths from that year to 1906 being
over 16,000. The worst epidemic occurred in 1903 when
the mortality was 5282 or 8.44 per mille of the population.
The town of Khamgaon especially suffered severely in
1902 and 1905, when 1179 and 872 deaths were recorded.
The type of plague usually observed was the bubonic,
and the percentage of deaths to persons attacked was
over 75, though in some villages it reached the appalling
figure of 90. The attitude of the people towards plague
measures is slowly undergoing a change, and evacuation
is freely resorted to. Small-pox is always present. The
worst epidemic occurred in 1877, when 2682 people died,
and in 1905, when the mortality was 1483. The District
is fairly protected by vaccination, about 24,000 persons being vaccinated annually. But the severe epidemic of 1905 is partly attributed to the fact that in previous years children had not been adequately protected, two or three indifferent scars being very often found. Four scars are now the minimum number permitted. Fever, which is a wide term covering pneumonia and inflammation of the brain and other organs, is responsible for about one-third of the total mortality of the District. The type of malarial fever usually seen is the benign tertian though occasional cases of ague are met with. A modified type of enteric fever, especially among children, has also been observed. Bowel complaints cause about one-eighth of the total mortality, this rate being two or three times higher than that of the Central Provinces, and four or five times higher than that of the rest of India. The greatest mortality occurs in the rains, August being the most fatal month. The exceptional figures are possibly due in part to the custom of storing grain in damp pits called peos; the grain often gets mildewed especially during the rains, when the subsoil water rises, and its consumption in the form of cakes often insufficiently cooked causes an irritation of the bowels, which may have fatal results. Much of the mortality in the famine years was due to this cause, as was only to be expected when damp and unwholesome juari was regarded as excellent fare. There were 1482' blind persons in the District at the last census, and this; was the highest proportion both for males and females in; Berar. The Malkapur taluk contained 370 lepers, the-proportion being the highest in the Province. In neither case are the figures capable of any special explanation.
58. No special statistics are maintained for showing
how many persons came into the
District from outside and how many
left it during the decade 1891-1901. The figures for
birth-place, however, throw some light on the numbers of the immigrants and the emigrants. Just over 83 per cent, of the population were shown in 1901 as having been
born within the District, this proportion being the highest in Berar. Seventy-one thousand persons were returned as born outside the District. This number, however, does not represent the actual number of persons who immigrated into the District within the decade, but it also includes those who came in before 1891. At the census of 1891 the number of persons returned as born outside the Province was 91.762 This at first sight would mean that there was no great immigration. But such is not the case; a large number of immigrants must have died and some returned to their respective Provinces or elsewhere, and most of the vacancies thus caused must have been filled up by fresh immigrants since that year. On the whole, however, the census of 1901 disclosed a decrease of 20,000 immigrants on that of 1891. Of the 71,000 residents born outside the District the majority came from Hyderabad territory (23,000), Akola District (21,000), Bombay (19,000), and Rajputana (4000). Only 1100 came from the Central Provinces. The figures for emigration outside Berar are not available but those for inter-provincial migration shew that Buldana contributed 27,907 persons to other Districts and received from other Districts 22,214, the operations resulting in a loss of 5693 in population. The bulk of the emigration was to Akola which took 25,196 persons. Buldana showed the largest decrease in indigenous population in Berar (36,711).
59. As is only to be expected in the absence of any
large towns or important industries [The figures in this para, are for the old District.]
