325. The District is divided into five tahsils for administrative purposes. The head of the District is the Deputy Commissioner, who is also the District Magistrate. He is assisted by an Assistant Commissioner, two Extra Assistant Commissioners, and one Excise Extra Assistant Commissioner. The staff at headquarters usually consists of an Assistant Commissioner, an Extra Assistant Commissioner, and one Excise Officer. One of the assistants at headquarters is the District Registrar. In 1905 the Subdivisional system was introduced, and the District was divided into two subdivisions, one comprising the Chikhli and Mehkar taluks, and the other, the Malkapur, Khamgaon and Jalgaon taluks. Each tahsil has a Tahsildar and a Naib. The civil staff at Buldana itself consists of a Sub-Judge and a munsiff. At Khamgaon there are the courts of the Sub-Judge, the munsiff and the Small Cause Court Judge. A munsiff's court is located at each of the taluk stations of Mehkar and Malkapur. Benches of Honorary Magistrates are established at Mehkar, Malkapur, Nandura, and Khamgaon. The benches at Khamgaon and Nandura exercise second class magisterial powers and those at Mehkar and Malkapur third class. A court of an Honorary Magistrate of the first class is stationed at Deulghat. Buldana forms part of the West Berar Division, and the District and Sessions Judge of that division exercises superior civil and criminal jurisdiction in this district. The District staff comprises a Civil Surgeon and a Divisional Forest Officer. Buldana forms two Public Works Department Subdivisions with headquarters at Buldana and Khamgaon, respectively, and it is included in the West Berar Division of that Department.
326. The Patwaris are appointed under the same
law and rules as the patels. They
are village accountants and maintain the various records in accordance with the Berar Patwaris Manual. They are generally Brahmans, though a few belong to other castes such as Muhammadans, Kunbis, Malis, and Patwaris are generally watandars. Like the patels, they are paid by percentages laid down in the rules already referred to. The average number of villages in a patwari's circle is between two and three. No patwaris hold inam land for doing patwari's work, but they receive emoluments in accordance with the rules mentioned above. Remuneration to patwaris is paid from Provincial funds. No sum is set apart from which deserving patwaris can be given reward for good work. Patwaris of the jagir villages are paid by jagirdars. A considerable number of patwaris are at present trained in survey. Two patwari training classes are held at Buldana every year, the duration of each class being two months. The work of the patwaris is primarily supervised by Revenue Inspectors. A Superintendent of Land Records with an assistant is attached to the Deputy Commissioner's office. Previously the work of inspection was done by Munsarims, who however differed from Revenue Inspectors in being merely assistants of the Tahsildars. There are five Revenue Inspectors in each of the Chikhli and Mehkar taluks, four in Malkkapur, and three in each of the Khamgaon and Jalgaon taluks. Besides there is one survey karkun who works in the District record room. One Revenue Inspector has, on an average, about 31 patwaris to supervise. The duties of the
Land Record Staff are contained in the rules framed under Section 17 of the Berar land Revenue Code.
327. The District is characterised by no special class of crimes, but dacoities,
roberies, and house-breakings are not
unfrequent, and are in many instances the work of criminal gangs and professionals from outside. Kaikaris and Bhils are apt to raid the District from the Khandesh direction and from across the Hyderabad border. Within the past few years a large number of these people have been captured and are now in jail. Bauris, Minas, Bhamtas and other professional criminals work in the District including, as it now does, the prosperous taluks of Khamgaon and Jalgaon. A considerable number of Pathans and Afghans also ostensibly trade in the District, but these men are often mixed up with local criminals such as Takankars, Mahars Mangs, etc. The majority of civil suits instituted in this District fall under the following heads:—
1. Suits for possession of fields and house property.
2. Suits for recovery of lease money.
3.Suits for pre-emption.
4. Suits on mortgages.
People are very keen over their watanandman-pan rights, and a few suits with regard to them are instituted. Suits for possession of wife and restitution of conjugal rights are rare. The people have a great affection for their ancestral property, i.e., field or house, and they will spend much money in litigation to secure the same, without any regard to the actual value of the property involved.
