PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE STATE, IN THE LAST CENTURY, consisted mostly of providing security to person and property and raising the revenue necessary for the purpose. In other words, police, jails and judiciary representing security and land revenue, excise, registration and stamps representing revenue formed the most important departments of the State. With the spread of Western education and the growth of political consciousness in the country, coupled with the gradual association of few Indians with some aspects of the work of Government, the demand arose for the expansion of Government activities into what were termed as " nation-building " activities, viz., education, health, agriculture, co-operation, etc. In the twenties and thirties of this century since the introduction of the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms, greater emphasis came to be laid on the development of these departments. With the first popular Government established in 1937 attempts were not only made to expand the " nation-building" departments but also to create what has now come to be popularly described as a ' Welfare State' by the new Government. With the attainment of Independence by India in 1947, an all-out effort is being made to achieve a Welfare State as rapidly as possible and to build up a socially-directed economy.