the population of the District is
mainly agricultural, and the bulk of the population is
either engaged directly in agriculture, or is indirectly dependent on the land for means of subsistence. According to the returns of the last census, the agricultural population numbered 312,963 or 73.88 per cent, of the inhabitants, as against the provincial figure of 72.8 per cent. Of this number
53.66 per cent. were actual workers and 20.22 per cent, dependents of both sexes. The agricultural population includes land-holders, tenants and labourers. Thirty-six thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight persons or
8.70 per cent, of the population were actual land-holders or tenants. Agricultural labour provided employment for 224,055 persons or
52.89 per cent, of the people. Out of every 100 persons supported by this form of employment as many as 85 were recorded as actually working, while the remaining 15 were dependent on them. The number of dependents under this head of occupation was the least. Stock breeding and dealing afforded support to 4343 persons or 1.02 per cent., this proportion being the lowest in Berar. Six thousand three hundred and twenty persons or about 1½ per cent, of the population were returned under personal and household and sanitary services; of these 2650 or
0.63 per cent. were barbers. The industrial population or those who are engaged in the preparation and supply of material substances numbered 53,676 or 12.67 per cent of the population. Of these 14,133 or 3.33 per cent, of the population were engaged in the supply of food and drink, 1885 persons dealing with animal food, 6749 with vegetable food and 5499 with drink, condiments and stimulants. The manufacture and sale of textile fabrics supported 13,711 persons or 3.24 per cent, of the population. Cotton, which is the principal product of the District, afforded means of support to 7919 persons or 1.87 per cent. The actual workers in cotton numbered 5280 and of these 2889 were enumerated as homeworkers and
2391 as working in factories. Other classes included in the industrial population were those engaged in the supply of fuel and forage, 3067; workers in metals and precious stones, 5174; in glass, pottery and stoneware, 2678; in wood, cane and leaves, 6432; and in leather, 7585. The commercial population numbered 7585 persons or 1.79 per cent. The principal classes included under this head are bankers and moneylenders, numbering 3508, and shopkeepers and moneylenders' servants numbering 3731. Out of every 100 persons supported by commerce 39 only were actual workers, and they had to maintain the remaining 61. Transport and storage afforded employment to 2674 persons or.63 per cent. The professional population numbering 6670 or 1.57 per cent, covers a very wide field, from physicians and lawyers to religious mendicants, hunters and dancers. The only professions of any numerical strength are those of religious mendicancy, supporting 3697 persons, and acting and dancing supporting 679 persons. Unskilled labour, not agricultural, supported 5495 persons or 1.30 per cent. of the population. There were 16,766 persons or 3.96 per cent. employed in administrative service; of these 13,866 were made up of 5483 actual workers and 8383 dependents supported by village service, which includes patels, patwaris, jaglias and Mahars. Six thousand eight hundred and ten persons or 1.61 per cent, were returned as independent and included beggars, pensioners, prisoners, and persons of private means. Beggars are, as elsewhere, numerous and contribute 6047 to this total.
60. The principal language of the District is Marathi. It is spoken by 529,000 persons
or 86 per cent, of the population.
Buldana has the largest proportion of Marathi speakers
of the four Berar Districts. The form of the language
used here is dual. In the eastern part of the District what is known as the Berari is spoken and this gradually merges into its purer or Deccan form which is spoken in the western part of the District. There is also said to be a slight difference between the dialect spoken above the Ghats, called GhatavarchiVarhadi in the south and the GhatakhalchiVarhadi in the north, but the difference is probably of
no importance. The difference between the Deccan and Berari forms of speech is also slight. Long vowels and especially final ones are very frequently shortened; thus mi and mi, I, mahd and maha, my. There is a strong tendency among the lower classes to substitute o for ava and avi; thus zol for zaval,
near; udola for udvila, squandered. An a is very commonlv used where the Deccan form of the language has an, especially in the termination of neuter bases, in the suffix ne of the instrumental, and in the future. Thus: asa, so; sangitla, it was said; dukra, swine, asal, I shall be. I is very often interchanged with e and ya; thus. dila,delta and dyalla, given; an initial e is commonly pronounced as ye; thus, ek and yek, one. The cerebral l, which is always distinguished from the
corresponding dental sound, is commonly pronounced as a very soft r and even as a y, especially in this District. Thus, mali,mari and mayi. The cerebral n is always changed ton, though n is often retained in writing. Thus kon, who, pani, water. L and n are continually interchanged in the future tense; thus mimarin and maril, I shall strike, V is very indistinctly sounded before long and short i and e, and is often dropped altogether; thus, into, fire, is, twenty; yel, time. The neuter gender is thoroughly preserved only in Marathi and Gujarati, but in the Berari dialect the distinction between the masculine and neuter genders is weakened owing to the substitution of a for en in neuter bases and the tendency to shorten
long final vowels as stated before. The case suffixes are the same as in the Deccan form, but in this District the dative is formed by adding le and not la; thus bapale, to the father. In verbs the second person singular has usually the form of the third person; thus, tuahe, thou art, for tuahes. In the present tense a is substituted for e in the terminations of the second person singular and the third person plural; thus, tumarto, thou strikest;
temartat, they strike. The habitual past is often used as an ordinary past; thus, tomhane he said. In the conjunctive participle sanva is often added; thus, dhaunsanya, having run.
61. Urdu is spoken by 48,000 persons, who are all
Muhammadans. There are 12,000,
speakers of Marwan, about the
same number as in Amraoti and Akola. Hindi is spoken by 11,000 persons, Gujarati by 5,000, and Banjari and Telugu each by 3,000. This District contains the smallest number of Dravidian tribes, and hence there is no aboriginal language worth mention. Gondi is spoken by about 500 persons only.