329. From the date of the annexation of Berar till
the year 1897-98, ' the farming or
the out still system was in vogue in
the District. The monopoly to distil and sell country liquor in certain defined subdivisions of the District was put to auction. The auction purchaser used to make his own arrangements, and his gain was measured by the quantity that he could manufacture and sell. He was directly interested in stimulating the consumption of liquor. In 1897-98 this system was partly changed and a new system called the ' Central distillery system of still-head duty, with a guaranteed minimum revenue ' was introduced in Malkapur taluk only, the other taluks, viz., Chikhli and Mehkar, remaining under the outstill system. The main features of this system were the grant of a single contract for manufacture and vend to a selected monopolist who guaranteed a minimum revenue from still-head duty, paid duty on all issues, issued at a fixed strength and sold at a fixed price, and was bound to keep shops open and maintain distributing agencies and a preventive staff. In the year 1899-1900, the' Central Distillery System of Minimum Guarantee' was replaced by the ' Madras Contract Distillery System' in the Malkapur taluk, the outstill system still prevailing in the other taluks. In 1905-06 this
system, as it proved successful, was extended to Chikhli and Mehkar taluks, and thus the whole District was brought under the ' Madras Contract Distillery System.' This system consists chiefly in splitting up the monopolies of manufacture and of retail vend. The right to manufacture liquor is given to a selected monopolist, and the privileges of retail vend are disposed of annually by auction. Liquor is manufactured in distilleries under the supervision of Government officers, and it is thence issued to warehouses under bond at fixed strength, viz., 25 U.P. and 60 U.P. The retail vendors take away their supplies of liquor from the warehouses on payment of fixed duty and cost price. In September, 1905, the reconstitution of Berar into four districts was given effect to, and the two taluks, Jalgaon and Khamgaon, were added to this District. These taluks also are regulated by the Contract Distillery System. As the whole District came under one and the same system only in 1905-06, the figures representing the consumption of liquor for previous years cannot be ascertained. The consumption for the years i905-o6 and 1906-07 was 98,502 and 90,760 gallons of proof, respectively. The fall in consumption in the last year is mainly due to increased rates of duty in Chikhli and Mehkar taluks and partly to the rumour that pig's blood was blended with liquor in distilleries.
Before the year 1897-98 revenue derived from country spirits amounted to Rs. 1,58,400, the incidence of taxation per head of population being 4 annas. There were 166 shops, each shop supplying liquor to an area of 16.9 square miles and 2897 people. In the famine year of 1899-1900 the system was changed and the receipts amounted to Rs. 95,429 only, the incidence being 2 annas 2 pies per head of population. In 1901-02 the total receipts on account of country liquor were Rs. 1,45,900, and these were nearly doubled in 1904-05 when the total
realizations amounted to Rs. 2,41,000. A marked difference in revenue under this head appeared in 1905-06 when the income amounted to Rs. 5,10,679. The increase was mainly due to the addition of two taluks Khamgaon and Jalgaon in September, 1905, and to the introduction of the Contract Distillery System in the taluks of Chikhli and Mehkar. The number of shops in this year was 174, but these fell to 150 in the year 1906-07, during which the revenue for country spirits amounted to Rs. 4,95,306.
Formerly there was only one license for the sale of foreign liquor, but in the year 1906-07 the licenses rose to five in number and brought in fees amounting to Rs. 725.
330. The right to draw and sell tari was formerly auctioned every year by circles.
The same system continues, and in
the year 1906-07 the privilege was auctioned by taluks
and fetched Rs. 615. The number of shops at present
is 91 only. There are few sindi trees in this District,
and they are rapidly thinning in number. The drought
of 1899 killed many trees.
331. Cultivation of poppy plants was formerly, it
is said, very common in the Chikhli
taluk of this District, the important
places being Chikhli, Mhasala, Chandol, Bhadgaon,
Keloda and Deulghat, and also in the strip below the
Satpuras in the Jalgaon taluk, but it was prohibited by
the Government about 30 years ago. Since then till
1906-07 opium was imported from Indore by wholesale
vendors who paid license fees of Rs. 16, and it was stored
in the taluk headquarters whence it was supplied to retail
vendors at such prices as the wholesale vendors liked.
Up to 1899-00, the opium shops were sold in circles or in
taluks at auctions, but since then they have been sold
singly. In the year 1906-07 the system of importing opium from Indore was stopped, and now Government imports it from the Ghazipur Factory and sells it to the retail vendors at the rate of Rs. 23½ per seer. It is imported in one-seer and half-seer cakes, well tied with threads and carefully sealed, and it is stored in the sub-treasuries. In the year 1896-97 the consumption was about 2400 seers, which gradually decreased to 1268 seers in 1901-02; but it again increased to 2380 seers in 1903-04 and the consumption rose to 4958 seers in the year 1906-07. A curious point is that opium in His Highness the Nizam's dominions is more expensive than in British territory.
Till the year 1893-94 the licenses for retail sale of opium and ganja were sold together and the revenue realized thereon in that year was Rs. 34,600. In the following year when they were separately sold, opium shops alone fetched Rs. 25,900. In 1900-01 the revenue decreased to Rs. 21,000, and increased to Rs. 26,949 in 1902-03 and to Rs. 60,163 in 1904-05. The total receipts from opium amounted to Rs. 1,82,396
in the year 1906-07, the increase being due to the sale proceeds of Government opium and to the increased license fees.
332. Till the year 1875 ganja was freely cultivated
in Berar without restriction. In
that year a license fee of Rs. 8,
irrespective of the area, was imposed. In the year 1884-85
the license fee rose to Rs. 10 per acre. There was a
gradual decrease in area under cultivation till 1898-99,
when cultivation of the hemp plant was prohibited.
There was little ganja cultivation in this District. The
licensees, it is said, used to procure the drug from Sutalla
village in Khamgaon taluk, a place celebrated for its
cultivation. Supply by import was also allowed, passes
available for two months being given by Tahsildars.
Ganja was imported from Khandesh, Nasik, Ahmadnagar,
Nagpur and Nimar. Retail vend was conducted by
farmers of opium and ganja privileges. The Berar Hemp Drugs Law of 1897 came into force from 1st April, 1898, but prior to this the opium and ganja privileges were separated and separate sale of shops was introduced in 1892-93. Cultivation was prohibited and import allowed only from the Khandwa Store-house, and the Central Provinces rate of duty and system of wholesale vend, coupled with a duty of R. 1 on foreign bhang, was adopted in 1898-99. The wholesale vendors had to import ganja and store it in the taluk headquarters, whence it was supplied to retail vendors. In the year 1901-02 the duty rose from Rs. 3 to Rs. 4 per seer, and lastly it rose to Rs. 5 in the year 1906-07. Ganja is now imported by wholesale vendors from Khandwa in boxes of one seer and not in bags as was done previously. The troublesome task of cleaning ganja is now done at Khandwa and not in Berar. Consumption during the year 1896-97 was 3512 seers, which decreased to 273 seers in 1900-01, and gradually increased to 569 seers in 1904-05, rising to 1500 seers in 1906-07. During the year 1896-97 revenue from ganja amounted to Rs. 1755-8-0, but it decreased to Rs. 1077 in 1900-01, probably owing to famine. The revenue again increased to Rs. 2200 in 1904-05, and in 1906-07 it rose to Rs. 69,700. The number of shops in 1896-97 was 28. They dropped to 14 in 1902- 03, but rose to 37 in 1904-05, and to 38 in 1906-07.
333. The two taluks of Chikhli and Mehkar march
with the Hyderabad State for some distance, and there liquor as well
as ganja is procurable at very cheap rates. Hence there
is every possibility of these exciseable articles being
smuggled by the inhabitants of those taluks. The Excise
Committee reported that negotiations regarding the
introduction of a similar system in adjoining Native States were being made, and
when these are completed smuggling will be put a stop to. Efforts are being made by the increased Excise staff to prevent smuggling and to detect offences as far as 'possible. In 1895-96, 28 persons were arrested, and of them 17
were convicted; and in 1900-01, six persons were arrested and four only were convicted. But in the year 1905-06 there were 47 prosecutions and an equal number in the year 1906-07. Thirty-eight were under the Excise Act and nine under the Opium Act. The number of persons prosecuted was 70, of whom 50 were convicted.
334. The office of the District Registrar is vested
in one of the assistants at head-
quarters. The District has 16 registration offices including that of the District Registrar at headquarters. The sub-registration offices are located at Buldana, Chikhli, Amdapur, Deulgon-Raja, Mehkar, Tanephal, Lonar, Malkapur, Borakhedi, Nandura, Pimpalgaon-Raja,
Shegaon, Khamgaon, Jalgaon, and Tamgaon. Each office has a special salaried sub-registrar attached to it except in the case of the offices of Deulgaon-Raja and Borakhedi, which are in charge of rural sub-registrars remunerated by commission, at the rate of 55 per cent. on registration receipts. The number of documents registered was over 5000 in 1903, from which it rose to nearly 11,000 in 1907. Deeds of mortgage and sale and leases of immoveable property are the documents usually registered.
335. The management of schools, pounds, and all
minor roads outside Municipal areas
is entrusted to the District Board
consisting of 30 elected and 7 nominated members. The
income of the District Board was Rs. 1,72,876 in 1905-06,
and Rs. 1,85,307 in 1906-07. The principal heads of
receipts are the road cess, the education cess, the bazar
cess, and contributions from Provincial revenues. The
expenditure of the Board was Rs. 1,29,491 in 1905-06, and Rs. 1,46,849 in 1906-07. The principal heads of expenditure are education, civil works, cattle pound charges, and contributions to dispensaries. Under the District Board there are five Taluk Boards, one for each taluk. Each Taluk Board has 18 members. The members of the Board inspect works in progress and supervise minor improvements. The District has 50 sarais under the District Board.
336. The District has four Municipal towns, Buldana,
Malkapur, Khamgaon and Shegaon.
The Buldana Municipality contains
two ex-officio and ten nominated members; Malkapur three nominated and nine elected; Khamgaon three nominated and nine elected; Shegaon four nominated and nine elected. The income of the Buldana Municipality was Rs. 14,887, and that of Khamgaon, Shegaon and Malkapur was Rs. 33,170, Rs. 18,505, and Rs. 7753, respectively, in 1906-07. The expenditure during the same year was, Buldana Rs. 17,294, Malkapur Rs. 6377; Khamgaon Rs. 27,297; Shegaon, Rs. 16,482. The total population within municipal limits was 50,647, and the average municipal income per head was Rs. 3-7-6 in Buldana, As. 9.0 in Malkapur, R. 1-11-11 in Khamgaon, and R. 1-2-5 in Shegaon. General administration, conservancy, and education are the principal heads of expenditure. The Buldana and Khamgaon municipalities have water-works of their own.
337. The Village Sanitation Act has not been made
applicable to Berar. In 1889 a
scheme was drawn up, by which
Sanitary Boards were formed in large villages. A
District Sanitary Board consisting of the Sanitary
Commissioner, Executive Engineer, and the Deputy
Commissioner, is held annually to consider and pass the
recommendations of the Sanitary Boards. Village Sanitary Inspection books have been maintained in seven villages so as to provide a permanent sanitary record of representative places. At present the District Board provides a conservancy establishment for 55 villages in this District. Sanitation is generally supervised by the village officials.
338. The principal buildings are the Deputy
Commissioner's court erected in March, 1073, and subsequently
enlarged at a total cost of Rs. 64,000; the District
Circuit House built in 1891, costing Rs. 20,000; the
District Jail built in 1873, costing Rs. 56,000 including
subsequent additions. The Civil Hospital was built
in October, 1869, at a cost of Rs. 13,000. The Forest and
the educational offices were erected in August, 1892
costing Rs. 17,000. The cemetery at Buldana was
established in 1873 at a cost of Rs. 1200. The bungalow
occupied by the District Superintendent of Police is
owned by Government. The Public Works Sub divisional
office and the civil court buildings have been recently
built at a cost of Rs. 2400 and 37,000. respectively. The
towns of Buldana and Khamgaon possess water-works
of their own. The Khamgaon reservoir is a fine sheet of
water and has rarely failed to give a good supply. It
was built from the proceeds of a i-anna sutta tax on grain
339. The sanctioned strength of the police force
was 640 officers and men in 1907.
This figure includes a District
Superintendent of Police, a Headquarters Inspector, 4 Circle Inspectors, 26 Sub-Inspectors, 94 head-constables and 514 constables, of whom 3 are camel sowars. Out of the District police force 42 officers and 172 men constitute a reserve. The proportion of the police force
engaged in the prevention and detection of crime in 1906 was one to every 11.2 square miles and 1882 persons. Recruiting locally is attended with considerable difficulty in face of the competition of the ever-increasing demand for labour for mills, factories, etc. About half the recruits are obtained from local sources while the rest come mostly from the United Provinces. The force contains 150 Brahmans, 102 Bedars and 219 Muhammadans, and 140 of other castes. The District has 19 first-class stations, 8 second-class, and 3 outposts. The first-class stations are located at Buldana, Chikhli, Amrapur, Deulgaon-Raja, Andhera, Mehkar, Janephal, Fateh-khelda, Lohar, Kingaon-Raja, Malkapur, Nandura, Borakhedi, Dhar, Khamgaon taluk station, Khamgaon town station, Shegaon, Jalgaon, and Tamgaon; second class stations at Donegaon, Kingaon-Jatu, Sindkhed, Warkhed, Pimpalgaon, Dhamangaon, Hiwarkhed, Jalamb; outposts at Botha, Maharkhed, and Ghatbori.
340. The village watch and ward is in the hands
of jaglias and Mahars. The former
known more commonly as chaukidars
are a force appointed by Government. The posts of
jaglias are not hereditary. Their numbers vary from
village to village according to a scale laid down in
Rule 413 Berar Land Revenue Manual. They are appointed by the patel, subject to confirmation by the Tahsildar. They are paid quarterly and their pay ranges from Rs. 2 to 5 a month. This seems small but in making the appointments the object aimed at is to get a man with some stake in the village. Their principal duty is the maintenance of the peace in their villages. They are the patels' servants in the multitude of different duties he is called upon to perform. They call the cultivators to pay revenue. They carry District Officer's post and purvey their supplies when on tour. The uniform supplied to them—a belt and badge, blue pagri and coat edged with yellow—bears a distant resemblance to a police constable's. The strength of the jaglia force is 1161, and the personnel is drawn from almost every caste. There are a few jaglias who hold inam lands for the service they perform, showing that the institution of this service is of some antiquity.
The Mahar is the hereditary servant of the whole village. The Mahars are divided into Yeskars and Kamdar Mahars. The Yeskar carries a big stick and gives the others orders. Their duties are to be found enumerated in Rule 437 of the Land Revenue Manual, and include not only all those to which the jaglia is liable but the less honourable duties as well. They are the village scavengers; they remove dead cattle from the houses; repair fairweather roads; and are supposed to keep clean the public buildings of the village, the chawdi,musafirkhana, and so forth. This cleaning of buildings depends on the extent to which caste feeling prevails in the village. They are the village undertakers and remove corpses under the orders of the police for inquest. Their numbers vary with the size of the village and the Government assists them to recover their haq. This consists of a payment of grain at harvest by each field owner. This used to be calculated very roughly, but now the custom is crystallized into a payment of about 2 seers of juari per acre. In addition they frequently get gifts of vegetables and the skins of dead animals. They stoutly maintain their rights to the flesh and skins of dead animals, but the custom is falling into disuse on account of a bad habit that used to be prevalent of poisoning cattle.
341. Buldana has a District Jail of the second class under the management of the Civil Surgeon. The building has accommodation for 78 prisoners, including nine in the women's ward. The daily average number of prisoners for the last five years was as follows:—1904, 56; 1905, 67; 1906, 53;1907, 56;and 1908, 55; and the cost of maintenance per head was in 1907 Rs. 107-3-0 and in 1908 Rs. 127-15. Stone-breaking is the principal industry. In the garden attached to the Jail and worked by prison labour vegetables for prison use and aloes are grown. The health of the prisoners is generally good.
342. Before the Assignment no schools were supported by Government, and the
condition of keeping schools was
not attached to grants of land or money. Sanskrit was taught to a few Brahman boys, and Marathi to Hindus of the lower castes. A few munshis also taught Persian to Muhammadan boys. Hindu teaching was given for a fee, but Muhammadan teaching was free. The Educational Department was introduced in 1866, and middle and lower class schools were opened. The following statistics of schools and scholars show the progress of education:—
No. of schools.
No. of scholars.
The District has no High School, but possesses seven English Middle Schools with 1402 scholars, and 30 Vernacular Middle Schools with 3018 scholars.
The total number of primary schools is 122, with 6376 scholars. Seventy-six schools containing 1766 scholars are result-aided primary schools. The District has only 13 girls' schools with 560 scholars. One hundred and seventy-six girls are learning in boys' schools. One Mission girls' school containing 101 scholars exists
at Khamgaon, which is maintained by private subscriptions without assistance from Government. Of the total 12,663 scholars 4420 were in receipt of secondary, and 8243 of primary education. Khamgaon has two printing presses. They do not publish any newspapers but do job work only. The District is under the Inspector of Schools, Berar Circle, and has one Deputy Inspector and two Sub-Deputy Inspectors.
343. The District has II dispensaries, including
the main dispensary at Buldana. They are located at Khamgaon,
Shegaon, Malkapur, Nandura, Jalgaon, Pimpalgaon-Raja, Chikhli, Mehkar, Donegaon, and Deulgaon-Raja. Of these the first four dispensaries are on the railway line. The dispensaries have accommodation for 59 male and 16 female in-patients. The number of in-patients and out-patients treated during 1908 was 708 and 81,197 respectively 2520 operations were performed in 1908, and of these 46 were of an important nature. The dispensaries have been chiefly supported by Government. Since April, 1906, contributions from local bodies have been increased, and greater authority has been vested in Dispensary Committees. Government pays the salary of the Medical Officers and contributes towards the supply of medicines and surgical appliances, but the largest contributions now come from the District Board and Municipalities. All the dispensaries except Khamgaon and Buldana have sums of money invested in stock, which is put by for a rainy day. The interest on these sums together with subscriptions from local bodies constitute the other main sources of revenue. The items under which most money is spent are European medicines, dieting, establishment, and buildings. The diseases principally treated are malarial fevers, diseases of the eye and digestive system, and skin affections. Buldana
Mehkar, Nandura, and Khamgaon dispensaries have a midwife attached to them.
344. The Municipal towns of Buldana, Khamgaon,
and Shegaon are the only places
where compulsory vaccination is
permissible. The ratio of persons protected against
smallpox is about 80 per cent. of the population. In
recent years owing to the prevalence of plague during the
winter months, when vaccination is in full swing, the
work of protection has suffered to a certain extent, and
very recently the Sanitary Commissioner has pointed
out the insufficiency of the protection afforded by one
or two marks; an order has been lately issued to produce
four scars, this being considered by the Metropolitan
Asylums Board to be the minimum number requisite
to produce efficient protection.
345. The District has five veterinary dispensaries.
They are located at Buldana, Mehkar, Malkapur, Khamgaon and
Jalgaon. Each dispensary has a veterinary assistant, and its management is vested in the District Board.